Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-79b67bcb76-x7pwn Total loading time: 0.267 Render date: 2021-05-14T08:55:19.481Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true }

Precarity in Angolan diamond mining towns, 1920–2014: tracing agency of the state, mining companies and urban households

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  08 March 2018

Cristina Udelsmann Rodrigues
Affiliation:
Nordic Africa Institute, PO Box 1703, 75147 Uppsala, Sweden
Deborah Fahy Bryceson
Affiliation:
Centre of African Studies, University of Edinburgh, 15a George Square, Edinburgh, UK

Abstract

After nearly 30 years of civil war, Angola gained peace in 2002. The country's diamond and oil wealth affords the national government the means to pursue economic reconstruction and urban development. However, in the diamond-producing region of Lunda Sul, where intense fighting between MPLA and UNITA forces was waged, the legacy of war lingers on in the form of livelihood uncertainty and uneven access to the benefits of the state's urban development programmes. There are three main interactive agents of urban change: the Angolan state, the mining corporations, and not least urban residents. The period has been one of shifting alignments of responsibility for urban housing, livelihoods and welfare provisioning. Beyond the pressures of post-war adjustment, the wider context of global capital investment and labour market restructuring has introduced a new surge of corporate mining investment and differentiated patterns of prosperity and precarity in Lunda Sul.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2018 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

Footnotes

This article relies on Angolan field data collected under the auspices of the Urbanisation and Poverty in Mining Africa (UPIMA) research programme at the School of Geographical and Earth Sciences, University of Glasgow. We are grateful for funding from the UK's Department for International Development (DfID) and the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) RES-167-25-0488.

References

Ademiluyi, I.A. & Raji, B.A.. 2008. ‘Public and private developers as agents in urban housing delivery in Sub-Saharan Africa: the situation in Lagos state’, Humanity and Social Sciences Journal 3, 2: 143–50.Google Scholar
Alencastro, M.J. de. 2014. ‘Diamond politics in the Angolan periphery: colonial and postcolonial Lunda 1917–2002’. University of Oxford, DPhil thesis.Google Scholar
Andringa, D. 2009. Dundo: memória colonial. 60’. Portugal: LX Filmes.Google Scholar
Beall, J., Goodfellow, T. & Rodgers, D.. 2013. ‘Cities and conflict in fragile states in the developing world’, Urban Studies 50, 15: 3065–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blore, S. 2007. Diamond Industry Annual Review. Canada: Partnership Africa.Google Scholar
Bockstael, S. van & Vlassenroot, K., eds. 2012. A Farmer's Best Friend? Artisanal diamond mining and rural change in west and central Africa. Egmont, Gent: Academia Press.Google Scholar
Boeck, F. de. 2001. ‘Garimpeiro worlds: digging, dying and “hunting” for diamonds in Angola’, Review of African Political Economy 28, 90: 549–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bourdieu, P. 1998. Acts of Resistance. Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
Bourdieu, P. 1999 [1993]. The Weight of the World. Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
Bryceson, D.F. 2015. ‘Youth in Tanzania's urbanizing mining settlements: prospecting a mineralized future’, in Resnick, D. & Thurlow, J., eds. African Youth and the Persistence of Marginalization: employment, politics, and prospects for change. London: Routledge & Helsinki: United Nations University, 85108.Google Scholar
Bryceson, D.F. & MacKinnon, D.. 2012. ‘Eureka and beyond: mining's impact on Africa urbanisation’, Journal of Contemporary African Studies 30, 4: 513–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bryceson, D.F., Fisher, E., Jønsson, J.B. & Mwaipopo, R., eds. 2014. Mining and Social Transformation in Africa: mineralizing and democratizing trends in artisanal production. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Bush, R. 2010. ‘Conclusion: mining, dispossession, and transformation in Africa’, in Fraser, A. & Larmer, M., eds. Zambia, Mining, and Neoliberalism: boom and bust on the globalized Copperbelt. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 237–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carstens, J. & Hilson, G.. 2009. ‘Mining, grievance and conflict in rural Tanzania’, International Development Planning Review 31, 3: 301–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Castel, R. 2003. L'Insécurité Sociale: qu'est-ce qu’être protégé? Paris: Seuil.Google Scholar
Clarence-Smith, G. 1983. The Third Portuguese Empire, 1825–1975: a study in economic imperialism. Manchester: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
Cleveland, T. 2008. ‘Rock Solid: African laborers on the diamond mines of the Companhia de Diamantes de Angola (Diamang), 1917–1975’, University of Minnesota, PhD thesis.Google Scholar
Cleveland, T. 2010. ‘Minors in name only: child laborers on the diamond mines of the Companhia de Diamantes de Angola (Diamang), 1917–1975’, Journal of Family History 35, 1: 91110.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cleveland, T. 2015. Diamonds in the Rough: corporate paternalism and African professionalism on the mines of colonial Angola, 1917–1975. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press.Google Scholar
Coghe, S. 2017. ‘Reordering colonial society: model villages and social planning in rural Angola, 1920–45’, Journal of Contemporary History 52, 1: 1644.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Corkin, L. 2016. Uncovering African Agency: Angola's management of China's credit lines. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Cox, K.R. & Negi, R.. 2010. ‘The state and the question of development in sub-Saharan Africa’, Review of African Political Economy 37, 123: 7185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Croese, S. 2013 a. ‘Post-war state-led development at work in Angola: the Zango housing project in Luanda as a case study’, Stellenbosch University, PhD thesis.Google Scholar
Croese, S. 2013 b. Chronicle of an Unfulfilled Promise: a hundred days after the elections. Germany: Friedrich Ebert Stiftung.Google Scholar
Didier, S., Peyroux, E. & Morange, M.. 2012. ‘The spreading of the city improvement district model in Johannesburg and Cape Town: urban regeneration and the neoliberal agenda in South Africa’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 36, 5: 915–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
<E-Geopolis.eu>, accessed 1.3.2013.,+accessed+1.3.2013.>Google Scholar
Englebert, P. 2002. State legitimacy and development in Africa. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.Google Scholar
Ferguson, J. 2005. ‘Seeing like an oil company: space, security and global capital in neoliberal Africa’, American Sociologist 107, 3: 377–82.Google Scholar
Fonte, M. 2007. ‘Urbanismo e arquitectura em Angola: de Norton de Matos à revolução'. University Técnica of Lisbon, PhD thesis.Google Scholar
Fraser, A. & Larmer, M.. 2010. Zambia, Mining, and Neoliberalism: boom and bust on the globalized Copperbelt. London: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gordon, C. 2005. Diamond Industry Annual Review: Republic of Angola 2005. Canada: Partnership Africa.Google Scholar
Hodges, A. 2001. Angola: from Afro-Stalinism to petro-diamond capitalism. Oxford: James Currey.Google Scholar
Human Rights Watch. 2013. HRW submission on Angola to UN Human Rights committee, <hrw.org>, accessed 16.6.2016.,+accessed+16.6.2016.>Google Scholar
INE – Instituto Nacional de Estatística. 2010. Inquérito integrado sobre o bem-estar da população (IBEP) 2008/2009: principais resultados definitivos. Luanda: INE Google Scholar
Inter Press Service. 2012. Calls for Angola to investigate abuse of Congolese Migrants. 21.05.2012. <ipsnews.net>, accessed 13.6.2016.,+accessed+13.6.2016.>Google Scholar
Le Billon, Ph. 2001. ‘The political ecology of war: natural resources and armed conflicts’, Political Geography 20, 5: 561–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Malaquias, A. 2001. ‘Making war & lots of money: the political economy of protracted conflict in Angola’, Review of African Political Economy 28, 90: 521–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marques, R. 2011. Diamantes de Sangue: corrupção e tortura em Angola. Lisbon: Tinta da China.Google Scholar
Marques, R. & de Campos, R.F.. 2005. Lundas: as pedras da morte. Human Rights Report. Lisbon: Grafispaço.Google Scholar
Metcalfe, D. 2013. Blue Dahlia, Black Gold: a journey into Angola. London: Hutchinson.Google Scholar
Pearce, J. 2004. ‘War, peace and diamonds in Angola: popular perceptions of the diamond industry in the Lundas’. Situation Report. South Africa: Institute for Security Studies, 25.6.2014. <http://dspace.cigilibrary.org/jspui/bitstream/123456789/31331/1/ANGOLAMAY04.pdf?1>, accessed 15.08.2017.,+accessed+15.08.2017.>Google Scholar
Power, M. & Alves, A.C.. 2012. China and Angola: a marriage of convenience? Cape Town: Pambazuka Press.Google Scholar
Scheidel, W. 2017. The Great Leveler: violence and the history of inequality from the Stone Age to the twenty-first century. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schubert, J. 2010. ‘“Democratisation” and the consolidation of political authority in post-war Angola’, Journal of Southern African Studies 36, 3: 657–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Soares de Oliveira, R. 2011. ‘Illiberal peacebuilding in Angola’, Journal of Modern African Studies 49, 2: 287314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Soares de Oliveira, R. 2014. Magnificent and Beggar Land: Angola since the civil war. London: Hurst.Google Scholar
Standing, G. 2009. Work after Globalization: building occupational citizenship. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Standing, G. 2011. The Precariat: the new dangerous class. London: Bloomsbury.Google Scholar
Udelsmann-Rodrigues, C. & Tavares, A.P.. 2012. ‘Angola's planned and unplanned urban growth: diamond mining towns in the Lunda provinces’, Journal of Contemporary African Studies 30, 4: 687703.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
USAID – United States Agency for International Development. 2008. Avaliação de viabilidade e diagnóstico de desenvolvimento de Cuango. Washington: MSI.Google Scholar
Varanda, J. 2004. ‘A saúde e a Companhia de Diamantes de Angola’, História, Ciências, Saúde-Manguinhos 11, 1: 261–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vlassenroot, K. & Raeymaekers, T.. 2004. ‘Conflict and artisanal mining in Kamituga (South Kivu)’, in Vlassenroot, K. & Raeymaekers, T., eds. Conflict and Social Transformation in DR Congo. Gent: Academic Press, 123–56.Google Scholar
Wacquant, L. 2009. Punishing the Poor: the neo-liberal government of social insecurity. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wiig, A. & Kolstad, I.. 2010. ‘Multinational corporations and host country institutions: a case study of CSR activities in Angola’, International Business Review 19, 2: 178–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wilson, S. A. 2013. ‘Company–community conflicts over diamond resources in Kono District, Sierra Leone’, Society and Natural Resources 26, 3: 254–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
World Bank. 2017. World Development Indicators, Knoema, <data.worldbank.org>, accessed 13.7.2017.,+accessed+13.7.2017.>Google Scholar
F., 35-year old businessman, Cacolo, 28.7.2011.Google Scholar
G., 48 year old male chemistry teacher, Saurimo, 1.8.2011.Google Scholar
U., Lunda Sul Director of Urbanism, 13.7.2011.Google Scholar
L. C., Catoca mine CSR sector, 14.7.2011.Google Scholar
I., Director of the Employment and Vocational Training Centre, Cacolo, 11.8.2011.Google Scholar
A. C., Coordinator of bairro Tchizaínga II, 22.7.2011.Google Scholar
J. M., Traditional chief, Bairro Tchizaínga II, 24.7.2011.Google Scholar
M., 68 year-old traditional King, Itengo, 30.7.2011.Google Scholar
P., Traditional chief, Paulo, Luó, 31.7.2011.Google Scholar
M., 41 year-old male teacher and sub-director, Luó/Xacassau primary school, 9.8.2011.Google Scholar
J., Traditional chief, Luó, 31.7.2011.Google Scholar
D., Engineer, planning sector of Catoca mine, 8.8.2011.Google Scholar

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Precarity in Angolan diamond mining towns, 1920–2014: tracing agency of the state, mining companies and urban households
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Precarity in Angolan diamond mining towns, 1920–2014: tracing agency of the state, mining companies and urban households
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Precarity in Angolan diamond mining towns, 1920–2014: tracing agency of the state, mining companies and urban households
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *