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Fishing for answers: is oxidation of fish oil supplements a problem?

  • David Cameron-Smith (a1), Benjamin B. Albert (a1) and Wayne S. Cutfield (a1)
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Abstract
Copyright
This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Corresponding author
email w.cutfield@auckland.ac.nz
References
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1. Barnes, PM, Bloom, B & Nahin, RL (2008) Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use Among Adults and Children: United States, 2007. Hyattsville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics.
2. Transparency Market Research (2013) Global Fish Oil Market for Aquaculture, Direct Human Consumption, Hydrogenation and Industrial Applications – Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends and Forecast, 2012–2018. http://www.transparencymarketresearch.com/fish-oil.html (accessed September 2015).
3. Calder, PC (2004) n-3 Fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: evidence explained and mechanisms explored. Clin Sci 107, 111.
4. Karr, JE, Alexander, JE & Winningham, RG (2011) Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and cognition throughout the lifespan: a review. Nutr Neurosci 14, 216225.
5. Calder, PC (2013) Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory processes: nutrition or pharmacology? Br J Clin Pharmacol 75, 645662.
6. Kwak, S, Myung, S, Lee, Y, et al. (2012) Efficacy of omega-3 fatty acid supplements (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease: a meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. Arch Intern Med 172, 686694.
7. Rizos, EC, Ntzani, EE, Bika, E, et al. (2012) Association between omega-3 fatty acid supplementation and risk of major cardiovascular disease events: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA 308, 10241033.
8. Jackowski, SA, Alvi, AZ, Mirajkar, A, et al. (2015) Oxidation levels of North American over-the-counter n-3 (omega-3) supplements and the influence of supplement formulation and delivery form on evaluating oxidative safety. J Nutr Sci 4, e30.
9. LabDoor (2015) Top 10 Fish Oil Supplements. https://labdoor.com/rankings/fish-oil (accessed September 2015).
10. Opperman, M & Benade, S (2013) Analysis of the omega-3 fatty acid content of South African fish oil supplements: a follow-up study. Cardiovasc J Afr 24, 297302.
11. Albert, BB, Derraik, JGB, Cameron-Smith, D, et al. (2015) Fish oil supplements in New Zealand are highly oxidised and do not meet label content of n-3 PUFA. Sci Rep 5, 7928.
12. Shahidi, F & Zhong, Y (2010) Lipid oxidation and improving the oxidative stability. Chem Soc Rev 39, 40674079.
13. Ritter, JC & Budge, SM (2012) Key lipid oxidation products can be used to predict sensory quality of fish oils with different levels of EPA and DHA. Lipids 47, 11691179.
14. Holm, U (1972) Abstracts. International Society for Fat Research Congress. Gøteborg, Sweden.
15. EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ) (2010) Scientific opinion on fish oil for human consumption. Food hygiene, including rancidity. EFSA J 8, 1874.
16. Health Canada (2009) Monograph: Fish Oil. http://webprod.hc-sc.gc.ca/nhpid-bdipsn/monoReq.do?id=88&lang=eng (accessed September 2015).
17. US Council for Responsible Nutrition (2006) Voluntary Monograph: Omega-3 DHA, Omega-3 EPA, Omega-3 DHA & EPA. http://www.crnusa.org/pdfs/O3FINALMONOGRAPHdoc.pdf (accessed September 2015).
18. Global Organization for EPA and DHA Omega-3s (2012) GOED Voluntary Monograph (v.4). http://www.goedomega3.com/index.php/our-members/quality-standards (accessed September 2015).
19. GLOBEFISH (2015) Fish oil and fish meal. http://www.globefish.org/fish-oil-and-fishmeal-market-reports.html (accessed September 2015).
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Journal of Nutritional Science
  • ISSN: 2048-6790
  • EISSN: 2048-6790
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-nutritional-science
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