Titanium oxide nanotubes were fabricated by anodic oxidation of a pure titanium sheet in an aqueous solution containing 0.5 to 3.5 wt% hydrofluoric acid. These tubes are well aligned and organized into high-density uniform arrays. While the tops of the tubes are open, the bottoms of the tubes are closed, forming a barrier layer structure similar to that of porous alumina. The average tube diameter, ranging in size from 25 to 65 nm, was found to increase with increasing anodizing voltage, while the length of the tube was found independent of anodization time. A possible growth mechanism is presented.
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