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Swaziland Political Development

  • R. P. Stevens

In January 1963 the London talks on Swaziland's proposed constitution ended, as expected, in a deadlock. It had long been evident that the demand for equal (50–50) white and Swazi representation as advocated by the Swazi National Council (S.N.C.) and the European Advisory Council (E.A.C.) could not be accepted by the representatives of Swaziland's emerging political parties. This formula, which would give the country's 9,000 whites an equal voice with the nominees of the S.N.C., who were supposed to speak for the 270,000 Swazi, was vigorously denounced by all progressive elements in the country.

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Page 327 note 1 The Times of Swaziland, 18 January 1963.

Page 328 note 1 Cited in Kuper, Hilda, An African Aristocracy (London, 1947), p. 31.

Page 329 note 1 Hailey, Lord, An African Survey (London, 1938), pp. 272–3.

Page 329 note 2 Hailey, Lord, Native Administration in the British African Territories, Part v (London, 1953), p. 354.

Page 330 note 1 Swaziland Report for the Year 1959 (London, 1960), pp. 31–4.

Page 330 note 2 Kuper, Hilda, The Uniform of Colour (Johannesburg, 1947), p. 104.

Page 330 note 3 The Swaziland Student (Mbabane), II, no. 1.

Page 331 note 1 S.T. 176/1959, Swazi National Council, Lobamba.

Page 331 note 2 Government of Swaziland, Proposals for a Swaziland Constitution (March 1962), p. 12.

Page 331 note 3 Report of the Economic Survey Mission, 1959, Protectorates High Commissioner's Office (London, 1960), p. 422.

Page 331 note 4 Proposals for a Swaziland Constitution, p. 12.

Page 332 note 1 Opinion—Constitutional Development of Swaziland, October 1960 (typewritten), p. 14.

Page 332 note 2 Subsequently the Ngwenyama denied that he had supported a numerical ‘50–50’ arrangement and said that he meant that whites and Swazis should meet as equals. Characteristically, he has never clarified the matter. The Times of Swaziland, 22 June 1962.

Page 332 note 3 Kuper, An African Aristocracy, pp. 21–7.

Page 333 note 1 Kuper, Uniform of Colour, p. 32.

Page 333 note 2 Swaziland Report for the Year 1959, p. 126.

Page 333 note 3 The Times of Swaziland, 6 April 1962.

Page 333 note 4 Todd, is ‘Solicitor, Part Cliffe Dekker and Todd; Director of African Explosives & Chemicals Ind. Ltd., American South African Investment Co. Ltd., Netherlands Bank of South Africa Ltd. National Industrial Credit Corporation Ltd., (in addition to above also Director of about thirty others); Member European Advisory Council and Standing Committee of Swaziland; resident also at Mabuda, Stegi, Swaziland; has extensive farming interests in Swaziland, ranching, sugar, rice and citrus at Big Bend, Swaziland.’ Who's Who of Southern Africa, ed. Ken, Donaldson Ltd. (Johannesburg, 1960), p. 620.

Page 334 note 1 Kuper, Uniform of Colour, p. 105.

Page 334 note 2 Mr Nquku was born in 1899 at Pietermaritzburg, South Africa, of Zulu parents, and held various teaching and supervisory positions in the Bantu schools of the Republic. In 1930 he became the first African inspector of schools in Swaziland, and in 1934 he founded a vernacular newspaper Izwi Lam Swazi (‘The Voice of the Swazi’). Nquku served as editor of this paper until it was taken over by the Bantu Press. He became an active member of the S.N.C. in 1940 and was made responsible for educational matters. In 1955 he founded and became first editor of The Swazilander. His outlook was considerably broadened through extensive travel in America and Europe in 1957. Segal, Ronald, Political Africa (London, 1961), pp. 213–14.

Page 335 note 1 Proposals for a Swaziland Constitution, p. 13.

Page 335 note 2 Dr Zwane, who now appears to enjoy the bulk of Progressive support, was born in Swaziland in 1924. He was educated in Catholic and Protestant mission schools and continued his schooling at Fort Hare and the University of the Witwatersand. After qualifying as a doctor in 1951 he worked for a short time in South Africa until he returned to Swaziland as a Government Medical Officer. After serving in that capacity for seven years, he resigned in 1960 to give his full attention to politics. At the request of Mr Nquku he abandoned his original intention of setting up his own political party, and instead accepted the position of secretary-general of the Progressive Party. His presence doubled the party's membership in a short time, giving it a total of roughly two thousand. Segal, Ronald, African Profiles (London, 1962), pp. 52–3.

Page 336 note 1 The Swaziland Student, II, no. 1 (January–March 1962), p. 17.

Page 336 note 2 Makotolle (organ of the Basutoland Congress Party, published in Cairo), March–April 1962, p. 9.

Page 337 note 1 Denis V. Cowen, ‘Proposals for Swaziland Constitution’ (for Progressive Party, Mbabane, September 1961).

Page 337 note 2 These alternatives were posed in a series of three articles in The Times (London), 2–4 January 1963.

Page 338 note 1 It has been widely suggested that these incidents can be attributed to Nquku's own followers, who thereby seek to discredit the leadership of Dr Zwane.

Page 338 note 2 Contact (Cape Town), 29 November 1962.

Page 338 note 3 The Times of Swaziland, 17 August and 28 September 1962.

Page 339 note 1 The Swaziland Student, I, no. 1, 1961.

Page 340 note 1 The Times of Swaziland, 2 March 1962.

Page 340 note 2 Ibid. 19 October 1962.

Page 341 note 1 Sibani (Mbabane), I, no. 15, 14 December 1962.

Page 341 note 2 It is of interest to note that although Simon Nxumalo led an ‘illegal’ demonstration in April no legal action was taken against him. Dumisa Dlamini of the Liberatory Congress was charged and sentenced for leading a similar demonstration. But MrNxumalo went to the U.S.A. on an American leadership grant, returning in July 1963.

Page 342 note 1 The Times of Swaziland, 30 November 1962.

Page 342 note 2 Sibani, I, no. 9, 2 November 1962.

Page 342 note 3 Ibid. 30 January 1963.

Page 343 note 1 Indications are that Dr Msibi has now left the Convention and has been associating himself, at least informally, with Dr Zwane. Mr Nkosi is now (July 1963) the Convention president.

Page 343 note 2 Hatch, John, Everyman's Africa (London, 1959), p. 123.

Page 343 note 3 The Times of Swaziland. 14 September 1962.

Page 344 note 1 According to latest estimates there are 137,000 Swazi living in the Republic in areas adjacent to Swaziland. Arrangements are under way to proclaim Dumakude Maseko, at present living in Basutoland, as King of the Swazi with the blessing of the Department of Bantu Administration. Elethu Mirror (South Africa), 27 April 1963.

Page 344 note 2 The Johannesburg Star, 5 September 1962.

Page 344 note 3 The Times, 1 January 1962.

Page 344 note 4 Sunday Tribune (Johannesburg), 3 February 1962.

Page 345 note 1 After South Africa left the Commonwealth, British relations with South Africa were transferred from Commonwealth to Foreign Affairs, and the Protectorates to the Colonial Office.

Page 345 note 2 A Geological Survey started in 1949 has recently revealed large deposits (estimated at 32 million tons) of rich iron ore available for exploitation. This has resulted in Swaziland's first railway, now under construction, which will convey the ore to Lourenço Marques for shipment to Japan. There are at least 32 million tons of second-grade anthracite coal on government lands, and more than 1 million tons of barytes. Gold ore reserves are estimated at 367,000 tons. Other valuable minerals such as antimony, tin, nickel, wolfram, thorium, lead, and magnesite are indicated in smaller amounts. All of these are in addition to the timber forests and asbestos mines which have been productive over a long period. The Times of Swaziland, 26 April 1962.

Page 345 note 3 Ibid. 9 November 1962.

Page 346 note 1 Union Year Book, no. 21, p. 1243.

Page 346 note 2 Kuper, Uniform of Colour, p. 48.

Page 347 note 1 Report of the Swaziland Constitutional Committee: Note of Reservations by the Chairman and Official Members (Mbabane, 1962).

Page 347 note 2 The Times of Swaziland, 18 May 1962.

Page 348 note 1 The Swaziland Student, I, no. 1, Supplement, December 1962.

Page 348 note 2 The Guardian (Manchester), 7 March 1962.

Page 348 note 3 The Times of Swaziland, 3 August and 23 November 1962.

Page 348 note 4 Ibid. 11 January 1963.

Page 349 note 1 The Times of Swaziland, 18 January 1963.

Page 349 note 2 Ibid. 9 November 1962.

* Head of the Department of Political Science, Pius XII University College, Basutoland.

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