Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Monosodium glutamate delivered in a protein-rich soup improves subsequent energy compensation

  • Una Masic (a1) and Martin R. Yeomans (a1)

Abstract

Previous research suggests that monosodium glutamate (MSG) may have a biphasic effect on appetite, increasing appetite within a meal with its flavour-enhancing effect, but enhancing subsequent satiety due to its proposed role as a predictor of protein content. The present study explored this by assessing the impact of a 450 g soup preload differing in MSG concentration (1 % MSG added (MSG+) or no MSG (MSG–)) and nutrient content (low-energy control or high-energy carbohydrate or high-energy protein) on rated appetite and ad libitum intake of a test meal in thirty-five low-restraint male volunteers using a within-participant design. Protein-rich preloads significantly reduced intake at the test meal and resulted in more accurate energy compensation than did carbohydrate-rich preloads. This energy compensation was stronger in the MSG+ protein conditions when compared with MSG+ carbohydrate conditions. No clear differences in rated appetite were seen in MSG or the macronutrient conditions alone during preload ingestion or 45 min after intake. Overall, these findings indicate that MSG may act to further improve energy compensation when provided in a protein-rich context.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Monosodium glutamate delivered in a protein-rich soup improves subsequent energy compensation
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Monosodium glutamate delivered in a protein-rich soup improves subsequent energy compensation
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Monosodium glutamate delivered in a protein-rich soup improves subsequent energy compensation
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

The online version of this article is published within an Open Access environment subject to the conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license .

Corresponding author

* Corresponding author: Dr Una Masic, email u.masic@liv.ac.uk

References

Hide All
1. Ikeda, K (1908) On a new seasoning. J Tokyo Chem Soc 30, 820836.
2. Jinap, S & Hajeb, P (2010) Glutamate. Its applications in food and contribution to health. Appetite 55, 110.
3. Ninomiya, K (1998) Natural occurrence. Food Rev Int 14, 177211.
4. Yeomans, MR (1996) Palatability and the micro-structure of feeding in humans: the appetizer effect. Appetite 27, 119133.
5. Yeomans, MR & Gray, RW (2002) Opioid peptides and the control of human ingestive behaviour. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 26, 713728.
6. Yeomans, MR, Gray, RW & Conyers, THB (1998) Maltodextrin preloads reduce food intake without altering the appetiser effect. Physiol Behav 64, 501506.
7. Mathey, M-FAM, Siebelink, E, de Graaf, C, et al. (2001) Flavor enhancement of food improves dietary intake and nutritional status of elderly nursing home residents. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 56, M200M205.
8. Schiffman, SS, Sattely-Miller, EA, Zimmerman, IA, et al. (1994) Taste perception of monosodium glutamate (MSG) in foods in young and elderly subjects. Physiol Behav 56, 265275.
9. Essed, N, Oerlemans, P, Hoek, M, et al. (2009) Optimal preferred MSG concentration in potatoes, spinach and beef and their effect on intake in institutionalized elderly people. J Nutr Health Aging 13, 769775.
10. Bellisle, F, Monneuse, MO, Chabert, M, et al. (1991) Monosodium glutamate as a palatability enhancer in the European diet. Physiol Behav 49, 869873.
11. Bellisle, F, Tournier, A & Louis-Sylvestre, J (1989) Monosodium glutamate and the acquisition of food preferences in a European context. Food Qual Prefer 1, 103108.
12. Essed, NH, van Staveren, WA, Kok, FJ, et al. (2007) No effect of 16 weeks flavor enhancement on dietary intake and nutritional status of nursing home elderly. Appetite 48, 2936.
13. Bellisle, F, Dalix, AM, Chappuis, AS, et al. (1996) Monosodium glutamate affects mealtime food selection in diabetic patients. Appetite 26, 267276.
14. Bellisle, F (1999) Glutamate and the UMAMI taste: sensory, metabolic, nutritional and behavioural considerations. A review of the literature published in the last 10 years. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 23, 423438.
15. Masic, U & Yeomans, MR (2013) Does monosodium glutamate interact with macronutrient composition to influence subsequent appetite? Physiol Behav 116–117, 2329.
16. Smriga, M & Torii, K (2000) Release of hypothalamic norepinephrine during MSG intake in rats fed normal and nonprotein diet. Physiol Behav 70, 413415.
17. Laska, M & Hernandez Salazar, LT (2004) Gustatory responsiveness to monosodium glutamate and sodium chloride in four species of nonhuman primates. J Exp Zool A Comp Exp Biol 301A, 898905.
18. Poppitt, SD, McCormack, D & Buffenstein, R (1998) Short-term effects of macronutrient preloads on appetite and energy intake in lean women. Physiol Behav 64, 279285.
19. Marmonier, C, Chapelot, D & Louis-Sylvestre, J (2000) Effects of macronutrient content and energy density of snacks consumed in a satiety state on the onset of the next meal. Appetite 34, 161168.
20. Fischer, K, Colombani, PC & Wenk, C (2004) Metabolic and cognitive coefficients in the development of hunger sensations after pure macronutrient ingestion in the morning. Appetite 42, 4961.
21. Weigle, DS, Breen, PA, Matthys, CC, et al. (2005) A high-protein diet induces sustained reductions in appetite, ad libitum caloric intake, and body weight despite compensatory changes in diurnal plasma leptin and ghrelin concentrations. Am J Clin Nutr 82, 4148.
22. Simpson, SJ & Raubenheimer, D (editors) (2000) Geometric Models of Macronutrient Selection. Boca Raton: CRC Press.
23. Bertenshaw, EJ, Lluch, A & Yeomans, MR (2008) Satiating effects of protein but not carbohydrate consumed in a between-meal beverage context. Physiol Behav 93, 427436.
24. Latner, JD & Schwartz, M (1999) The effects of a high-carbohydrate, high-protein or balanced lunch upon later food intake and hunger ratings. Appetite 33, 119128.
25. Lejeune, MPGM, Kovacs, EMR & Westerterp-Plantenga, MS (2005) Additional protein intake limits weight regain after weight loss in humans. Br J Nutr 93, 281289.
26. Leidy, HJ, Tang, M, Armstrong, CLH, et al. (2011) The effects of consuming frequent, higher protein meals on appetite and satiety during weight loss in overweight/obese men. Obesity 19, 818824.
27. Simpson, SJ & Raubenheimer, D (2005) Obesity: the protein leverage hypothesis. Obes Rev 6, 133142.
28. Bertenshaw, EJ, Lluch, A & Yeomans, MR (2013) Perceived thickness and creaminess modulates the short-term satiating effects of high-protein drinks. Br J Nutr 110, 578586.
29. Mennella, JA & Beauchamp, GK (1996) Developmental changes in the acceptance of protein hydrolysate formula. J Dev Behav Pediatr 17, 386391.
30. Ventura, AK, Beauchamp, GK & Mennella, JA (2012) Infant regulation of intake: the effect of free glutamate content in infant formulas. Am J Clin Nutr 95, 875881.
31. Luscombe-Marsh, ND, Smeets, AJPG & Westerterp-Plantenga, MS (2009) The addition of monosodium glutamate and inosine monophosphate-5 to high-protein meals: effects on satiety, and energy and macronutrient intakes. Br J Nutr 102, 929937.
32. Williams, EJ (1949) Experimental designs balanced for the estimation of residual effects of treatment. Aust J Sci Res A 2, 149168.
33. Stunkard, AJ & Messick, S (1985) The three-factor eating questionnaire to measure dietary restraint, disinhibition and hunger. J Psychosom Res 29, 7183.
34. Fedoroff, IDC, Polivy, J & Herman, CP (1997) The effect of pre-exposure to food cues on the eating behavior of restrained and unrestrained eaters. Appetite 28, 3347.
35. Fedoroff, I, Polivy, J & Herman, CP (2003) The specificity of restrained versus unrestrained eaters' responses to food cues: general desire to eat, or craving for the cued food? Appetite 41, 713.
36. Food Standards Agency (2006) FSA Nutrient and Food Based Guidelines for UK Institutions. London: Food Standards Agency.
37. Herman, CP & Polivy, J (2008) External cues in the control of food intake in humans: the sensory–normative distinction. Physiol Behav 94, 722728.
38. Wansink, B, Painter, JE & North, J (2005) Bottomless bowls: why visual cues of portion size may influence intake. Obes Res 13, 93100.
39. Bertenshaw, EJ, Lluch, A & Yeomans, MR (2009) Dose-dependent effects of beverage protein content upon short-term intake. Appetite 52, 580587.
40. Yeomans, MR & Chambers, L (2011) Satiety-relevant sensory qualities enhance the satiating effects of mixed carbohydrate–protein preloads. Am J Clin Nutr 94, 14101417.
41. Yeomans, MR, Lee, MD, Gray, RW, et al. (2001) Effects of test-meal palatability on compensatory eating following disguised fat and carbohydrate preloads. Int J Obes 25, 12151224.
42. Kitamura, A, Tsurugizawa, T & Torii, K (2011) Biological significance of glutamate signaling during digestion of food through the gut–brain axis. Digestion 83, Suppl. 1, 3743.
43. Kondoh, T & Torii, K (2008) MSG intake suppresses weight gain, fat deposition, and plasma leptin levels in male Sprague–Dawley rats. Physiol Behav 95, 135144.
44. San Gabriel, AM, Maekawa, T, Uneyama, H, et al. (2007) mGluR1 in the fundic glands of rat stomach. FEBS Lett 581, 11191123.
45. Niijima, A (2000) Reflex effects of oral, gastrointestinal and hepatoportal glutamate sensors on vagal nerve activity. J Nutr 130, 971S973S.
46. Yeomans, MR & Gray, RW (1997) Effects of naltrexone on food intake and changes in subjective appetite during eating: evidence for opioid involvement in the appetizer effect. Physiol Behav 62, 1521.
47. Allirot, X, Saulaisa, L, Disseb, E, et al. (2014) Integrating behavioral measurements in physiological approaches of satiety. Food Qual Pref 31, 181189.
48. Yeomans, MR (2010) Understanding individual differences in acquired flavour liking in humans. Chemosens Percept 3, 3441.
49. Weingarten, HP (1984) Meal initiation controlled by learned cues: basic behavioral properties. Appetite 5, 147158.
50. de Graaf, C, Schreurs, A & Blauw, YH (1993) Short-term effects of different amounts of sweet and nonsweet carbohydrates on satiety and energy intake. Physiol Behav 54, 833843.
51. Rogers, PJ & Blundell, JE (1989) Separating the actions of sweetness and calories: effects of saccharin and carbohydrates on hunger and food intake in human subjects. Physiol Behav 45, 10931099.
52. Blundell, JE & Rogers, PJ (editors) (1994) Sweet Carbohydrate Substitutes (Intense Sweeteners) and the Control of Appetite: Scientific Issues. London: CRC Press.
53. Appleton, KM, Rogers, PJ & Blundell, JE (2004) Effects of a sweet and a nonsweet lunch on short-term appetite: differences in female high and low consumers of sweet/low-energy beverages. J Hum Nutr Diet 17, 425434.
54. Kwok, RHM (1968) Chinese restaurant syndrome. New Engl J Med 18, 796.
55. Geha, RS, Beiser, A, Ren, C, et al. (2000) Review of alleged reaction to monosodium glutamate and outcome of a multicenter double-blind placebo-controlled study. J Nutr 130, 1058S1062S.
56. Freeman, M (2006) Reconsidering the effects of monosodium glutamate: a literature review. J Am Acad Nurse Pract 18, 482486.

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed