Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Recruitment mechanisms for reserved seats for women in parliament and switches to non-quota seats: a comparative study of Tanzania and Uganda

  • Vibeke Wang (a1) and Mi Yung Yoon (a2)
Abstract

Tanzania and Uganda are among the most cited countries employing reserved-seat quotas. They adopted these quotas in 1985 and 1989, respectively. However, the two countries use different mechanisms to recruit reserved-seat members of parliament (MPs). Drawing on interview data from Tanzania and Uganda, this study compares the two models in terms of their effectiveness in facilitating the transfer of female MPs to non-quota seats in subsequent elections, thereby furthering women's sustainable representation. We find that the Tanzanian model is superior because it compartmentalises quota MPs in reserved seats less than the Ugandan model. The Ugandan model creates a gendered perception that constituency seats are for males and quota seats are for females – as if each sex has a distinct category of parliamentary seats. This perception affects each step of the switch to a non-quota seat, from the decision to switch to party nominations to voters’ decisions at the polls.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Recruitment mechanisms for reserved seats for women in parliament and switches to non-quota seats: a comparative study of Tanzania and Uganda
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Recruitment mechanisms for reserved seats for women in parliament and switches to non-quota seats: a comparative study of Tanzania and Uganda
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Recruitment mechanisms for reserved seats for women in parliament and switches to non-quota seats: a comparative study of Tanzania and Uganda
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
Email: vibeke.wang@cmi.no
Email: yoon@hanover.edu
Footnotes
Hide All

The authors contributed equally to this study. Their names are listed in alphabetical order. Earlier versions of this project were presented at the World Congress of the International Political Science Association in Poznań, Poland in July 2016; the Chr. Michelsen Institute's Rights and Gender Research Group meeting in October 2016; and the International Studies Association Annual Meeting in Baltimore in 2017. The authors wish to thank Ragnhild Muriaas, Lise Rakner and two anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments on earlier versions of this work. Vibeke Wang's fieldwork was funded by the Research Council of Norway (grant no. 233803) and Mi Yung Yoon's field research was supported by the Faculty Development Committee of Hanover College.

Footnotes
References
Hide All
Ahikire, J. 2004. ‘Towards women's effective participation in electoral processes: a review of the Ugandan experience’, Feminist Africa 3: 826.
Ahikire, J. & Madanda, A.. 2009. ‘From no party to multi-party competition: analyzing women's candidature in Uganda’, African Journal of Political Science and International Relations 3, 11: 460–76.
Asiimwe, J. 2002. ‘Women and the struggle for land in Uganda’, in Tripp, A.M. & Kwesiga, J.C., eds. The Women's Movement in Uganda: history, challenges, and prospects. Kampala: Fountain Publishers, 119137.
Bauer, G. 2008. ‘Reserved seats for women MPs: affirmative action for the national women's movement or the National Resistance Movement?’, in Tremblay, M., ed. Women and Legislative Representation: electoral systems, political parties, and sex quotas. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2739.
Beaman, L., Pande, R. & Cirone, A.. 2012. ‘Politics as a male domain and empowerment in India’, in Franceschet, S., Krook, M.L. & Piscopo, J.M., eds. The Impact of Gender Quotas. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 208–26.
Bhavnani, R.R. 2009. ‘Do electoral quotas work after they are withdrawn? Evidence from a natural experiment in India’, American Political Science Review 103, 1: 2335.
Bjarnegård, E. & Zetterberg, P.. 2011. ‘Removing quotas, maintaining representation: overcoming gender inequalities in political party recruitment’, Representation 47, 2: 187–99.
Byanyima, W.K. 1992. ‘Women in political struggle in Uganda’, in Bystydzienski, J.M., ed. Women Transforming Politics: worldwide strategies for empowerment. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 129–42.
Clayton, A., Josefsson, C. & Wang, V.. 2014. ‘Present without presence? Gender, quotas and debate recognition in the Ugandan parliament’, Representation 50, 3: 379–92.
Clayton, A., Josefsson, C. & Wang, V.. 2017. ‘Quotas and women's substantive representation: evidence from a content analysis of Ugandan parliamentary debates’, Politics & Gender 13, 2: 276304.
Dahlerup, D. 2006. ‘Conclusion’, in Dahlerup, D., ed. Women, Quotas and Politics. London: Routledge, 293307.
Darhour, H. & Dahlerup, D.. 2013. ‘Sustainable representation of women through gender quotas: a decade's experience in Morocco’, Women's Studies International Forum 41: 132–42.
Davidson-Schmich, L.K. 2010. ‘Gender quota compliance and contagion in the 2009 Bundestag election’, German Politics and Society 28, 3: 133–55.
Electoral Commission of Uganda. 2016. ‘Nominated candidates’. <http://www.ec.or.ug/sites/default/files/press/List%20of%20Nominated%20Candidates%20for%202016%20General%20Elections%20for%20web.pdf>, accessed 21.10.2016.
Goetz, A.M. 2002. ‘No shortcuts to power: constraints on women's political effectiveness in Uganda’, Journal of Modern African Studies 40, 4: 549–75.
Goetz, A.M. 2003. ‘The problem with patronage: constraints on women's political effectiveness in Uganda’, in Goetz, A.M. & Hassim, S., eds. No Shortcuts to Power: African women in politics and policy making. London: Zed Books, 110–39.
Green, E. 2010. ‘Patronage, district creation, and reform in Uganda’, Studies in Comparative International Development 45, 1: 83103.
Ibrahim, J. 2004. ‘The first lady syndrome and the marginalisation of women from power: opportunities or compromises for gender equality?’, Feminist Africa 3: 4669.
International Institute for Democratic and Electoral Assistance (International IDEA), Stockholm University & Inter-Parliamentary Union. 2016. Global Database of Quotas for Women. <http://www.quotaproject.org/index.cfm>, accessed 21.10.2017.
Inter-Parliamentary Union. n.d. PARLINE Database on National Parliaments. <http://www.ipu.org/parline-e/parlinesearch.asp>, accessed 21.10.2017.
Jones, M.P. 2009. ‘Gender quotas, electoral laws, and the election of women’, Comparative Political Studies 42, 1: 5681.
Josefsson, C. 2014. ‘Who benefits from gender quotas? Assessing the impact of election procedure reform on members of parliament's attributes in Uganda’, International Political Science Review 35, 1: 93105.
Juma, K.S. 2010. ‘Multiparty politics dynamics in Uganda’, African Journal of Political Science and International Relations 4, 3: 109–14.
Kasfir, N. & Twebaze, S.H.. 2014. ‘In Name Only: Uganda's Constituency Development Fund’, in Baskin, M. & Mezey, M.L., eds. Distributive Politics in Developing Countries. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 83106.
Kiiza, J., Svåsand, L. & Tabaro, R.. 2008. ‘Organising parties for the 2006 elections’, in Kiiza, J., Makara, S. & Rakner, L., eds. Electoral Democracy in Uganda: understanding the processes and outcomes of the 2006 multiparty elections. Kampala: Fountain Publishers, 201–30.
Kishwar, M. 1996. ‘Women and politics: beyond quotas’, Economic and Political Weekly 31, 43: 2867–74.
Krook, M.L. 2008. ‘Quota laws for women in politics: implications for feminist practice’, Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State and Society 15, 3: 345–68.
Krook, M.L. 2009. Quotas for Women in Politics: gender and candidate selection reform worldwide. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Larserud, S. & Taphorn, R.. 2007. Designing for Equality. Stockholm: International IDEA. <https://www.idea.int/sites/default/files/publications/designing-for-equality.pdf>, accessed 21.10.2017.
Matembe, M. 2002. Gender, Politics and Constitution Making in Uganda. Kampala: Fountain Publishers.
Matland, R. 2006. ‘Electoral quotas: frequency and effectiveness’, in Dahlerup, D., ed. Women, Quotas and Politics. London: Routledge, 275–92.
Mosha, A.A. & Johnson, M.. 2004. Promoting Women's Access to Politics and Decision-Making: the role of TGNP and other advocacy groups in the 2000 general elections. Dar es Salaam: Tanzania Gender Networking Programme.
Muriaas, R.L. & Wang, V.. 2012. ‘Executive dominance and the politics of quota representation in Uganda’, Journal of Modern African Studies 50, 2: 309–38.
Museveni, Y.K. & Kanyogonya, E.. 1997. Sowing the Mustard Seed: the struggle for freedom and democracy in Uganda. London: Macmillan.
Nyerere, J. 1967. The Arusha Declaration and TANU's Policy on Socialism and Self-reliance. Translation by Madyibi, A.. <https://www.marxists.org/subject/africa/nyerere/1967/arusha-declaration.htm>, accessed 21.10.2017.
O'Brien, D.Z. 2012. ‘Quotas and qualifications in Uganda’, in Franceschet, S., Krook, M.L. & Piscopo, J.M., eds. The Impact of Gender Quotas. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 5771.
Parliament of Tanzania. 2015a. ‘Members of the parliament’. <http://www.parliament.go.tz/mps-list>, accessed various years.
Parliament of Tanzania. 2015b. ‘Composition’. <http://www.parliament.go.tz/pages/composition>, accessed 5.6.2016.
Republic of Uganda. 1995. Constitution of the Republic of Uganda, 22 September. <http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6b5ba0.html>, accessed 15.10.2017.
Rubongoya, J.B. 2007. Regime Hegemony in Museveni's Uganda. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.
Sadie, Y. 2005. ‘Women in political decision-making in the SADC region’, Agenda 65: 1731.
Schwindt-Bayer, L. 2005. ‘The incumbency disadvantage and women's election to legislative office’, Electoral Studies 24, 2: 227–44.
Schwindt-Bayer, L. 2009. ‘Making quotas work: the effect of gender quota laws on the election of women’, Legislative Studies Quarterly 34, 1: 528.
Shin, K. 2014. ‘Women's sustainable representation and the spillover effect of electoral gender quotas in South Korea’, International Political Science Review 35, 1: 8092.
Ssali, S. & Atoo, C.P.. 2008. ‘Gender and women's participation in the 2006 multiparty elections in Uganda’, in Kiiza, J., Makara, S. & Rakner, L., eds. Electoral Democracy in Uganda: understanding institutional processes and outcomes of the 2006 multiparty elections. Kampala: Fountain Publishers, 150–74.
Tamale, S. 1999. When Hens Begin to Crow: gender and parliamentary politics in Uganda. Boulder, CO: Westview.
Tamale, S. 2004. ‘Introducing quotas: discourse and legal reform in Uganda’, in Ballington, J., ed. The Implementation of Quotas: African experiences. Stockholm: International IDEA, 3845. <https://www.idea.int/sites/default/files/publications/implementation-of-quotas-african-experiences.pdf>, accessed 21.10.2017.
Tanzania National Electoral Commission. 2006. The Report of the National Electoral Commission on the 2005 Presidential, Parliamentary and Councillors’ Elections. Dar es Salaam: National Electoral Commission.
Tanzania National Electoral Commission. 2016. Wabunge wa kuchaguliwa, 2015–2010 [List of Parliamentarians, 2015–2010]. <nec.go.tz>, accessed 30.6.2016.
Tripp, A.M. 2000. Women and Politics in Uganda. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.
Tripp, A.M. 2006. ‘Uganda: agents of change for women's advancement?’, in Bauer, G. & Britton, H.E., eds. Women in African Parliaments. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 111–32.
Tripp, A.M. & Kang, A.. 2008. ‘The global impact of quotas: on the fast track to increased female legislative representation’, Comparative Political Studies 41, 3: 338–61.
Tripp, A., Konaté, D. & Lowe-Morna, C.. 2006. ‘Sub-Saharan Africa: on the fast track to women's political representation’, in Dahlerup, D., ed. Women, Quotas and Politics. London: Routledge, 112–37.
UWONET. 2016. Women in Uganda's Electoral Processes. Kampala: Uganda Women's Network. <http://uwonet.or.ug/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/WOMEN-IN-UGANDA_S-ELECTORAL-PROCESSES.pdf>, accessed 21.10.2017.
Wang, V. 2013. ‘Women changing policy outcomes: learning from pro-women legislation in the Ugandan parliament’, Women's Studies International Forum 41, 2: 113–21.
Wang., V. 2014. ‘Tracing gender differences in parliamentary debates: a growth curve analysis of Ugandan MPs’ activity levels in plenary sessions, 1998–2008’, Representation 50, 3; 365–77.
Yoon, M.Y. 2008. ‘Special seats for women in the national legislature: the case of Tanzania’, Africa Today 55, 1: 6086.
Yoon, M.Y. 2013. ‘Special seats for women in parliament and democratization: the case of Tanzania’, Women's Studies International Forum 41: 143–9.
Yoon, M.Y. 2016. ‘Beyond quota seats for women in the Tanzanian legislature’, Canadian Journal of African Studies 50, 2: 191210.
Abdullah, Anna, CCM special-seat MP who has also held cabinet positions, constituency, and appointed parliamentary seats, Dodoma, Tanzania, 6.6.2013.
Amongi, Betty Ongom, third-term MP of Uganda People's Congress (UPC) and chair of UWOPA, 10.6.2015.
Amongin, Jacqueline, first-term NRM district MP, Kampala, Uganda, 2.6.2015.
Aol, Betty Ocean, second-term FDC district MP, Kampala, Uganda, 11.6.2015.
Aritua, Perry, executive director of Women's Democracy Network, Uganda Chapter, Kampala, Uganda, 4.6.2015.
Atim-Ogwal, Cecilia, two-term constituency MP and two-term district woman MP, Kampala, Uganda, 12.3.2010.
Bakeine, Mabel, second-term female NRM constituency MP, Kampala, Uganda, 12.6.2015.
Centre for Women in Government (CEWIGO) officer, Kampala, Uganda, 6.6.2015.
Ekonea, Nobelrich, Tanzania Media Women's Association, Sinza Mori, Tanzania, 29.05.2013.
Flavia, Kabahenda, first-term NRM district MP, Kampala, Uganda, 2·6.2015.
Iyamuremye, Betty, UWOPA coordinator, Kampala, Uganda, 2.6.2015.
Kadaga, Rebecca Alitwala, district MP since 1989 and speaker of parliament, Kampala, Uganda, 10.6.2015.
Kiwanga, Susan, CHADEMA special-seat MP, Dodoma, Tanzania, 5.6.2013.
Kiiza, Winfred, second-term FDC district MP and opposition chief whip, Kampala, Uganda, 10.6.2015.
Masiko, Princess Kabakumba Labwoni, third-term female NRM constituency MP, Kampala Uganda, 12.6.2015.
Matembe, Miria, former district MP, minister, and founder of Centre for Women in Governance, Kampala, Uganda, 24.5.2010.
Mhagama, Jenista, CCM female constituency MP, Dodoma, Tanzania, 5.6.2013.
Mudini, Ignatius, second-term NRM male constituency MP, Kampala, Uganda, 1.6.2015.
Mulongo, Simon, first-term NRM male constituency MP, Kampala, Uganda, 5.6.2015.
Najjemba Rosemary, second-term NRM female constituency MP, Kampala, Uganda, 9.6.2015.
Ndugai, Job, deputy speaker (speaker in current parliament), Dodoma, Tanzania, 3.6.2013.
Nkya, Lucy, CCM female constituency MP, Dodoma, Tanzania, 4.6.2013.
Nyakikongoro, Rosemary, first-term Independent district MP, Kampala, Uganda, 5·6.2015.
Oguttu, Philip Wafula, first-term FDC male constituency MP and opposition leader, Kampala, Uganda, 2.6.2015.
Okumu, Ronald Reagan, fourth-term FDC male constituency MP, Kampala, Uganda, 10.6.2015.
Sentamu, Margret, director of Uganda Media Women's Association, Kampala, Uganda, 8.6.2015.
Tete, Everline Chelangat, second-term NRM district MP, Kampala, Uganda, 8.6.2015.
Turyahikayo, Mary, second-term female NRM constituency MP, Kampala, Uganda, 12.6.2015.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

The Journal of Modern African Studies
  • ISSN: 0022-278X
  • EISSN: 1469-7777
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-modern-african-studies
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed