2002. ‘Vigilantes, violence and the politics of public order in Kenya’, African Affairs
101, 405: 531–55.
2012. Multi-ethnic Coalitions in Africa: business financing of opposition election campaigns. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Asunka, J., Brierley, S., Golden, M., Kramon, E. & Ofosu, G.. 2017. ‘Electoral fraud or violence: the effect of observers on party manipulation strategies’, British Journal of Political Science. doi: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007123416000491
1970. Politics in Ghana, 1946–1960. Vol. 242. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
2014. ‘When politicians cede control of resources: land, chiefs, and coalition-building in Africa’, Comparative Politics
46, 3: 253–71.
1983. Essays on the Political Economy of Rural Africa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bleck, J. & van de Walle, N.. 2013. ‘Valence issues in African elections navigating uncertainty and the weight of the past’, Comparative Political Studies
46, 11: 1394–421.
2012. ‘Political party activism in Ghana: factors influencing the decision of the politically active to join a political party’, Democratization
19, 4: 668–89.
2014. ‘Party youth activists and low-intensity electoral violence in Ghana: a qualitative study of party foot soldiers’ activism’, African Studies Quarterly
15, 1: 125.
2014. Property and Political Order in Africa: land rights and the structure of politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
2005. ‘Ethnic parties and democratic stability’, Perspectives on Politics
Eifert, B., Miguel, E. & Posner, D.. 2010. ‘Political competition and ethnic identification in Africa’, American Journal of Political Science
54, 2: 494–510.
2012. ‘Measuring and comparing party ideology in nonindustrialized societies: taking party manifesto research to Africa’, Democratization
19, 4: 642–67.
2013. Political Parties in Africa: ethnicity and party formation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
2006. ‘Explaining South Africa's racial census’, Journal of Politics
68, 4: 803–15.
2007. ‘The elephant, umbrella, and quarrelling cocks: disaggregating partisanship in Ghana's fourth republic’, African Affairs
106, 423: 281–305.
Geschiere, P. & Gugler, J.. 1998. ‘Introduction: the urban-rural connection: changing issues of belonging and identification’, Africa
68, 3: 309–19.
2005. The History of Ghana. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group.
2001. ‘A peaceful turnover in Ghana’, Journal of Democracy
12, 2: 103–17.
2009. ‘Another step forward for Ghana’, Journal of Democracy
20, 2: 138–52.
Hoffman, B.D. & Long, J.D.. 2013. ‘Parties, ethnicity, and voting in African elections’, Comparative Politics
45, 2: 127–46.
2016. ‘The ethnic logic of campaign strategy in diverse societies: theory and evidence from Kenya’, Comparative Political Studies
49, 3: 324–56.
Ichino, N. & Nathan, N.. 2013. ‘Crossing the line: local ethnic geography and voting in Ghana’, American Political Science Review
107, 2: 344–61.
Jockers, H., Kohnert, D. & Nugent, P.. 2010. ‘The successful Ghana election of 2008: a convenient myth?’ Journal of Modern African Studies
48, 1: 95–115.
Klaus, K. & Mitchell, M.I.. 2015. ‘Land grievances and the mobilisation of electoral violence: evidence from Côte d'Ivoire and Kenya’, Journal of Peace Research
52, 5: 622–35.
2010. ‘‘We are citizens too’: the politics of citizenship in independent Ghana’, Journal of Modern African Studies
2013. ‘King makers: local leaders and ethnic politics in Africa’, World Politics
65, 2: 187–232.
Kuenzi, M. & Lambright, G.. 2005. ‘Party systems and democratic consolidation in Africa's electoral regimes’, Party Politics
11, 4: 423–46.
2013. Land, Mobility, and Belonging in West Africa: natives and strangers. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.
2010. ‘What are MPs in Africa held accountable for – patronage or policy? Evidence from Ghana’, Journal of Modern African Studies
2009. ‘Selected chiefs, elected councillors and hybrid democrats: popular perspectives on the co-existence of democracy and traditional authority’, Journal of Modern African Studies
2004. ‘Political parties in Ghana through four republics: a path to democratic consolidation’, Comparative Politics, 36: 421–42.
a. ‘Local ethnic geography, expectations of favoritism, and voting in urban Ghana’, Comparative Political Studies
b. ‘Does participation reinforce patronage? Policy preferences, turnout and class in urban Ghana’, British Journal of Political Science. doi: 10.1017/S0007123416000351.
1996. Big Men, Small Boys and Politics in Ghana: power, ideology and the burden of history, 1982–1994. London: Pinter Publishing.
1999. ‘Living in the past: urban, rural and ethnic themes in the 1992 and 1996 elections in Ghana’, Journal of Modern African Studies
37, 2: 287–319.
2010. The Politics of Property Rights Institutions in Africa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
2012. Party-Voter Linkage in Ghana and Senegal: a comparative perspective. Wiesbaden: VS-Verlag.
2016. ‘Formal party organisation and informal relations in African parties: evidence from Ghana’, Journal of Modern African Studies
2014. ‘Informal institutions and personal rule in urban Ghana’, African Studies Review
57, 3: 123–42.
2005. Ethnic Politics and Political Institutions in Africa. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
2013. Urban poverty and party populism in African democracies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
2014. ‘National versus ethnic identification: modernization, colonial legacy, and the origins of territorial nationalism’, World Politics
2014. The Politics of Chieftaincy: authority and property in colonial Ghana, 1920–1950. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.
2001. Political Legitimacy in Middle Africa: father, family, food. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.
Stokes, S.C., Dunning, T., Nazareno, M. & Brusco, V.. 2013. Brokers, Voters, and Clientelism: the puzzle of distributive politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Van de Walle, N.
2003. ‘Presidentialism and clientelism in Africa's emerging party systems’, Journal of Modern African Studies
2003. ‘Clientelism and voting behavior: evidence from a field experiment in Benin’, World Politics
55, 3: 399–422.
Weghorst, K. & Lindberg, S.. 2013. ‘What drives the swing voter in Africa?’ American Journal of Political Science
57, 3: 717–34.
1993. Forests of Gold: essays on the Akan and the Kingdom of Asante. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press.
Adjei, Isaac, NDC campaign organiser Odododiodioo, interviewed 17.12.2011, 11.1.2012 and 2.5.2012, Accra Central.
Alajo Chief, interviewed 30.3.2012, Alajo.
Fisherfolk, focus group 4.4.2012, James Town Beach.
NDC executive campaign team Odododiodioo, focus group 3.4.2012, Accra Central.
NDC executive committee Ayawaso Central, focus group 16.1.2012, Kotobabi.
NDC macho-man organiser, 19.4.2012, Old Fadama.
NDC secretary Odododiodioo, interviewed 24.1.2012 and 21.4.2012, Accra Central.
NPP communications director Ayawaso Central, interviewed 17.4.2012, Alajo.
NPP constituency secretary Ayawaso Central, serial interviews 26.1.2012– 6.4.2012, Alajo.
NPP executive campaign team Odododiodioo, focus group 25.2.2012, James Town.
NPP Nasara club Ayawaso Central, focus group 7.3.2012, Alajo.
NPP Nasara women's group, Ayawaso Central, focus group 3.2.2012, Alajo.
NPP polling station coordinators, Ayawaso Central, focus group 7.2.2012, Alajo.
NPP research officer Ayawaso Central, interviewed 28.3.2012, Alajo.
NPP vice chairman and organiser Odododiodioo, interviewed 10.2.2012, James Town.
NPP ward coordinators Ayawaso Central, focus group 22.2.2012, Alajo.
NPP women's coordinators Ayawaso Central, focus group 29.2.2012, Alajo.
NPP women's organiser Odododiodioo, interviewed 10.2.2012, James Town.
NPP women's organisers Odododiodioo, focus group 3.4.2012, James Town.
NPP youth coordinators Odododiodioo, focus group, 5.3.2012, James Town.
NPP youth organisers Old Fadama Branch Odododiodioo, 4.4.2012, Old Fadama.
Okaikoi, Victor, NPP MP aspirant Odododiodioo, interviewed 27.1.2012, 10.2.2012 and 11.4.2012, James Town.
Quaynor, Nii Addo. NDC youth organiser Odododiodioo, serial interviews 1.3.2012–30.4.2012, Ussher Town.