High quality, uniform PbZrxTi1-xO3(PZT) films were prepared on the 4 inch wafers by chemical solution deposition (CSD) of 1,3-propanediol precursors. Film uniformity was studied as a function of deposition conditions including spinning rates and co-solvents. Measurements of the surface tension and composition evolution during evaporation and spinning stages showed that the surface tension increases significantly when the co-solvent is nearly completely evaporated. The evaporation of the propanol co-solvent and volatile by-products occurs within the first 5 s of spinning giving rise to defects, whereas octanol is slowly evaporated during 60 s producing uniform coatings. Other co-solvents such as hexanol and pentanol produced uniform films as well. Therefore stabilization of the surface tension in the initial spinning stage is a key to prevent the defect formation. These findings facilitate the deposition of uniform PZT films over large substrates by a simple, scalable, and cost-effective process.
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