Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-55597f9d44-t4qhp Total loading time: 0.766 Render date: 2022-08-08T20:58:49.169Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

Biodiversity, systematics, and new taxa of cladid crinoids from the Ordovician Brechin Lagerstätte

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  29 November 2019

David F. Wright
Affiliation:
Division of Paleontology, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th St., New York, NY10024, USA , Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., USA
Selina R. Cole
Affiliation:
Division of Paleontology, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th St., New York, NY10024, USA , Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., USA
William I. Ausich
Affiliation:
School of Earth Sciences, 125 South Oval Mall, Columbus, OH43210, USA

Abstract

Upper Ordovician (Katian) strata of the Lake Simcoe region of Ontario record a spectacularly diverse and abundant echinoderm fauna known as the Brechin Lagerstätte. Despite recognition as the most taxonomically diverse Katian crinoid paleocommunity, the Brechin Lagerstätte has received relatively little taxonomic study since Frank Springer published his classic monograph on the “Kirkfield fauna” in 1911.

Using a new collection of exceptionally preserved material, we evaluate all dicyclic inadunate crinoids occurring in the Brechin Lagerstätte, which is predominantly comprised of cladids (Eucladida and Flexibilia). We document 15 species across 11 genera, including descriptions of two new genera and four new species. New taxa include Konieckicrinus brechinensis n. gen. n. sp., K. josephi n. gen. n. sp., Simcoecrinus mahalaki n. gen. n. sp., and Dendrocrinus simcoensis n. sp.

Although cladids are not commonly considered major components of the Early Paleozoic Crinoid Macroevolutionary Fauna, which is traditionally conceived as dominated by disparids and diplobathrid camerates, they are the most diverse major lineage of crinoids occurring in the Brechin Lagerstätte. This unexpected result highlights the important roles of specimen-based taxonomy and systematic revisions in the study of large-scale diversity patterns.

UUID: http://zoobank.org/09dda7c2-f2c5-4411-93be-3587ab1652ab

Type
Articles
Copyright
Copyright © 2019, The Paleontological Society

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Angelin, N.P., 1878, Iconographia Crinoideorum. in stratis Sueciae Siluricis fossilium: Holmiae, Samson and Wallin, 62 p.Google Scholar
Armstrong, D.K., 2000, Paleozoic geology of the northern Lake Simcoe area, south-central Ontario: Ontario Geological Survey, Open File Report 6011, 34 p.Google Scholar
Ausich, W.I., 1980, A model for niche differentiation in Lower Mississippian crinoid communities: Journal of Paleontology, v. 54, p. 273288.Google Scholar
Ausich, W.I., 1998, Phylogeny of Arenig to Caradoc Crinoids (Phylum Echinodermata) and suprageneric classification of the Crinoidea: The University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions Papers, New Series, no. 9, 36 p.Google Scholar
Ausich, W.I., and Copper, P., 2010, The Crinoidea of Anticosti Island, Québec (Late Ordovician to Early Silurian): Palaeontographic Canadiana, no. 29, 157 p.Google Scholar
Ausich, W.I., and Cournoyer, M.E., 2019, New taxa and revised stratigraphic distribution of the crinoids from Anticosti Island, Quebec, Canada (Late Ordovician-early Silurian): Journal of Paleontology, https://doi.org/10.1017/jpa.2019.36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ausich, W.I., and Deline, B., 2012, Macroevolutionary transition in crinoids following the Late Ordovician extinction event (Ordovician to early Silurian): Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v. 361–362, p. 3848.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ausich, W.I., Kammer, T.W., and Baumiller, T.K., 1994, Demise of the middle Paleozoic crinoid fauna: a single extinction event or rapid faunal turnover?: Paleobiology, v. 20, p. 345361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ausich, W.I., Gil Cid, M.D., and Alonso, P.D., 2002, Ordovician [Dobrotivian (Llandeillian Stage) to Ashgill] crinoids (Phylum Echinodermata) from the Montes de Toledo and Sierra Morena, Spain with implications for paleogeography of peri-Gondwana: Journal of Paleontology, v. 76, p. 975992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ausich, W.I., Kammer, T.W., Rhenberg, E.C., and Wright, D.F., 2015, Early phylogeny of crinoids within the Pelmatozoan clade: Palaeontology, v. 58, p. 937952.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ausich, W.I., Wright, D.F., Cole, S.R., and Koniecki, J.M., 2018, Disparid and hybocrinid crinoids (Echinodermata) from the Upper Ordovician (lower Katian) Brechin Lagerstätte of Ontario: Journal of Paleontology, v. 92, p. 850871.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bassler, R.S., 1915, Bibliographic index of American Ordovician and Silurian Fossils: U.S. National Museum Bulletin, v. 92, pt. 1, p. 1-718; pt. 2, p. 7191521.Google Scholar
Bassler, R.S., 1938, Pelmatozoa Palaeozoica, in Quenstedt, W., ed., Fossilium catalogus, I. Animalia. Part 83: s'Gravenhage, W. Junk, 194 p.Google Scholar
Bassler, R.S., and Moodey, M.W., 1943, Bibliographic and faunal index of Paleozoic pelmatozoan echinoderms: Geological Society of America Special Paper 45, 734 p.Google Scholar
Bather, F.A., 1890, British fossil crinoids. II. The classification of the Inadunata: Annals and Magazine of Natural History, v. 5, p. 310334.Google Scholar
Bather, F.A., 1899, A phylogenetic classification of the Pelmatozoa: British Association for the Advancement of Science (1898), p. 916923.Google Scholar
Bather, F.A., 1913, The Trenton crinoid, Ottawacrinus (W.R. Billings): Victoria Memorial Museum, Bulletin, v. 1, p. 110.Google Scholar
Baumiller, T.K., 1994, Patterns of dominance and extinction in the record of Paleozoic crinoids, in David, B., Guille, A., Féral, J.P., and Roux, M., eds., Echinoderms through Time (Echinoderms Dijon): Rotterdam, A.A. Balkema, p. 193198.Google Scholar
Bigsby, J.J., 1868, Thesaurus Siluricus; the flora and fauna of the Silurian period. With Addenda (from recent acquisitions): London, J. Van Hoorst, p. 1214.Google Scholar
Billings, E., 1856, New species of fossils from the Silurian rocks of Canada: Geological Survey of Canada Report of Progress, 1853–1856, p. 256271.Google Scholar
Billings, E., 1857, New species of fossils from Silurian rocks of Canada: Canada Geological Survey, Report of Progress 1853–1856, Report for the year 1856, p. 247345.Google Scholar
Billings, E., 1859, On the Crinoideae of the Lower Silurian rocks of Canada. Canadian Organic Remains, Decade 4: Canada Geological Survey, 72 p.Google Scholar
Billings, E., 1866, Catalogue of the Lower Silurian fossils of the Island of Anticosti, with descriptions of some of the species: Canada Geological Survey, 99 p.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Billings, W.R., 1883, Notes on, and description of, some fossils from the Trenton Limestone: Ottawa Field Naturalists' Club Transactions, v. 4, p. 4952.Google Scholar
Billings, W.R., 1887, A new genus and three new species of crinoids from the Trenton Formation with notes on a large specimen of Dendrocrinus proboscidiatus: The Ottawa Naturalist (Ottawa Field Naturalists' Club Transactions), v. 111, p. 4954, 1 pl.Google Scholar
Blake, D.B., and Koniecki, J., 2018, Two new Paleozoic Asteroidea (Echinodermata) and their taxonomic and evolutionary significance: Journal of Paleontology, v. 93, p. 105114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bolton, T.E., 1970, Echinodermata from the Ordovician (Pleurocystites, Cremacrinus) and Silurian (Hemicystites, Protaxocrinus, Macnamaratylus) of Lake Timiskaming region, Ontario and Quebec: Geological Survey of Canada, Bulletin, v. 187, p. 5966.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bolton, T. E., and Copeland, M. J., 1972, Manitoulin Island region Ordovician and Silurian fossils, in Robertson, J.A., and Card, K.D., eds., Geology and Scenery North Shore of Lake Huron Region: Geological Guidebook No. 4, Ontario Division Mines, p. 5461.Google Scholar
Bouska, J., 1956, O rodu Protaxocrinus Springer (Crinoidea) ze stredoceského siluru [On the occurrence of the genus Protaxocrinus Springer (Crinoidea) in the Silurian of Bohemia]: Sborník Ustredního Ustavu Geologického, Oddíl Paleontologicky (1955), v. 22, p. 323–333. [in Czech with English summary]Google Scholar
Brett, C.E., and Taylor, W.L., 1999, Middle Ordovician of the Lake Simcoe area of Ontario, Canada, in Hess, H., Ausich, W.I., Brett, C.E., and Simms, M.H., Crinoids, Fossil: Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, p. 6374.Google Scholar
Brookfield, M.E., 1988, A mid-Ordovician temperate carbonate shelf—the Black River and Trenton Limestone Groups of southern Ontario, Canada: Sedimentary Geology, v., 60, p. 137153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brookfield, M.E., and Brett, C.E., 1988, Paleoenvironments of the mid-Ordovician (Upper Caradocian) Trenton Limestones of southern Ontario, Canada: storm sedimentation on a shoal-basin shelf model: Sedimentary Geology, v. 57, p. 75105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brower, J.C., 1992, Cupulocrinid crinoids from the Middle Ordovician (Galena Group, Dunleith Formation) of northern Iowa and southern Minnesota: Journal of Paleontology, v. 66, p. 99128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brower, J.C., 1995a. Eoparisocrinid crinoids from the Middle Ordovician (Galena Group) of northern Iowa and southern Minnesota: Journal of Paleontology, v. 69, p. 351366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brower, J.C., 1995b. Dendrocrinid crinoids from the Ordovician of northern Iowa and southern Minnesota: Journal of Paleontology, v. 69, p. 939960.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brower, J.C., 1996, Carabocrinid crinoids from the Ordovician of northern Iowa and southern Minnesota: Journal of Paleontology, v. 70, p. 614631.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brower, J.C., 2001, Flexible crinoids from the Upper Ordovician Maquoketa Formation of the northern midcontinent and the evolution of early flexible crinoids: Journal of Paleontology, v. 75, p. 370382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brower, J.C., 2006, Ontogeny of the food-gathering system in Ordovician crinoids: Journal of Paleontology, v. 80, p. 430446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brower, J.C., 2007, The application of filtration theory to food gathering in Ordovician crinoids: Journal of Paleontology, v. 81, p. 12843000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brower, J.C., 2010, Camerate and cladid crinoids from the Upper Ordovician (Katian, Shermanian) Walcott-Rust Quarry of New York: Journal of Paleontology, v. 84, p. 626645.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brower, J.C., and Veinus, J., 1974, Middle Ordovician crinoids from southwestern Virginia and eastern Tennessee: Bulletins of American Paleontology, v. 66, p. 1125.Google Scholar
Brower, J.C., and Veinus, J., 1978, Middle Ordovician crinoids from the Twin Cities area of Minnesota: Bulletins of American Paleontology, v. 74, p. 371506.Google Scholar
Brower, J.C., and Veinus, J., 1982, Long-armed cladid inadunates, in Sprinkle, J., ed., Echinoderm Faunas from the Bromide Formation (Middle Ordovician) of Oklahoma: University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, Monograph 1, p. 129144.Google Scholar
Cole, S.R., 2017, Phylogeny and morphologic evolution of the Ordovician Camerata (Class Crinoidea, Phylum Echinodermata): Journal of Paleontology, v. 91, p. 815828.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cole, S.R., 2018, Phylogeny and evolutionary history of diplobathrid crinoids (Echinodermata): Palaeontology, v. 62, p. 357373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cole, S.R., Ausich, W.I., Colmenar, J., and Zamora, S., 2017, Filling the Gondwanan gap: diverse crinoids from the Castillejo and Fombuena formations (Middle and Upper Ordovician, Iberian Chains, Spain): Journal of Paleontology, v. 91, p. 715734. https://doi.org/10.1017/jpa.2016.135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cole, S.R., Ausich, W.I., Wright, D.F., and Koniecki, J.M., 2018, An echinoderm Lagerstätte from the Upper Ordovician (Katian), Ontario: taxonomic re-evaluation and description of new dicyclic camerate crinoids: Journal of Paleontology, v. 92, p. 488505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cole, S.R., Wright, D.F., and Ausich, W.I., 2019, Phylogenetic community paleoecology of one of the earliest complex crinoid faunas (Brechin Lagerstätte, Ordovician): Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v. 521, p. 8298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Donovan, S.K., 1992, New cladid crinoids from the Late Ordovician of Girvan, Scotland: Palaeontology, v. 35, p. 149158.Google Scholar
Eckert, J.D., 1984, Early Llandovery crinoids and stelleroids from the Cataract Group (Lower Silurian), southern Ontario, Canada: Royal Ontario Museum Life Sciences, Contributions, no. 137, p. 183.Google Scholar
Eckert, J.D., 1987, Illemocrinus amphiatus, a new cladid inadunate crinoid from the Middle Ordovician of Ontario: Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, v. 24, p. 860865.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eckert, J.D., and Brett, C., 2001. Early Silurian (Llandovery) crinoids from the Lower Clinton Group, western New York State: Bulletins of American Paleontology, no. 360, p. 188.Google Scholar
Evans, J.R.C., 1926, The Richmond fauna of northeastern Illinois (abstract): Chicago University Abstracts of theses, Science Series, v. 2, p. 199–205.Google Scholar
Foerste, A.F., 1924, Part two, in Slocom, A.W., and Foerste, A.F., New echinoderms from the Maquoketa beds of Fayette County, Iowa: Iowa Geological Survey, v. 29, p. 318383.Google Scholar
Forbes, E., 1848, On the Asteridae found fossil in British strata: Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain and Museum of Practica1 Geology, London, v. 2, p. 457482.Google Scholar
Frest, T.J., and Strimple, H.L., 1978, The flexible crinoid genus Anisocrinus (Ordovician–Silurian) in North America: Journal of Paleontology, v. 52, p. 683696.Google Scholar
Grabau, A.W., and Shimer, H.W., 1910, North American Index Fossils, Invertebrates: New York, A.G. Seoler & Co., v. 2, p. 1909.Google Scholar
Grant, J.A., 1881, Description of a new species of Porocrinus from the Trenton Limestone: Ottawa Field Naturalists' Club Transactions, no. 2, p. 4244.Google Scholar
Guensburg, T.E., 1984, Echinodermata of the Middle Ordovician Lebanon Limestone, central Tennessee: Bulletins of American Paleontology, v. 86, no. 319, 100 p.Google Scholar
Guensburg, T.E., 2012, Phylogenetic implications of the oldest crinoids: Journal of Paleontology, v. 86, p. 455461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Guensburg, T.E., and Sprinkle, J., 2003, The oldest known crinoids (Early Ordovician, Utah) and a new crinoid plate homology system: Bulletins of American Paleontology, No. 364, 43 p.Google Scholar
Hall, J., 1847, Palaeontology of New York, v. 1, Containing descriptions of the organic remains of the lower division of the New-York system (equivalent of the Lower Silurian rocks of Europe). Natural History of New York: Albany, State of New York, v. 6, 338 p.Google Scholar
Hall, J., 1852, Palaeontology of New York, v. 2, Containing descriptions of the organic remains of the lower middle division of the New-York system. Natural History of New York, New York, D. Appleton & Co. and Wiley & Putnam; Boston, Gould, Kendall, & Lincoln, v. 6, 362 p.Google Scholar
Hall, J., 1866, Descriptions of new species of Crinoidea and other fossils from the Lower Silurian strata of the age of the Hudson-River Group and Trenton Limestone: Albany, 17 p. [preprint]Google Scholar
Hudson, G.H., 1905, Contributions to the fauna of the Chazy Limestone of Valcour Island, Lake Champlain (N.Y.): New York State Museum ser. B, Bulletin v. 80, p. 270295.Google Scholar
Hudson, G.H., 1918, Some structural features of a fossil embryo crinoid: New York State Museum, Bulletin v. 196, p. 161163.Google Scholar
Jaekel, O., 1902, Über verschiedene Wege phylogenetischer Entwicklung: 5th Verhandlungen der International Zoological-Congress Berlin, 1901, p. 10581117.Google Scholar
Jaekel, O., 1918, Phylogenie und System der Pelmatozoen: Paläontologische Zeitschrift, v. 3, p. 1128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jell, P.A., 1999, Silurian and Devonian crinoids from central Victoria: Memoirs of the Queensland Museum, v. 43, p. 1114.Google Scholar
Kesling, R.V., 1972, A new species of Porocrinus from the Middle Ordovician Kimmswick Limestone of Missouri: University of Michigan Contributions form Museum of Paleontology, v. 24, p. 17.Google Scholar
Kesling, R.V., and Paul, C.R.C., 1968, New species of Porocrinidae and brief remarks upon these unusual crinoids: University of Michigan Contributions from Museum of Paleontology, v. 22, p. 132.Google Scholar
Kirk, E., 1929, Pagecrinus, a new crinoid genus from the American Devonian: Proceedings of the U.S. National Museum, v. 75, p. 14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kolata, D.R., 1975, Middle Ordovician echinoderms from northern Illinois and southern Wisconsin: Memoir 7, Paleontological Society Journal of Paleontology, Pt. II of II, Supplement to v. 49, 74 p.Google Scholar
Kolata, D.R., 1986, Crinoids of the Champlainian (Middle Ordovician) Guttenberg Formation—Upper Mississippi Valley region: Journal of Paleontology, v. 60, p. 711718.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kolata, D.R., Brower, J.C., and Frest, T.J., 1987, Upper Mississippi Valley Champlainian and Cincinnatian echinoderms: Minnesota Geological Survey, Report of Investigations, 35, p. 179181.Google Scholar
Lewis, R.D., 1981, Archaetaxocrinus, new genus, the earliest known flexible crinoid (Whiterockian) and its phylogenetic implications: Journal of Paleontology, v. 55, p. 227238.Google Scholar
McIntosh, G.C., 1979, Abnormal specimens of the Middle Devonian crinoid Bactrocrinites and their effect on the taxonomy of the genus: Journal of Paleontology, v. 53, p. 1828.Google Scholar
McKerrow, W.S., Dewey, J.F., and Scotese, C.R., 1991, The Ordovician and Silurian development of the Iapetus Ocean: Special Papers in Palaeontology, v. 44, p. 165178.Google Scholar
Meek, F.B., 1871, On some new Silurian (Ordovician) crinoids and shells: American Journal of Science, v. 1, p. 295299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Meek, F.B., 1872, Descriptions of new western Palaeozoic fossils mainly from the Cincinnati Group of the Lower Silurian series of Ohio: Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, v. 23, p. 308337.Google Scholar
Meek, F.B., and Worthen, A.H., 1865, Descriptions of new species of Crinoidea, etc. from the Paleozoic rocks of Illinois and some of the adjoining states: Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, v. 17, p. 143155.Google Scholar
Meek, F.B., and Worthen, A. H., 1870, Descriptions of new species and genera of fossils from Paleozoic rocks of the western states: Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, v. 22, p. 2256.Google Scholar
Miller, J.S., 1821, A Natural History of the Crinoidea, or Lily-Shaped Animals; with Observations on the Genera, Asteria, Euryale, Comatula and Marsupites: Bristol, C. Frost, 150 p.Google Scholar
Miller, S.A., 1881, Subcarboniferous fossils from the Lake Valley Mining District of New Mexico, with descriptions of new species: Journal of the Cincinnati Society of Natural History, v. 4, p. 306315.Google Scholar
Miller, S.A., 1889, North American Geology and Paleontology: Cincinnati, Western Methodist Book Concern, 664 p.Google Scholar
Miller, S.A., 1890, The structure, classification and arrangement of American Palaeozoic crinoids into families: American Geologist, v. 6, p. 275286, 340–357.Google Scholar
Miller, S.A., and Gurley, W.F.E., 1894, New genera and species of Echinodermata: Illinois State Museum of Natural History, v. 5, 53 p.Google Scholar
Moore, R.C., 1962, Ray structures of some inadunate crinoids: University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, v. 5, 147.Google Scholar
Moore, R.C., and Lane, N.G., 1978, Superfamily Dendrocrinacea Wachsmuth and Springer, 1886, in Moore, R.C., and Teichert, C., eds., Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Pt. T. Echinodermata 2: Lawrence, Kansas, Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press, p. T607T681.Google Scholar
Moore, R.C., and Laudon, L.R., 1943, Evolution and classification of Paleozoic crinoids: Geological Society of America Special Paper, no. 46, 151 p.Google Scholar
Moore, R.C., and Laudon, L.R., 1944, Class Crinoidea, in Shimer, H.W., and Shrock, R.R., eds., Index fossils of North America: New York, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., p. 137209.Google Scholar
Moore, R.C., and Teichert, C., eds., 1978, Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Part T, Echinodermata 2: Lawrence, Kansas, Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press, 1027 p.Google Scholar
Norford, B.S., Bolton, T.E., Copeland, M.J., Cumming, L.M., and Sinclair, G.W., 1970, Ordovician and Silurian faunas: Geological Survey of Canada, Economic Geology Report no. 1, p. 601613.Google Scholar
Orbigny, A.D., d', 1849–1851, Cours élémentaire de paléontologie et géologie stratigraphiques: v. 1 (1849), p. 1–299; v. 2 (1851), p. 1–847. [Reprinted 1980, New York, Arno Press]Google Scholar
Paton, T.R., and Brett, C.E., 2019, Revised stratigraphy of the middle Simcoe Group (Ordovician, upper Sandbian–Katian) in its type area: an integrated approach: Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, https://doi.org/10.1139/cjes-2018-0023.Google Scholar
Peter, M.E., 2019, Aberrations in the infrabasal circlet of the cladid crinoid genus Cupulocrinus (Echinodermata) and implications for the origin of flexible crinoids: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2019.03.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Quenstedt, F.A., 1885, Handbuch der Petrefactenkunde. 3rd ed.: Tübingen, H. Laupp Verlag, 1237 p.Google Scholar
Ramsbottom, W.H.C., 1961, A monograph on British Ordovician Crinoidea: Palaeontographical Society, v. 114, p. 137.Google Scholar
Ruedeman, R., 1912, The Lower Siluric shales of the Mohawk Valley: Education Department Bulletin, New York State Museum, Bulletin 162, p. 1151.Google Scholar
Sardeson, F.W., 1899, A new cystocrinoidean species from the Ordovician: American Geologist, v. 24, p. 263276.Google Scholar
Sardeson, F.W., 1925, Ordovicic Crinoidea: Pan-American Geologist, v. 43, p. 5568.Google Scholar
Sardeson, F.W., 1939, Carabocrinus and species-making: Pan-American Geologist, 71, p. 2738.Google Scholar
Schuchert, C., 1900, On the Lower Silurian (Trenton) fauna of Baffin Land: Proceedings of the U. S. National Museum, v. 22, p. 143178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shourd, M.L., and Winter, H.F., 1976, A new species of Porocrinus from the Middle Ordovician Plattin Limestone of Missouri: Journal of Paleontology, v. 50, p. 11911194.Google Scholar
Shumard, B.F., 1868, A catalogue of the Palaeozoic fossils of North America. Part I. Paleozoic Echinodermata: Transactions of the St. Louis Academy of Science (1866), v. 2, p. 334407.Google Scholar
Simms, M.J., and Sevastopulo, G.D., 1993, The origin of articulate crinoids: Palaeontology, v. 36, p. 9191.Google Scholar
Sinclair, G.W., 1945, Some Ordovician echinoderms from Oklahoma: American Midlands Naturalist, v. 34, p. 707716.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sloan, R.E., 2005, Minnesota Fossils and Fossiliferous Rocks: Winona, Minnesota, privately published by author, 218 p.Google Scholar
Slocom, A.W., 1924, Part one, in Slocom, A.W., and Foerste, A.F., New echinoderms from the Maquoketa beds of Fayette County, Iowa: Iowa Geological Survey, v. 29, p. 318383.Google Scholar
Springer, F., 1911, On a Trenton echinoderm fauna: Canada Department Mines Memoir no. 15-P, 70 p.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Springer, F., 1913, Crinoidea, in Zittel, K.A. von, 2nd ed.: London, Macmillan & Co., Ltd., v. 1, p. 173243.Google Scholar
Springer, F., 1920, The Crinoidea Flexibilia: Smithsonian Institution Publication no. 2501, 486 p.Google Scholar
Springer, F., 1928, Echinodermata, in Twenhofel, W.A., The geology of Anticosti Island: Canadian Geological Survey Memoir 154, p. 137140.Google Scholar
Sprinkle, J., 1982, Large-calyx cladid inadunates, in Sprinkle, J., ed., Echinoderm Faunas from the Bromide Formation (Middle Ordovician) of Oklahoma: University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, Monograph, 1, p. 145169.Google Scholar
Steinmann, G., 1903, Einführung in die Paläontologie: Leipzig, W. Engelmann, 466 p.Google Scholar
Steinmann, G., 1907, Einführung in die Paläontologie. 2nd ed.: Leipzig, W. Engelmann, 542 p.Google Scholar
Sumrall, C.D., and Gahn, F.J., 2006, Morphological and systematic reinterpretation of two enigmatic edrioasteroids (Echinodermata) from Canada: Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, v. 43, p. 497507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ubaghs, G., 1953, Classe des Crinoides, in Piveteau, J., ed., Traité de paléontologie: Paris, Masson & Cie, v. 3, p. 658773.Google Scholar
Ubaghs, G., 1978, General morphology, in Moore, R.C., and Teichert, C., eds., Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Pt. T Echinodermata 2: Lawrence, Kansas, Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press, p. T58T216.Google Scholar
Wachsmuth, C., and Springer, F., 1880–1886, Revision of the Palaeocrinoidea: Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia Pt. I. The families Ichthyocrinidae and Cyathocrinidae (1880), p. 226–378 (separate repaged p. 1–153). Pt. II. Family Sphaeroidocrinidae, with the sub-families Platycrinidae, Rhodocrinidae, and Actinocrinidae (1881), p. 177–411 (separate repaged p. 1–237). Pt. III, Sec. 1. Discussion of the classification and relations of the brachiate crinoids, and conclusion of the generic descriptions (1885), p. 225–364 (separate repaged p. 1–138). Pt. III, Sec. 2. Discussion of the classification and relations of the brachiate crinoids, and conclusion of the generic descriptions (1886), p. 64–226 (separate repaged p. 139–302, to continue with section 1).Google Scholar
Webby, B.D., Paris, F., Droser, M.L., and Percival, I.G., eds., 2004, The Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event: New York, Columbia University Press, 484 p.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Webster, G.D., 1973, Bibliography and index of Paleozoic crinoids, 1942–1968: Geological Society of America Memoir, no. 137, 341 p.Google Scholar
Webster, G.D., 1974, Crinoid pluricolumnal noditaxis patterns: Journal of Paleontology, v. 48, p. 12831288.Google Scholar
Webster, G.D., 1977, Bibliography and index of Paleozoic crinoids, 1969–1973: Geological Society of America, Microform Publication 8, 235 p.Google Scholar
Webster, G.D., 1986, Bibliography and index of Paleozoic crinoids, 1974–1980: Geological Society of America Microform Publication, no. 16, 405 p.Google Scholar
Webster, G.D., 1988, Bibliography and index of Paleozoic crinoids and coronate echinoderms 1981–1985: Geological Society of America Microform Publication, no. 18, 235 p.Google Scholar
Webster, G.D., 1993, Bibliography and index of Paleozoic crinoids, 1986–1990: Geological Society of America Microform Publication, no. 25, 204 p.Google Scholar
Webster, G.D., and Webster, D.W., 2013, Bibliography and index of Paleozoic crinoids, coronates, and hemistreptocrinoids, 1758–2012: Pullman, Washington, published by the authors, 2,694 p. [http://crinoids.azurewebsites.net/].Google Scholar
Weller, S., 1900, The paleontology of the Niagaran Limestone in the Chicago area, the Crinoidea. Part 1 of the Natural History Survey: Chicago Academy of Sciences, Bulletin, v. 4, p. 1153.Google Scholar
Wilson, A.E., 1946, Echinodermata of the Ottawa Formation of the Ottawa-St. Lawrence lowland: Canada Geological Survey, Bulletin, v. 4, p. 161.Google Scholar
Wright, D.F., 2015, Fossils, homology, and “Phylogenetic Paleo-ontogeny”: a reassessment of primary posterior plate homologies among fossil and living crinoids with insight from developmental biology: Paleobiology, v. 41, p. 570591.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wright, D.F., 2017a, Bayesian estimation of fossil phylogenies and the evolution of early to middle Paleozoic crinoids (Echinodermata): Journal of Paleontology, v. 91, p. 799814.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wright, D.F., 2017b, Phenotypic innovation and adaptive constraints in the evolutionary radiation of Palaeozoic crinoids: Scientific reports, 7, 13745, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-13979-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wright, D.F., and Ausich, W.I., 2015, From the stem to the crown: phylogeny and diversification of pan-cladid crinoids, in Progress in Echinoderm Paleobiology: Cuadernos del museo Geominero, v. 19, p. 199202.Google Scholar
Wright, D.F., and Toom, U., 2017, New crinoids from the Baltic region (Estonia): fossil tip-dating phylogenetics constrains the origin and Ordovician–Silurian diversification of the flexibilia (Echinodermata): Palaeontology, v. 60, p. 893910.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wright, D.F., Ausich, W.I., Cole, S.R., Peter, M.E., Rhenburg, E.C., 2017, Phylogenetic taxonomy and classification of the Crinoidea: Journal of Paleontology, v. 91, p. 829846.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zittel, K.A., von, , 1895, Grundzüge der Palaeontologie (Palaeozoologie), 1st ed.: München, R. Oldenbourg, 971 p.Google Scholar
3
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Biodiversity, systematics, and new taxa of cladid crinoids from the Ordovician Brechin Lagerstätte
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Biodiversity, systematics, and new taxa of cladid crinoids from the Ordovician Brechin Lagerstätte
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Biodiversity, systematics, and new taxa of cladid crinoids from the Ordovician Brechin Lagerstätte
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *