Skip to main content
×
×
Home

An Innovative Tool to Measure Human Skin Strain Distribution in Vivo using Motion Capture and Delaunay Mesh

  • J. Mahmud (a1), S. L. Evans (a2) and C. A. Holt (a2)
Abstract

Skin has a complex structure and its deformation mechanics is still not well defined. In the study of skin biomechanics, the stretch ratio, λ, is an important property, which is determined using strain data. This paper attempts to develop a novel tool by integrating experimental-numerical approach to measure full-field strain distribution of human skin in vivo. Skin deformation in vivo was measured using motion capture system, (which is not a full-field measuring tool) and then by constructing finite elements, its full-field strain contour is produced. The experimental procedure starts by attaching a set of reflective markers onto the skin at the forearm of healthy volunteers. Skin deformation is induced by pulling a nylon filament attached with a loading tab. Three infrared cameras are used to capture the movement of markers during load application. QTM (Qualisys, Sweden) software is used to track markers trajectories and generate data consisting of 3-dimensional markers coordinate. The initial capture is set as the reference marker positions (undeformed skin) and the subsequent images represent the deformed skin relative to the initial. Representing markers as nodes, finite elements are constructed by adjoining three adjacent markers using Delaunay mesh. Strains were deduced from the strain displacement matrix and measured for three subjects at three loading directions. The results are in fair agreement with those obtained by others. The method and output provide a useful addition to understanding skin deformation.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author (jm@salam.uitm.edu.my)
References
Hide All
1. Delalleau, A., Josse, G., Lagarde, J. M., Zahouani, H. and Bergheau, J. M., “A Nonlinear Elastic Behavior to Identify the Mechanical Properties of Human Skin In vivo,” Skin Research and Technology, 14, pp. 152164 (2008).
2. Dobrev, H., “Application of Cutometer Area Parameters for the Study of Human Skin Fatigue,” Skin Research and Technology, 11, pp. 120122 (2005).
3. Bader, D. L. and Bowker, P., “Mechanical Characteristics of Skin and Underlying Tissues In vivo,” Biomaterials, 4, pp. 305308 (1983).
4. Tham, L. M., Lee, H. P. and Lu, C., “Cupping: From a Biomechanical Perspective,” Journal of Biomechanics, 39, pp. 21832193 (2006).
5. Evans, S. L., “On the Implementation of a Wrinkling Hyperelastic Membrane Model for Skin and Other Materials,” Computer Methods on Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering, 12, pp. 319332 (2009).
6. Ridge, M. D. and Wright, V., “Mechanical Properties of Skin: A Bioengineering Study of Skin Structure,” Journal of Applied Physiology, 21, pp. 16021606 (1966).
7. Mahmud, J., Holt, C. A. and Evans, S. L., “An Innovative Application of a Small Scale Motion Analysis Technique to Quantify Human Skin Deformation In vivo,” Journal of Biomechanics, 43, pp. 10021006 (2010).
8. Khatyr, F., Imberdis, C., Varchon, D., Lagarde, J. M. and Josse, G., “Measurement of the Mechanical Properties of the Skin Using the Suction Test,” Skin Research and Technology, 12, pp. 2431 (2006).
9. Pierard-Franchimont, C., Henry, F. and Pierard, G. E., “Mechanical Properties of Primary Anetoderma in a Child,” Skin Research and Technology, 3, pp. 8183 (1997).
10. Diridollou, S., Berson, M., Vabre, V., Black, D., Karlsson, B., Auriol, F., Gregoire, J. M., Yvon, C., Vaillant, L., Gall, Y. and Patat, F., “An In vivo Method for Measuring the Mechanical Properties of the Skin Using Ultrasound,” Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, 24, pp. 215224 (1998).
11. Jemec, G. B. E., Selvaag, E, Agren, M. and Wulf, H. C., “Measurement of the Mechanical Properties of Skin with Ballistometer and Suction Cup,” Skin Research and Technology, 7, pp. 122126 (2001).
12. Smalls, L. K., Wickett, R. R. and Visscher, M. O., “Effect of Dermal Thickness, Tissue Composition and Body Site on Skin Biomechanical Properties,” Skin Research and Technology, 12, pp. 4349 (2006).
13. Wan Abas, W. A. B. and Barbenel, J. C., “Uniaxial Tension Test of Human Skin In vivo,” Journal of Biomedical Engineering, 4, pp. 6571 (1982).
14. Lim, K. H., Chew, C. M., Chen, P. Y. C., Jeyapalina, S., Ho, H. N., Rappel, J. K. and Lim, B. H., “New Extensometer to Measure In vivo Uniaxial Mechanical Properties of Human Skin,” Journal of Biomechanics, 41, pp. 931936 (2008).
15. Chapuis, J. F. and Agache, P., “A New Technique to Study the Mechanical Properties of Collagen Lattices,” Journal of Biomechanics, 25, pp. 115120 (1992).
16. Lafrance, H., Yahia, L. H., Germain, L. and Auger, F. A., “Mechanical Properties of Human Skin Equivalents Submitted to Cyclic Tensile Forces,” Skin Research and Technology, 4, pp. 228236 (1998).
17. Highley, D. R., Coomey, M., Denbeste, M. and Wolfram, L. J., “Frictional Properties of Skin,” Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 69, pp. 303305 (1977).
18. Agache, P. G., Monneur, C., Leveque, J. L. and de Rigal, J., “Mechanical Properties and Young's Modulus of Human Skin In vivo,” Archives of Dermatological Research, 269, pp. 221232 (1980).
19. Leveque, J. L., de Rigal, J., Agache, P. G. and Monneur, C., “Influence of Ageing on the In Vivo Extensibility of Human Skin at a Low Stress,” Archives of Dermatological Research, 269, pp. 127135 (1980).
20. Sanders, J. E., Garbini, J. L., Leschen, J. M., Allen, M. S. and Jorgensen, J. E., “A Bidirectional Load Applicator for the Investigation of Skin Response to Mechanical Stress,” IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 44, pp. 290296 (1997).
21. Payne, P. A., “Measurement of Properties and Function of Skin,” Clinical Physics & Physiological Measurement, 12, pp. 105129 (1991).
22. Jachowicz, J., McMullen, R. and Preetypaul, D., “Indentometric Analysis of In vivo Skin and Comparison with Artificial Skin Models,” Skin Research and Technology, 13, pp. 299309 (2007).
23. Tran, H. V., Charleux, F., Rachik, M., Ehrlacher, A. and Ho Ba Tho, M. C., “In vivo Characterization of the Mechanical Properties of Human Skin Derived from MRI and Indentation Techniques,” Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering, 10, pp. 401407 (2007).
24. Shergold, O. A. and Fleck, N. A., “Mechanisms of Deep Penetration of Soft Solids, with the Application to the Injection and Wounding of Skin,” Proceedings of the Royal Society London A, 460, pp. 30373058 (2004).
25. Fung, Y. C., Biomechanics: Mechanical Properties of Living Tissue, 2nd Ed., Springer-Verlag New York Inc., U.S.A., pp. 13 (1993).
26. Screen, H. R. C. and Evans, S. L., “Measuring Strain Distribution in the Tendon Using Confocal Microscopy and Finite Elements,” Journal of Strain Analysis for Engineering Design, 44, pp. 327335 (2009).
27. Guan, E., Smilow, S., Rafailovich, M. and Sokolov, J., “Determining the Mechanical Properties of Rat Skin with Digital Image Speckle Correlation,” Dermatology, 208, pp. 112119 (2004).
28. Sutton, M. A., Ke, X., Lessner, S. M., Goldbach, M., Yost, M., Zhao, F. and Schreier, H. W., “Strain Field Measurements on Mouse Carotid Arteries Using Microscopic Three-Dimensional Digital Image Correlation,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A, pp. 178190 (2008).
29. Staloff, I. A. and Rafailovitch, M., “Measuement of Skin Stretch using Digital Imanage Speckle Correlation,” Skin Research and Technology, 14, pp. 298303 (2008).
30. Evans, S. L. and Holt, C. A., “Measuring the Mechanical Properties of Human Skin In Vivo using Digital Image Correlation and Finite Element Modelling,” Journal of Strain Analysis for Engineering Design, 44, pp. 337345 (2009).
31. Wang, T.-M., Chen, H.-L., Hsu, W.-C., Liu, M.-W. and Lu, T.-W., “Biomechanical Role of the Loco-motor System in Controlling Body Center of Mass Motion in Older Adults During Obstructed Gait,” Journal of Mechanics, 26, pp. 195203 (2010).
32. Hsu, W.-C., Wang, T.-M., Liu, M.-W., Chen, H.-L. and Lu, T.-W., “Control of Body's Center of Mass Motion During Level Walking and Obstacle-Crossing in Older Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis,” Journal of Mechanics, 26, pp. 229237 (2010).
33. Liu, H., Holt, C. A. and Evans, S. L., “Accuracy and Repeatability of an Optical Motion Analysis System for Measuring Small Deformations of Biological Tissues,” Journal of Biomechanics, 40, pp. 210214 (2007).
34. Cappozzo, A., Catani, F., Della Croce, U. and Leardini, A., “Position and Orientation in Space of Bones during Movement: Anatomical Frame Definition and Determination,” Clinical Biomechanics, 10, pp. 171178 (1995).
35. Whatling, G. M., Dabke, H. V., Holt, C. A., Jones, L., Madete, J., Alderman, P. M. and Roberts, P., “Objective Functional Assessment of Total Hip Arthroplasty Following Two Common Surgical Approaches: The Posterior and Direct Lateral Approaches,” Proceedings of the IMechE [H], 222, pp. 897905 (2008).
36. Liu, H., “Development of a Novel System to Measure and Calculate Tooth Movements for Studying the Properties of the Periodontal Ligament,” Ph.D. thesis, School of Engineering, Cardiff University Press, UK (2006).
37. Matlab vR2008b Manual (Delaunay function, Matlab, The MathWorks, Inc.)
39. Dyer, R., Zhang, H. and Moller, T., “Delaunay Mesh Construction,” Proceedings of the 5th Eurographics Symposium on Geometry Processing, Spain, pp. 273282 (2007).
40. Rees, D., Basic Engineering Plasticity — An Introduction with Engineering and Manufacturing Applications, Butterworth-Heinemann U.S.A., p. 41 (2006).
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of Mechanics
  • ISSN: 1727-7191
  • EISSN: 1811-8216
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-mechanics
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed