Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-x5gtn Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-05-21T07:32:27.066Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

First report of Hirnantian (Upper Ordovician) high-latitude peri-gondwanan macrofossil assemblages from Portugal

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  26 December 2018

Jorge Colmenar
Affiliation:
Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
Sofia Pereira
Affiliation:
Departamento de Ciências da Terra, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Quinta da Torre, Caparica, Portugal Departamento de Geologia and Instituto Dom Luiz, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal Departamento de Geologia, Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila Real, Portugal Centro de Geociências, Universidade de Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal
Timothy P. Young
Affiliation:
GeoArch, Unit 6, Block C, Western Industrial Estate, Caerphilly, Wales
Carlos M. da Silva
Affiliation:
Departamento de Geologia and Instituto Dom Luiz, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal
Artur A. Sá
Affiliation:
Departamento de Geologia, Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila Real, Portugal Centro de Geociências, Universidade de Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal

Abstract

The first report of the Hirnantia high-latitude peri-Gondwanan Fauna from Portugal (Upper Ordovician, Ribeira do Braçal Formation) is presented here. The described macroassemblages are fairly diverse containing fossils of brachiopods, trilobites, echinoderms, machaeridians, and ostracodes. Among the brachiopods, the most abundant is Mirorthis mira. Plectothyrella cf. P. libyca, Paromalomena cf. P. polonica, Plectoglossa? sp., and a small indeterminate discinoid are also present. The trilobites are represented by abundant sclerites of Mucronaspis cf. M. mucronata, and an isolated cranidium and pygidium assigned to Flexicalymene. The occurrence of Mucronaspis and Flexicalymene represents the first record of these genera in Portugal. Echinoderms are dominant in the basal bed of the formation; the columnal plates tentatively ascribed to morphogenus Pentagonocyclicus are the most abundant, followed by the echinosphaeritids. Abundant disarticulated machaeridian plates, of the genus Plumulites, associated with trilobites are present in one of the localities. Ostracodes were found in one single locality and have been assigned tentatively to the genus Herrigia. Ramose and massive bryozoans also occur in the assemblage. This new macrofossil assemblage supports the assignment of an Hirnantian age for the Ribeira do Braçal Formation. Most of the brachiopod species and the dalmanitid Mucronaspis are commonly present in Hirnantian deposits globally, but the presence in the assemblage of a brachiopod close to Plectothyrella libyca, a cold-water species, previously reported only from the Hirnantian of Libya and Morocco, is noticeable. This strengthens the case for a high latitudinal setting of the present-day territory of the Portuguese Central Iberian Zone during the Late Ordovician.

Type
Articles
Copyright
Copyright © 2018, The Paleontological Society 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Adrain, J.M., 2013, A synopsis of Ordovician trilobite distribution and diversity, in Harper, D.A.T., and Servais, T., eds., Early Palaeozoic Palaeobiogeography and Palaeogeography: Geological Society of London, Memoir, v. 38, p. 297336.Google Scholar
Adrain, J.M., Edgecombe, G.D., Fortey, R.A., Hammer, Ø., Laurie, J.R., McCormick, T., Owen, A.W., Waisfeld, B.G., Webby, B.D., Westrop, S.R., and Zhou, Z.Y., 2004, Trilobites, in Webby, B.D., Droser, M.L., and Paris, F., eds., The Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event: New York, Columbia University Press, p. 231254.Google Scholar
Álvaro, J.J., Colmenar, J., Monceret, E., Pouclet, A., and Vizcaïno, D., 2015, Late Ordovician (post-Sardic) rifting branches in the North Gondwanan Montagne Noire and Mouthoumet massifs of southern France: Tectonophysics, v. 681, p. 111123.Google Scholar
Barrande, J., 1852, Système Silurien du Centre de la Bohême. I. Recherches Paléontologiques, vol. 1 (Crustacés Trilobites): Paris, Praha, 935 p.Google Scholar
Bengtson, P., 1988, Open nomenclature: Palaeontology, v. 31, p. 223227.Google Scholar
Bergstrom, J., 1968, Upper Ordovician brachiopods from Västergötland, Sweden: Geologica et Palaeontologica, v. 2, p. 135.Google Scholar
Bernárdez, E., Colmenar, J., Gutiérrez-Marco, J.C., Rábano, I., and Zamora, S., 2015, New peri-Gondwanan records of the Hirnantia Fauna in the latest Ordovician of Spain, in Pankhurst, R.J., Castiñeiras, P., and Sánchez Martínez, S., eds., Gondwana 15 North meets South, Abstracts Book: Madrid, Spain, p. 15.Google Scholar
Brenchley, P.J., and Cullen, B., 1984, The environmental distribution of associations belonging to the Hirnantia fauna—evidence from North Wales and Norway: Aspects of the Ordovician System, v. 295, p. 113125.Google Scholar
Brenchley, P.J., and Štorch, P., 1989, Environmental changes in the Hirnantian (upper Ordovician) of the Prague Basin, Czechoslovakia: Geological Journal, v. 24, p. 165181.Google Scholar
Brenchley, P.J., Romano, M., Young, T.P., and Storch, P., 1991, Hirnantian glaciomarine diamictites—evidence for the spread of glaciation and its effect on Upper Ordovician faunas: Geological Survey of Canada Paper, v. 90, p. 325336.Google Scholar
Brongniart, A., 1822, Les Trilobites, in Brongniart, A., and Desmarest, A.G., eds., Histoire Naturelle des Crustacés Fossiles, sous les Rapports Zoölogiques e Géologiques: Paris and Strasbourg, F.-G. Lavrault, p. 165.Google Scholar
Burmeister, H., 1843, Die Organisation der Trilobiten aus ihren Iebenden Verwandten entwickelt; nebst einer systematische übersicht aller zeither beschriebenen Arten: Berlin, Georg Reimer, 147 p.Google Scholar
Cocks, L.R.M., and Fortey, R.A, 1997, A new Himantia fauna from Thailand and the biogeography of the latest Ordovician of south-east Asia: Geobios, v. 20, p. 117126.Google Scholar
Cocks, L.R.M., Brunton, C.H.C., Rowell, A.J., and Rust, I.C., 1969, The first lower Palaeozoic fauna proved from South Africa: Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, v. 125, p. 583600.Google Scholar
Colmenar, J., 2015, The arrival of brachiopods of the Nicolella Community to the Mediterranean margin of Gondwana during the Late Ordovician: palaeogeographical and palaeoecological implications: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v. 428, p. 1220.Google Scholar
Colmenar, J., 2016, Ordovician Rafinesquininae (Brachiopoda, Rhynchonelliformea) from peri-Gondwana: Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, v. 61, p. 293326.Google Scholar
Colmenar, J., Harper, D.A.T., and Villas, E., 2014, Morphofunctional analysis of Svobodaina species (Brachiopoda, Heterorthidae) from south-western Europe: Palaeontology, v. 57, p. 193214.Google Scholar
Colmenar, J., Pereira, S., , A.A., and da Silva, C.M., 2015, An outstanding upper Katian (Upper Ordovician) fossil assemblage from Portugal (Buçaco, Central Iberian Zone): biostratigraphical and palaeobiogeographical significance: Proceedings of the 59th Annual PalAss Meeting (Cardiff, Wales), Programme, Abstracts and AGM Papers, p. 21.Google Scholar
Colmenar, J., Pereira, S., , A.A., and da Silva, C.M., 2016a, An Upper Ordovician benthic assemblage from the Cabeço Pedrogão locality (Central Iberian Zone, Portugal): biostratigraphical and palaeobiogeographical remarks, in Manzanares, E., et al. , eds., New perspectives on the Evolution of Phanerozoic Biotas and Ecosystems, Conference Proceedings, 1st International Meeting of Early-stage Researchers in Palaeontology XIV Encuentro de Jóvenes Investigadores en Paleontología (Alpuente, Valencia, Spain): Ayuntamiento de Alpuente, p. 23. ISBN: 978-84-608-7449-2.Google Scholar
Colmenar, J., Pereira, S., Young, T.P., Romano, M., da Silva, C.M., and , A.A., 2016b, Hirnantian (Upper Ordovician) macrofossil assemblages from Portugal, in Gurdebeke, P., J. De Weirdt, J., T.R.A. Vandenbroucke, T.R.A., and B.D. Cramer, B.D., eds., IGCP 591 The Early to Middle Paleozoic Revolution: Closing Meeting Abstracts, Ghent University, p. 57.Google Scholar
Colmenar, J., Pereira, S., Pires, M., da Silva, C.M., , A.A., and Young, T.P., 2017a, A Kralodvorian (upper Katian, Upper Ordovician) benthic association from the Ferradosa Formation (Central Portugal) and its significance for the redefinition and subdivision of the Kralodvorian Stage: Bulletin of Geosciences, v. 92, p. 443464.Google Scholar
Colmenar, J., Pereira, S., , A.A., da Silva, C.M., and Young, T.P., 2017b, The highest-latitude Foliomena Fauna (Upper Ordovician, Portugal) and its palaeogeographical and palaeoecological significance: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v. 485, p. 774783.Google Scholar
Cooper, G.A., 1956, Chazyan and related brachiopods: Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, v. 127, p. 11245.Google Scholar
Dalman, J.W., 1828, Upställning och Beskrifning af de i sverige funne Terebratuliter. Kongliga Vetenskapsakademien Handlingar för År 1827, p. 85155.Google Scholar
Delgado, J.F.N., 1908, Système Silurien du Portugal. Etude stratigraphique paléontologique: Commission du Service géologique du Portugal, Mémoires Lisboa, 245 p.Google Scholar
Destombes, J., 1963, Quelques nouveaux Phacopina (trilobites) de l'Ordovicien supérieur de l'Anti-Atlas (Maroc): Notes et Mémoires du Service Géologique du Maroc, v. 23, p. 4765.Google Scholar
Destombes, J., 1966, Quelques Calymenina (Trilobitae) de l'Ordovicien moyen et supérieur de l'Anti-Atlas (Maroc): Notes et Mémoires du Service Géologique du Maroc, v. 26, p. 3353.Google Scholar
Destombes, J., 1972, Les trilobites du sous-ordre des Phacopina de I'Ordovicien de I'Anti-Atlas (Maroc): Notes et Mémoires du Service Géologique du Maroc, v. 240, p. 1113.Google Scholar
Dumeril, A.M.C., 1806, Zoologie Analytique ou Méthode Naturelle de Classification des Animaux: Paris, Allais, 344 p.Google Scholar
Elaouad-Debbaj, Z., 1978, Acritarches de l'Ordovicien supérieur du sinclinal de Buçaco (Portugal); systématique, biostratigraphie, intérêt paléogéographique: Bulletin de la Société géologique et minéralogique de Bretagne (C), v. 2, p. 1101.Google Scholar
Gorjansky, V.Iu., and Popov, L.E., 1985, Morfologiia, systematicheskoe polozhenie i proiskhozhdenie bezzamkovykh brakhiopods karbonatnoi rakovinoi [Morphology, systematic position and origin of the inarticulate brachiopods with calcareous shells]: Paleontologicheskii Zhurnal, v. 3, p. 314.Google Scholar
Gray, J.E., 1840, Synopsis of the Contents of the British Museum, 42nd edition: London, British Museum, 370 p.Google Scholar
Hammann, W., 1985, Life habit and enrolment in Calymenacea (Trilobita) and their significance for classification: Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth Sciences, v. 76, p. 307318.Google Scholar
Hammann, W., and Leone, F., 2007, The trilobites from the “post-Sardie”(Upper Ordovician) sequence of the Iglesiente, Arburese and Sarrabus regions, southern Sardinia, Italy. Part 2: Beringeria, v. 38, p. 3138.Google Scholar
Harper, D.A.T., and Williams, S.H., 2002, A relict Ordovician brachiopod fauna from the Parakidograptus acuminatus Biozone (lower Silurian) of the English Lake District: Lethaia, v. 35, p. 7178.Google Scholar
Harper, D.A.T., Rasmussen, C.M.Ø., Liljeroth, M., Blodgett, R.B., Candela, Y., Jin, J., Percival, I.G., Rong, J.-Y., Villas, E., and Zhan, R.B., 2013, Biodiversity, biogeography and phylogeography of Ordovician rhynchonelliform brachiopods, in Harper, D.A.T., and Servais, T., Early Palaeozoic Biogeography and Palaeogeography: Geological Society of London Memoirs no. 38, p. 121138.Google Scholar
Havlíček, V., 1950, Ramenonozci Ceského Ordoviku [The Ordovician Brachiopoda from Bohemia]: Rozpravy Ústredního ústavu geologického, v. 13, p. 172.Google Scholar
Havlíček, V., 1971, Brachiopodes de l'Ordovicien du Maroc: Notes et Mémoires du Service géologique du Maroc, v. 230, p. 1135.Google Scholar
Havlíček, V., 1990, Mediterranean and Malvinokaffric Provinces: new data on the Upper Ordovician and Lower Silurian brachiopods: Casopis pro mineralogii a geologii, v. 35, p. 113.Google Scholar
Havlíček, V., and Massa, D., 1973, Brachiopodes de l'Ordovicien supérieur de Libye occidentale: implications stratigraphiques régionales: Geobios, v. 6, p. 267290.Google Scholar
Henry, J.-L., 1965, Révision de Kloucekia micheli (Tromelin 1876) (Trilobite, Ordovicien moyen du Massif armoricain): Bulletin de la Société Géologique et Minéralogique de Bretagne, v. 1, p. 199210.Google Scholar
Henry, J.-L., 1980, Trilobites ordoviciens du Massif Armoricain: Mémoire de la Société Géologique et Minéralogique de Bretagne, v. 22, p. 1250.Google Scholar
Henry, J.-L., 1996, Classification de quelques Calymenina (Trilobita) ordoviciens: Calymenidae ou Homalonotidae?: Geobios, v. 29, p. 331340.Google Scholar
Henry, J.-L., Vizcaïno, D., and Destombes, J., 1992, Evolution de l'oeil et hétérochronie chez les Trilobites ordoviciens Ormathops Delo 1935 et Toletanaspis Rábano 1989 (Dalmanitidae, Zeliszkellinae): Paläeontologische Zeitschrift, v. 66, p. 277290.Google Scholar
Holloway, D.J., 1981, Silurian Dalmanitacean trilobites from North America, and the subfamilies Dalmanitinae and Synphoriinae: Palaeontology, v. 24, p. 695731.Google Scholar
Jacinto, A.F.M., Gutiérrez-Marco, J.C., and Zamora, S., 2015, Upper Ordovician echinoderms from Buçaco, Portugal, in Zamora, S., and Rábano, I., eds., Progress in Echinoderm Palaeobiology: Cuadernos del Museo Geominero, v. 19, p. 7578.Google Scholar
King, W., 1846, Remarks on certain genera belonging to the class Palliobranchiata: Annals and Magazine of Natural History (series 1), v. 18, p. 26–42, 8394.Google Scholar
Kuhn, O., 1949, Lehrbuch der Paläozoologie: Stuttgart, E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, 326 p.Google Scholar
Leone, F., Hammann, W., Serpagli, E., and Villas, E., 1991, Lithostratigraphic units and biostratigraphy of the post-sardic Ordovician sequence in south-west Sadinia: Bolletino della Societá Paleontologica Italiana, v. 30, p. 201235.Google Scholar
Lespérance, P.J., 1974, The Hirnantian fauna of the Perce area (Quebec) and the Ordovician-Silurian boundary: American Journal of Science, v. 274, p. 1030.Google Scholar
Lespérance, P.J., 1988, Trilobites, in Cocks, L.R.M., and Rickards, R.B., eds., A global analysis of the Ordovician-Silurian boundary: Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Geology Series, v. 43, p. 359376.Google Scholar
Lespérance, P.J., Malo, M., Sheehan, P.M., and Skidmore, W.B., 1987, A stratigraphical and faunal revision of the Ordovician–Silurian strata of the Percé area, Québec: Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, v. 24, p. 117134.Google Scholar
Lopes, G., Vaz, N., Sequeira, A.J.D., Piçarra, J.M., Fernandes, P., and Pereira, Z., 2011, New insights on the Hirnantian palynostratigraphy of the Rio Ceira Section, Buçaco, Portugal, in Gutiérrez-Marco, J.C., Rábano, I., and García Bellido, D., eds., Ordovician of the World: Cuadernos del Museo Geominero, 14: Madrid, Instituto Geológico y Minero de España, p. 319325.Google Scholar
Marek, L., and Havlíček, V., 1967, The articulate brachiopods of the Kosov Formation (upper Ashgillian): Vestník Ústredního ústavu geologického, v. 42, p. 257284.Google Scholar
Matthews, S.C., 1973, Notes on open nomenclature and on synonymy lists: Palaeontology, v. 16, p. 713719.Google Scholar
M'Coy, F., 1851, On some new Cambro-Silurian fossils: Annals and Magazine of Natural History (ser. 2), v. 8, p. 387409.Google Scholar
Menke, C.T., 1828, Synopsis methodica molluscorum generum omnium et specierum earum quae in Museo Menkeano adservantur: Pyrmonti, G. Uslar. 91 p.Google Scholar
Mergl, M, 2011, Faunal turnover near the Katian/Hirnantian boundary in the Prague Basin (Czech Republic), in Gutiérrez-Marco, J.C., Rábano, I., and García-Bellido, D., eds., Ordovician of the World: Cuadernos del Museo Geominero, 14: Madrid, Instituto Geológico y Minero de España, p. 359366.Google Scholar
Milne Edwards, H., 1840, Histoire Naturelle des Crustaces, Comprenant l'anatomie, la Physiologie et la Classification de ces Animaux; v. 3: Paris, Fain et Thunot, p. 285346.Google Scholar
Mitchell, W.I., 1974, An outline of the stratigraphy and palaeontology of the Ordovician rocks of Central Portugal: Geological Magazine, v. 111, p. 385396.Google Scholar
Moore, R.C., 1952, Brachiopoda, in Moore, R.C., Lalicker, C.G., and Fischer, A.G., eds., Invertebrate Fossils: New York, McGraw-Hill, p. 197267.Google Scholar
Oliveira, J.T., Pereira, E., Piçarra, J.M., Young, T., and Romano, M., 1992, O Paleozóico Inferior de Portugal: síntese da estratigrafia e da evolução paleogeográfica, in Gutiérrez-Marco, J.C., Saavedra, J., and Rábano, I., eds., Paleozóico Inferior de Ibero-América: Badajoz, Spain, Universidad de Extremadura, p. 359375.Google Scholar
Öpik, A.A., 1934, Über Klitamboniten: Universitatis Tartuensis (Dorpatensis) Acta et Commentationes (series A), v. 26, p. 1239.Google Scholar
Owen, A.W., Harper, D.A.T., and Jia-Yu, R., 1991, Hirnantian trilobites and brachiopods in space and time, in Barnes, C.R., and Williams, S.H., eds., Advances in Ordovician Geology: Geological Survey of Canada, Paper 90, p. 179190.Google Scholar
Owens, R.M., and Servais, T., 2007, The Ordovician of the Condroz Ridge, Belgium: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v. 245, p. 272294.Google Scholar
Paris, F., 1979, Les chitinozoaires de la Formation de Louredo, Ordovicien Supérieur du synclinal do Buçaco (Portugal): Palaeontographica Abteilung A, v. 164, p. 2451.Google Scholar
Paris, F., 1981, Les chitinozoaires dans le Paléozoique du sudouest de l'Europe: Mémoire de la Société Géologique et Minéralogique de Bretagne, v. 26, p. 1496.Google Scholar
Pereira, M.F., Linnemann, U., Hofmann, M., Chichorro, M., Solá, A.R., Medina, J., and Silva, J.B., 2012, The provenance of Late Ediacaran and Early Ordovician siliciclastic rocks in the southwest Central Iberian Zone: constraints from detritical zircon data on northern Gondwana margin evolution during the Late Neoproterozoic: Precambrian Research, v. 192–195, p. 166189.Google Scholar
Pereira, S., 2017, Trilobites do Ordovícico Superior da Zona Centro-ibérica portuguesa [PhD thesis]: Lisboa, Universidade de Lisboa, 714 p.Google Scholar
Pereira, S., Colmenar, J., , A.A., da Silva, C.M., and Young, T., 2016, The Vinha de Leira Má locality (Upper Ordovician, Buçaco, Portugal): considerations on the age and the lithostratigraphy of the Porto de Santa Anna Formation, in Livro de Actas do VI Congresso Jovens Investigadores em Geociências, LEG 2016, Estremoz, p. 8084.Google Scholar
Rábano, I., 1990, Trilobites del Ordovícico Medio del sector meridional de la Zona Centroibérica española: Boletín Geológico y Minero, Publicaciones especiales, v. 12, p. 1133.Google Scholar
Reed, F.R.C., 1904, The Lower Palaeozoic trilobites of Girvan. Part II: Monograph of the Paleontographical Society, London, v. 276, p. 4996.Google Scholar
Reed, F.R.C., 1905, New fossils from the Haverfordwest district, IV: Geological Magazine, v. 5, p. 433436, 444–454.Google Scholar
Reed, F.R.C., 1915, Supplementary Memoir on New Ordovician and Silurian Fossils from the Northern Shan States: Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India, Palaeontologia Indica, New Series, v. 6, p.198.Google Scholar
Ribeiro, C., 1853, On the Carboniferous and Silurian Formations of the neighbourhood of Bussaco in Portugal: Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, v. 9, p. 135161.Google Scholar
Richter, R., Richter, E., and Struve, W., 1959, Suborder Phacopina Struve, nov., in Moore, R.C., ed., Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Part O. Arthropoda 1: Boulder, Colorado and Lawrence, Kansas, Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press, p. O461O462.Google Scholar
Robardet, M., and Gutiérrez-Marco, J.C., 2004, The Ordovician, Silurian and Devonian sedimentary rocks of the Ossa-Morena Zone (SW Iberian Peninsula, Spain): Journal of Iberian Geology, v. 30, p. 7392.Google Scholar
Rong, J-Y., 1984, Brachiopods of latest Ordovician in the Yichang district, western Hubei, central China, in Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Sinica, Academia, ed. Stratigraphy and Palaeontology of Systemic Boundaries in China, Ordovician-Silurian Boundary, vol. 1:. Hefei, China, Anhui Science and Technology Publishing House, p. 111176.Google Scholar
Rong, J-Y., and Harper, D.A., 1988, A global synthesis of the latest Ordovician Hirnantian brachiopod faunas: Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of The Royal Society of Edinburgh, v. 79, p. 383402.Google Scholar
Rong, J-Y., and Li, R.-Y., 1999, A silicified Hirnantia fauna (latest Ordovician brachiopods) from Guizhou, southwest China: Journal of Paleontology, v. 73, p. 831849.Google Scholar
Rong, J.-Y., Huang, B., Zhan, R.B., and Harper, D.A., 2008, Latest Ordovician brachiopod and trilobite assemblage from Yuhang, northern Zhejiang, East China: a window on Hirnantian deep-water benthos: Historical Biology, v. 20, p. 137148.Google Scholar
Rozman, K.S., 1969, Late Ordovician brachiopods of the Siberian Platform: Paleontologicheskii Zhurnal, v. 3, p. 86108.Google Scholar
Salter, J.W., 1864, A Monograph of British Trilobites. Part I: Monographs of the Palaeontographical Society, London, p. 180.Google Scholar
Sarmiento, G.N., del Moral, B., and Piçarra, J.M., 2001, Conodontos del Ordovícico Superior (Ashgill) en la Serra do Buçaco, Portugal: Coloquios de Paleontología, v. 52, p. 95105.Google Scholar
Schmidt, H., 1965, Neue Befunde an Paläozoischen Rhynchonellacea (Brachiopoda): Senckenbergiana lethaea, v. 46, p. 125.Google Scholar
Schuchert, C., 1913, Class 2. Brachiopoda, in von Zittel, K.A., ed., Text-book of Palaeontology, vol. 1, pt. 1, 2nd ed., translated and edited by Eastman, C.R.: London, MacMillan and Co., Ltd., p. 355420.Google Scholar
Schuchert, C., and Cooper, G.A., 1932, Brachiopod genera of the suborders Orthoidea and Pentameroidea: Memoirs of the Peabody Museum of Natural History, v. 4, 270 p.Google Scholar
Sheehan, P.M., 2001, The late Ordovician mass extinction: Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, v. 29, p. 331364.Google Scholar
Shirley, J., 1936, Some British trilobites of the family Calymenidae: Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, v. 92, p. 384422.Google Scholar
Siebold, C.T.E., and Stannius, H., 1845, Lehrbuch der Vergleichenden Anatomie: Berlin, Von Veit, 679 p.Google Scholar
Siveter, J.D., 1977, The Middle Ordovician of the Oslo region, Norway, 27. Trilobites of the family Calymenidae: Norsk geologisk Tidsskrift, v. 56, p. 335396.Google Scholar
Soares, A.F., Marques, J.F., and Sequeira, A., 2007, Carta Geológica de Portugal na escala 1:50000. Notícia explicativa da folha 19-D (Coimbra-Lousã): Lisboa, Serviços Geológicos de Portugal, 71 p.Google Scholar
Štorch, P., 1990, Upper Ordovician–lower Silurian sequences in the Bohemian Massif, central Europe: Geological Magazine, v. 127, p. 225239.Google Scholar
Štorch, P., and Mergl, M., 1989, Králodvor/Kosov boundary and the late Ordovician environmental changes in the Prague Basin (Barrandian area, Bohemia): Sborník geologických věd, Geologie, v. 44, p. 117153.Google Scholar
Swinnerton, H.H., 1915, Suggestions for a revised classification of trilobites: Geological Magazine, v. 2, p. 487496.Google Scholar
Temple, J.T., 1965, Upper Ordovician brachiopods from Poland and Britain: Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, v. 10, p. 379427.Google Scholar
Temple, J.T., 1968, The Lower Llandovery (Silurian) brachiopods from Keisley, Westmoreland: Monograph of the Palaeontographical Society, v. 521, 58 p.Google Scholar
Thadeu, D., 1947, Trilobites do Silurico de Loredo (Buçaco): Boletim da Sociedade geológica de Portugal, v. 6, p. 217236.Google Scholar
Villas, E., Lorenzo, S., and Gutiérrez-Marco, J.C., 1999, First record of a Hirnantia Fauna from Spain, and its contribution to the Late Ordovician palaeogeography of northern Gondwana: Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of The Royal Society of Edinburgh, v. 89, p. 187197.Google Scholar
Vizcaïno, D., Álvaro, J.J., and Monceret, É., 2004, Trilobites and ichnofossils from a new fossil Lagerstätte in the Lower Cambrian Pardailhan Formation, southern Montagne Noire, France: Geobios, v. 37, p. 277286.Google Scholar
Vodges, A.W., 1890, A bibliography of Paleozoic Crustacea from 1698 to 1889, including a list of North American species and a systematic arrangement of genera (Issues 62–65): US Government Printing Office, 177 p.Google Scholar
Waagen, W., 1885, Salt Range fossils, vol. I, part 4. Productus Limestone fossils, Brachiopoda: Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India, Palaeontologia Indica (ser. 13), v. 5, p. 729770.Google Scholar
Walch, J.E.I., 1771, Die Naturgeschichte der Versteinerungen, Dritter Theil: Nuremberg, Paul Jonathan Felstecker, 235 p.Google Scholar
Wang, X.-F., Zeng, Q.-L., Zhou, T., Xiang, L., Lai, C., Ni, S., Xu, G., Sun, Q., and Li, Z., 1983, [Latest Ordovician and earliest Silurian faunas from the Yangtze Gorges, China, with comments on the Ordovician-Silurian boundary]: Bulletin of the Yichang Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources, v. 6, p. 95196.Google Scholar
Whittington, H.B., and Hughes, C.P., 1972, Ordovician geography and faunal provinces deduced from trilobite distribution: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, v. 263, p. 235278.Google Scholar
Williams, A., 1965, Suborder Strophomenidina, in Moore, R.C, ed., Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Part H, Brachiopoda: New York and Lawrence, Kansas, The Geological Society of America and The University of Kansas Press, p. H362H412.Google Scholar
Williams, A., Carlson, S.J., Brunton, C.H.C., Holmer, L.E., and Popov, L.E., 1996, A supra-ordinal classification of the Brachiopoda: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London (series B), v. 351, p. 11711193.Google Scholar
Williams, A., Brunton, C.H.C., Carlson, S.J., Alvarez, F., Ansell, D., and Baker, G., 2000, Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Part H, Brachiopoda, Revised, vol. 2: Boulder, CO and Lawrence, KS, The Geological Society of America and The University of Kansas Press, 919 p.Google Scholar
Young, T.P., 1985, The Stratigraphy of the Upper Ordovician of Central Portugal [Ph.D. Thesis]: Sheffield, University of Sheffield, 441 p.Google Scholar
Young, T.P., 1988, The lithostratigraphy of the upper Ordovician of central Portugal: Journal of the Geological Society, v. 145, p. 377392.Google Scholar
Young, T.P., 1989, Eustatically controlled ooidal ironstone deposition: facies relationships of the Ordovician open-shelf ironstones of Western Europe, in Young, T.P., and Taylor, W.E.G., eds., Phanerozoic Ironstones: Geological Society Special Publication, v. 46, p. 5163.Google Scholar
Zhou, Z., Zhou, Z., and Yuan, W., 2012, Late Ordovician (Hirnantian) 'Mucronaspis (Songxites')-dominant trilobite fauna from northwestern Zhejiang, China: Memoirs of the Association of Australasian Palaeontologists, v. 42, p. 7592.Google Scholar