- Cited by 23
Lin, Shih-Kang Yang, Ching-Feng Wu, Shyr-Harn and Chen, Sinn-Wen 2008. Liquidus Projection and Solidification of the Sn-In-Cu Ternary Alloys. Journal of Electronic Materials, Vol. 37, Issue. 4, p. 498.
Huang, Yu-chih Chen, Sinn-wen Chou, Chin-yi and Gierlotka, Wojciech 2009. Liquidus projection and thermodynamic modeling of Sn–Zn–Cu ternary system. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Vol. 477, Issue. 1-2, p. 283.
Li, Mei Du, Zhenmin Guo, Cuiping and Li, Changrong 2009. Thermodynamic optimization of the Cu–Sn and Cu–Nb–Sn systems. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Vol. 477, Issue. 1-2, p. 104.
Nogita, Kazuhiro 2010. Stabilisation of Cu6Sn5 by Ni in Sn-0.7Cu-0.05Ni lead-free solder alloys. Intermetallics, Vol. 18, Issue. 1, p. 145.
Yang, Ching-feng and Chen, Sinn-wen 2010. Interfacial reactions in Au/Sn/Cu sandwich specimens. Intermetallics, Vol. 18, Issue. 4, p. 672.
Jendrzejczyk-Handzlik, Dominika Rechchach, Meryem Gierlotka, Wojciech Ipser, Herbert and Flandorfer, Hans 2011. Enthalpies of mixing of liquid systems for lead-free soldering: Cu–Sb–Sn system. Thermochimica Acta, Vol. 512, Issue. 1-2, p. 217.
Flandorfer, Hans Rechchach, Meryem Elmahfoudi, A. Bencze, László Popovič, Arkadij and Ipser, Herbert 2011. Enthalpies of mixing of liquid systems for lead free soldering: Al–Cu–Sn system. The Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics, Vol. 43, Issue. 11, p. 1612.
Wang, Jiang Liu, Chunlei Leinenbach, Christian Klotz, Ulrich E. Uggowitzer, Peter J. and Löffler, Jörg F. 2011. Experimental investigation and thermodynamic assessment of the Cu–Sn–Ti ternary system. Calphad, Vol. 35, Issue. 1, p. 82.
Hino, Masashi Iikubo, Satoshi and Ohtani, Hiroshi 2011. Thermodynamic Analysis of the Cu-Sn-P Ternary System. High Temperature Materials and Processes, Vol. 30, Issue. 4-5,
Chen, Yu-Kai Hsu, Chia-Ming Chen, Sinn-Wen Chen, Chih-Ming and Huang, Yu-Chih 2012. Phase Equilibria of Sn-Co-Cu Ternary System. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, Vol. 43, Issue. 10, p. 3586.
Ho, C.E. Kuo, T.T. Gierlotka, W. and Ma, F.M. 2012. Development and Evaluation of Direct Deposition of Au/Pd(P) Bilayers over Cu Pads in Soldering Applications. Journal of Electronic Materials, Vol. 41, Issue. 12, p. 3276.
Oleshkevych, Аnna Zamani, Atieh Kotenko, Іgor Voloshko, Svitlana Sidorenko, Sergey and Rennie, Adrian R. 2012. Thermally driven redistribution of phases and components in Cu/Sn thin films. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Vol. 535, Issue. , p. 108.
Jendrzejczyk-Handzlik, Dominika Gierlotka, Wojciech and Fitzner, Krzysztof 2012. Thermodynamic properties of liquid copper–antimony–tin alloys determined from e.m.f. measurements. International Journal of Materials Research, Vol. 103, Issue. 8, p. 1007.
Chen, Sinn-Wen Gierlotka, Wojciech Wu, Hsin-Jay and Lin, Shih-Kang 2012. Lead-Free Solders: Materials Reliability for Electronics. p. 11.
Chen, Sinn-wen Zi, An-ren Gierlotka, Wojciech Yang, Ching-feng Wang, Chao-hong Lin, Shih-kang and Hsu, Chia-ming 2012. Phase equilibria of Sn–Sb–Cu system. Materials Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 132, Issue. 2-3, p. 703.
Chen, Sinn-Wen Chang, Jui-Shen Pan, Kevin Hsu, Chia-Ming and Hsu, Che-Wei 2013. Directional Solidification and Liquidus Projection of the Sn-Co-Cu System. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, Vol. 44, Issue. 4, p. 1656.
Li, D. Franke, P. Fürtauer, S. Cupid, D. and Flandorfer, H. 2013. The Cu–Sn phase diagram part II: New thermodynamic assessment. Intermetallics, Vol. 34, Issue. , p. 148.
Dong, H.Q. Vuorinen, V. Tao, X.M. Laurila, T. and Paulasto-Kröckel, M. 2014. Thermodynamic reassessment of Au–Cu–Sn ternary system. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Vol. 588, Issue. , p. 449.
Lin, Shih-kang Nguyen, Trong Lan Wu, Shu-chang and Wang, Yu-hsiang 2014. Effective suppression of interfacial intermetallic compound growth between Sn–58wt.% Bi solders and Cu substrates by minor Ga addition. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Vol. 586, Issue. , p. 319.
Song, Yuanyuan Su, Xuping Liu, Ya Peng, Haoping Wu, Changjun and Wang, Jianhua 2015. Phase Equilibria of the Cu-Si-Sn System at 700 and 500 °C. Journal of Phase Equilibria and Diffusion, Vol. 36, Issue. 5, p. 493.
Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
The Cu–Sn binary system is important for various applications, especially for recent developments in the electronics packaging industry. The ϵ-Cu3Sn and η-Cu6Sn5 (η′ phases) phases are frequently encountered in electronics products. However, the two phases have been described as line compounds in previous thermodynamic modeling, and their compositional homogeneities were not considered. In this study, the thermodynamic properties of the Cu–Sn binary system are modeled and the phase diagram is calculated by the CALPHAD method, using experimental information reported in the literature. The ϵ and η (η′) phases are described using compound energy models with two and three sublattices, respectively, so that their compositional homogeneities could be calculated. Good agreement was observed between the calculated result and the existing experimental data.
Hide All1Takemoto, J., Matsunawa, A.Takahashi, M.: Tensile test for estimation of thermal fatigue properties of solder alloys. J. Mater. Sci. 32(15), 4077 19972Lee, C.B., Jung, S.B., Shina, Y.E.Shur, C.C.: The effect of Bi concentration on wettability of Cu substrate by Sn–Bi solders. Mater. Trans. 42, 751 20013Yang, W.Meddler, R.W.: Microstructure evolution of eutectic Sn–Ag solder joints. J. Electron. Mater. 23, 765 19944Takatu, Y., Liu, X., Ohnuma, I., Kainuma, R.Ishida, K.: Interfacial reaction and morphology between molten Sn base solders and Cu substrate. Mater. Trans. 45(3), 646 20045Lin, C-H., Chen, S-W.Wang, C-H.: Phase equilibria and solidification properties of Sn-Cu-Ni alloys. J. Electron. Mater. 32(9), 907 20026Liu, X.J., Liu, H.S., Ohnuma, I., Kainuma, R., Ishida, K., Itabashi, S., Kameda, K.Yamaguchi, K.: Experimental determination and thermodynamic calculation of the phase equilibria in the Cu–In–Sn system. J. Electron. Mater. 30, 1093 20017Morris, J.W., Goldstein, J.L.F.Mei, Z.: Microstructure and mechanical properties of Sn–In and Sn–Bi solders. JOM 45(7), 25 19938Koster, W., Godecke, T.Heine, D.: The constitution of the copper–indium–tin system in the range from 100 to 50 at.% Cu. Z. Metallkd. 63, 820 19729Enoki, H., Ishida, K.Nishizawa, T.: Phase equilibria in cobalt-rich portions of the Co–Si and Co–Ge systems. J. Less-Common Met. 160, 153 199010Chiu, C-N., Huang, Y-C., Zi, A-R.Chen, S-W.: Isoplethal sections of the liquidus projection and the 250 °C phase equilibria of the Sn–Ag–Cu–Ni quaternary system at the Sn-rich corner. Mater. Trans. 46, 2426 200511Saunders, N.Miodownik, P.: Calphad, Calculation of Phase Diagrams a Comprehensive Guide Elsevier Science Oxford, UK 199812Okamoto, H.Massalski, T.B.: Guidelines for binary phase diagrams assessment. J. Phase Eq. 14, 316 199313Shim, J-H., Oh, C-S., Lee, B-J.Lee, D.N.: Thermodynamic assessment of the Cu–Sn system. Z. Metallkd. 87, 205 199614Liu, X.J., Wang, C.P., Ohnuma, I., Kainuma, R.Ishida, K.: Experimental investigation and thermodynamic calculation of the phase equilibria in the Cu–Sn and Cu–Sn–Mn systems. Metall. Mater. Trans. A 35(6), 1641 200415The S.G.T.E. Substance Database, version 1997, SGTE Group (Grenoble, France, 1997),16Dinsdale, A.: SGTE data for pure elements. Calphad 15, 317 199117PURE 4.4 SGTE Pure Elements (Unary) Database (Scientific Group Thermodata Europe, 1991–2006),18Saunders, N.Miodownik, A.P.: The Cu–Sn (copper–tin) system. Bull. Alloy Phase Diagrams 11, 278 199019Gangulee, A., Das, G.C.Bever, M.B.: An x-ray. diffraction and calorimetric investigation of the compound Cu6Sn5. Metall. Trans. 4, 2063 197320Liu, H.S., Wang, J.Jin, Z.P.: Thermodynamic optimization of the Ni–Sn binary system. Calphad 28, 363 200421Ghosh, G.: Thermodynamic modeling of the nickel–lead–tin system. Metall. Mat. Trans. A 30, 1481 199922Hamasumi, M.Takamoto, N.: A further research on the Cu–Sn system. Nippon Kinzoku Gakkaishi 1, 251 193723Hamasumi, M.: On the equilibrium diagram of Cu–Sn system. Nippon Kinzoku Gakkaishi 2, 147 193824Heycock, C.T.Neville, F.H.: Complete freezing-point curves of binary alloys containing silver or copper together with another metal. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 189, 25 189725Bauer, O.Vollenbruck, O.: Thermal analysis of the Cu–Sn binary system. Z. Metallkd. 15, 119 192326Stockdale, D.: The alpha-phase boundary in the copper–tin system. J. Inst. Met. 34, 111 192527Raper, A.R.: The equilibrium diagram of copper-tin alloys containing from 10 to 25 atomic percent of tin. J. Inst. Met. 38, 217 192728Vero, J.: Aufbau der Zinnbronzen (in German). Z. Anorg. Chem. 218, 402 193429Haase, C.Pawlek, F.: Copper–tin alloys. Z. Metallkd. 28, 73 193630Bastow, B.D.Kirkwood, D.H.: Solid/liquid equilibrium in the copper-nickel-tin system determined by microprobe analysis. J. Inst. Met. 99, 277 197131Hansen, M.Anderko, K.: Constitution of Binary Alloys McGraw-Hill New York 195832Larsson, A-K., Stenberg, L.Lidin, S.: The superstructure of domain-twinned η′-Cu6Sn5. Acta Crystallogr., Sect. B 50, 636 199433Kleppa, O.J.: A Calorimetric investigation of some binary and ternary liquid alloys rich in tin. J. Phys. Chem. 60, 842, 852–858 195634Hultgren, R., Desai, P.D., Hawkins, D.T., Gleiser, M.Kelly, K.: Selected Values of the Thermodynamic Properties of Binary Alloys American Society for Metals Metals Park, OH 197335Takeuci, S., Uemura, O.Ikeda, S.: On the heat of mixing of liquid copper alloys. Sci. Rep. Tohoku Imp. Univ. A, 25, 41–55 197436Yazawa, A.Itagaki, K.: Heats of mixing in liquid copper or gold binary alloys. Trans., JIM 16, 679 197537Iguchi, Y., Shimoji, H., Ban-Ya, S.Fuwa, T.: Calorimetric Study of heat of mixing of Cu alloys at 1120 °C. Tetsu-to-Hagane 63, 349 197738Pool, M.J., Predel, B.Schultheiss, E.: Application of the SETARAM high temperature calorimeter for determination of mixing enthalpies of liquid alloys. Thermochim. Acta 28, 349 197939Lee, J.J., Kim, B.J.Min, W.S.: Calorimetric investigation of liquid Cu–Sb, Cu–Sn and Cu–Sn–Sb alloys. J. Alloys Compd. 202, 237 199340Alcock, C.B., Sridhar, R.Svedberg, R.C.: A mass spectrometric study of the binary liquid alloys, Ag–In and Cu–Sn. Acta Metall. 17, 839 196941Hager, J.P., Howard, S.M.Jones, J.H.: Thermodynamic properties of the Cu–Sn and Cu–Au systems by mass spectrometry. Metall. Trans. 1, 415 197042Ono, K., Nishi, S.Oishi, T.: A thermodynamic study of liquid Cu–Sn and Cu–Cr alloys by the Knudsen cell–mass filter combination. Trans., JIM 25, 810 198443Oshi, T., Hiruma, T.Moriyama, J.: Thermodynamic studies of molten Cu–Sn alloys using zirconia solid electrolyte. J. Japan Inst. Met. 36, 481 197244Sengupta, A.K., Jagganathan, K.P.Ghosh, A.: Thermodynamic measurements in liquid Cu–Sn alloys. Metall Trans. B 9, 141 197845Alcock, C.B.Jacob, K.T.: Solute–solute and solvent–solute interactions in α-solid solutions of u + Sn, Au + Sn, and Cu–Au–Sn Alloys. Acta Metall. 22, 539 197446Sommer, F., Balbach, W.Predel, B.: Thermodynamic investigation of Cu–Sn alloys with solid state galvanic cells. Thermochim. Acta 33, 119 197947Predel, B.Schallner, U.: Thermodynamic investigation of the Cu–Ga, Cu–In, Cu–Ge and Cu–Sn Systems. Mater. Sci. Eng. 10, 249 197248ThermoCalc v. Q.Foundation Computational Thermodynamic Stockholm, Sweden 200049 S-W. Chen, unpublished work
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.
- ISSN: 0884-2914
- EISSN: 2044-5326
- URL: /core/journals/journal-of-materials-research
* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.
Usage data cannot currently be displayed