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Depression and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in older adults living at northern latitudes – AGES-Reykjavik Study

  • Cindy M. Imai (a1), Thorhallur I. Halldorsson (a1) (a2), Gudny Eiriksdottir (a3), Mary F. Cotch (a4), Laufey Steingrimsdottir (a1), Inga Thorsdottir (a1), Lenore J. Launer (a5), Tamara Harris (a5), Vilmundur Gudnason (a3) (a6) and Ingibjorg Gunnarsdottir (a1)...
Abstract
Abstract

Low vitamin D status may be associated with depression. Few studies have examined vitamin D and depression in older adults living at northern latitudes. The present study cross-sectionally investigated serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) status and depression among 5006 community-dwelling older persons (66–96 years) living in Iceland (latitudes 64–66°N). Depressive symptoms were measured by the fifteen-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15). Current major depressive disorder was assessed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) criteria. Serum 25(OH)D was analysed using chemiluminescence immunoassay and categorised into three groups: deficient (<30 nmol/l); inadequate (30–49·9 nmol/l); and adequate (≥50 nmol/l). There were twenty-eight (2 %) men and fifty (1 %) women with current major depressive disorder. Mean GDS-15 scores for men and women with adequate vitamin D concentrations were 2·1 and 2·2, respectively. Men and women with deficient v. adequate vitamin D status had more depressive symptoms (higher GDS-15 scores) (difference 0·7 (95 % CI 0·4, 0·9) and 0·4 (95 % CI 0·1, 0·6), respectively). Furthermore, men with deficient vitamin D status were more likely to have current major depressive disorder (adjusted OR 2·51; 95 % CI 1·03, 6·13) compared with men with adequate vitamin D status. Associations among women were not significant. In this older population living at northern latitudes, deficient vitamin D status may be associated with depression. Further investigations are warranted to evaluate the pathways that may be associated with risk of depression among older adults.

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This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Corresponding author
* Corresponding author: Ingibjorg Gunnarsdottir, fax +354 552 1331, email ingigun@landspitali.is
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Journal of Nutritional Science
  • ISSN: 2048-6790
  • EISSN: 2048-6790
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-nutritional-science
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