Skip to main content
×
Home

Utilisation of supplemented l-carnitine for fuel efficiency, as an antioxidant, and for muscle recovery in Labrador retrievers

  • Jessica L. Varney (a1), J. W. Fowler (a1), W. C. Gilbert (a2) and C. N. Coon (a1)
Abstract
Abstract

The primary goal was to investigate the effects of l-carnitine on fuel efficiency, as an antioxidant, and for muscle recovery in Labrador retrievers. Dogs were split into two groups, with one group being supplemented with 250 mg/d of Carniking™ l-carnitine powder. Two experiments (Expt 1 and Expt 2) were performed over a 2-year period which included running programmes, activity monitoring, body composition scans and evaluation of recovery using biomarkers. Each experiment differed slightly in dog number and design: fifty-six v. forty dogs; one endurance and two sprint runs per week v. two endurance runs; and differing blood collection time points. All dogs were fed a low-carnitine diet in which a fixed amount was offered based on maintaining the minimum starting weight. Results from Expt 1 found that the carnitine dogs produced approximately 4000 more activity points per km compared with the control group during sprint (P = 0·052) and endurance runs (P = 0·0001). Male carnitine dogs produced half the creatine phosphokinase (CPK) following exercise compared with male control dogs (P = 0·05). Carnitine dogs had lower myoglobin at 6·69 ng/ml following intensive exercise compared with controls at 24·02 ng/ml (P = 0·0295). Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) results were not considered significant. In Expt 2, body composition scans indicated that the carnitine group gained more total tissue mass while controls lost tissue mass (P = 0·0006) and also gained lean mass while the control group lost lean mass (P < 0·0001). Carnitine dogs had lower CPK secretion at 23·06 v. control at 28·37 mU/ml 24 h after post-run (P = 0·003). Myoglobin levels were lower in carnitine v. control dogs both 1 h post-run (P = 0·0157; 23·83 v. 37·91 ng/ml) and 24 h post-run (P = 0·0189; 6·25 v.13·5 ng/ml). TAC indicated more antioxidant activity in carnitine dogs at 0·16 mm v. control at 0·13 mm (P = 0·0496). TBARS were also significantly lower in carnitine dogs both pre-run (P = 0·0013; 15·36 v. 23·42 µm) and 1 h post-run (P = 0·056; 16·45 v. 20·65 µm). Supplementing l-carnitine in the form of Carniking™ had positive benefits in Labrador retrievers for activity intensity, body composition, muscle recovery and oxidative capacity.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Utilisation of supplemented l-carnitine for fuel efficiency, as an antioxidant, and for muscle recovery in Labrador retrievers
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Utilisation of supplemented l-carnitine for fuel efficiency, as an antioxidant, and for muscle recovery in Labrador retrievers
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Utilisation of supplemented l-carnitine for fuel efficiency, as an antioxidant, and for muscle recovery in Labrador retrievers
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Corresponding author
* Corresponding author: C. N. Coon, email fourriverskennel@live.com
References
Hide All
1. Kerner J & Hoppel C (2000) Fatty acid import into mitochondria. Biochim Biophys Acta 1486, 117.
2. Suzuki Y, Kamilawa T & Yamazaki N (1981) Effects of carnitine on cardiac haemodynamics. Jpn Heart J 22, 219225.
3. Flanagan JL, Simmons PA, Vehige J, et al. (2010) Role of carnitine in disease. Nutr Metab 7, 3044.
4. Shug AL & Keene BW (1989) Method for preventing diet induced carnitine deficiency in domesticated dogs and cats. U.S. Patent 4883672A.
5. Hill RC (1998) The nutritional requirements of exercising dogs. J Nutr 128, 2686S2690S.
6. Epp TS, Erickson HH, Woodworth J, et al. (2007) Effects of oral l-carnitine supplementation in racing greyhounds. Equine Compar Exercise Physiol 4, 141147.
7. Dragan G, Vasiliu A, Georgescu E, et al. (1989) Studies concerning chronic and acute effects of l-carnitine in elite athletes. Physiologie 23, 111129.
8. Giamberardino MA, Dragani L, Valente R, et al. (1996) Effects of prolonged l-carnitine administration on delayed muscle pain and CK release after eccentric effort. Int J Sports Med 17, 320324.
9. Trappe SW, Costill DL, Goodpaster B, et al. (1994) The effects of l-carnitine supplementation on performance during interval swimming. Int J Sports Med 15, 181185.
10. Broad EM, Maughan RJ & Galloway SDR (2008) Carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism during exercise after oral carnitine supplementation. Int J Sport Nutr Exercise Metab 18, 567584.
11. Branaccio P, Lippi G & Maffulli N (2010) Biochemical markers of muscular damage. Clin Chem Lab Med 48, 757767.
12. Kusano C & Ferrari B (2007) Total antioxidant capacity: a biomarker in biomedical and nutritional studies. J Cell Mol Biol 7, 115.
13. Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) ( 2015) Dog and Cat Food Metabolizable Energy Protocols, pp. 181183. Champaign, IL: AAFCO.
14. Parvin R & Pande SV (1977) Microdetermination of (-)carnitine and carnitine acetyl transferase. Anal Biochem 79, 190201.
15. Rebouche CJ (2004) Kinetics, pharmacokinetics, and regulation of l-carnitine and acetyl-l-carnitine metabolism. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1033, 3041.
16. Brown DC, Michel KE, Love M, et al. (2010) Evaluation of the effect of signalment and body conformation on activity monitoring in companion dogs. Am J Vet Res 71, 322325.
17. Dubelaar ML, Lucas CM & Hulsmann WC (1991) Acute effect of l-carnitine on skeletal muscle force tests in dogs. Am J Physiol 260, 189193.
18. Stephens FB, Wall BT, Kanagaraj M, et al. (2013) Skeletal muscle carnitine loading increases energy expenditure, modulates fuel metabolism gene networks and prevents body fat accumulation in humans. J Physiol 18, 46554666.
19. Fascetti AJ (2010) Nutritional management and disease prevention in healthy dogs and cats. R Bras Zootec 39, 4251.
20. Butterwick RF & Hawthorne AJ (1998) Advances in dietary management of obesity in dogs and cats. J Nutr 128, 2771S2775S.
21. Parandak K, Arazi H, Khoshkhahesh F, et al. (2014) The effect of two-week l-carnitine supplementation on exercise-induced oxidative stress and muscle damage. Asian J Sports Med 5, 123128.
22. Ho J, Kraemer WJ, Volek JS, et al. (2009) l-Carnitine l-tartrate supplementation favorably affects biochemical biomarkers of recovery from physical exertion in middle-aged men and women. Metab Clin Exp 59, 11901199.
23. Volek JS, Kraemer WJ, Rubin MR, et al. (2002) l-Carnitine l-tartrate supplementation favorably affects markers of recovery from exercise stress. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 282, 474482.
24. Clarkson PM & Thompson HS (2000) Antioxidants: what role do they play in physical activity and health? Am J Clin Nutr 72, 637s646s.
25. Kraemer WJ, Volek JS, Spiering BA, et al. (2005) l-Carnitine supplementation: a new paradigm for its role in exercise. Monatshefte Chem 136, 13831390.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of Nutritional Science
  • ISSN: 2048-6790
  • EISSN: 2048-6790
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-nutritional-science
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 15
Total number of PDF views: 191 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 611 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 3rd April 2017 - 12th December 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.