Skip to main content Accessibility help

Anatomy, systematics, paleoenvironment, growth, and age of the sauropod dinosaur Sonorasaurus thompsoni from the Cretaceous of Arizona, USA

  • Michael D. D’Emic (a1), Brady Z. Foreman (a2) and Nathan A. Jud (a3)

Sauropod dinosaurs are rare in the Cretaceous North American fossil record in general and are absent from that record for most of the Late Cretaceous. Sonorasaurus thompsoni from the Turney Ranch Formation of the Bisbee Group of Arizona, USA, potentially represents one of the youngest sauropods before their ca. 30-million-year-long hiatus from the record. The anatomy of Sonorasaurus has only been briefly described, its taxonomic validity has been questioned, several hypotheses have been proposed regarding its phylogenetic relationships, and its life history, geologic age, and reported paleoenvironment are ambiguous.

Herein we assess the systematics, paleoenvironment, life history, and geologic age of Sonorasaurus based on firsthand observation, bone histology, and fieldwork in the holotypic quarry and environs. The validity of S. thompsoni is substantiated by autapomorphies. Cladistic analysis firmly places it within the Brachiosauridae, in contrast to results of some recent analyses. Bone histology suggests that the only known exemplar of Sonorasaurus grew slowly and sporadically compared to other sauropods and was approaching its adult size. In contrast with previous assessments of a coastal/estuarine paleoenvironment for the Turney Ranch Formation, our sedimentological and plant macrofossil data indicate that Sonorasaurus lived in a semiarid, low relief evergreen woodland that received highly variable (perhaps seasonal) precipitation. We obtained detrital zircons from the holotypic quarry for U-Pb dating, which only yielded Barremian-aged and older grains, whereas other radiometric and biostratigraphic data suggest that the sediments at the quarry were deposited near the Albian-Cenomanian boundary.

Sonorasaurus is taxonomically valid, represents one of the geologically youngest brachiosaurid sauropods, and inhabited a harsh inland evergreen-dominated woodland environment that limited its growth. A review of other Bisbee Group dinosaurs suggests that its fauna, although poorly sampled, exhibits broad similarity to those from coeval North American horizons, reinforcing the apparent faunal homogeneity at the time.

Hide All
Andrews, H.N., and Kern, E.M., 1947, The Idaho Tempskyas and associated fossil plants: Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, v. 34, p. 119183.
Archibald, L.E., 1982, Stratigraphy and sedimentology of the Bisbee Group in the Whetstone Mountains, Pima and Cochise Counties, Southeastern Arizona: Unpublished Master’s Thesis, University of Arizona, 208 pp.
Archibald, L.E., 1987, Stratigraphy and sedimentology of the Bisbee Group in the Whetstone Mountains, southeastern Arizona: Arizona Geological Society Digest, v. 18, p. 273282.
Axsmith, B.J., and Jacobs, B.F., 2005, The conifer Frenelopsis ramosissima (Cheirolepidiaceae) in the Lower Cretaceous of Texas: systematic, biogeographical, and paleoecological implications: International Journal of Plant Sciences, v. 166, p. 327337.
Bailey, I.W., 1924, The problem of identifying the wood of Cretaceous and later dicotyledons: Paraphyllanthoxylon arizonense: Annals of Botany, v. 38, p. 439451.
Bennett, S.C., 2013, The phylogenetic position of the Pterosauria within the Archosauromorpha re–examined: Historical Biology, v. 25, p. 545563.
Benson, R.B.J., Campione, N.E., Carrano, M.T., Mannion, P.D., Sullivan, C., Upchurch, P., and Evans, D.C., 2014, Rates of dinosaur body mass evolution indicate 170 million years of sustained ecological innovation on the avian stem lineage: PLoS Biology, v. 12, p. e1001853.
Bonaparte, J.F., González Riga, B.J., and Apesteguía, S., 2006, Ligabuesaurus leanzai gen. et sp. nov. (Dinosauria, Sauropoda), a new titanosaur from the Lohan Cura Formation (Aptian, Lower Cretaceous) of Neuquén, Patagonia, Argentina: Cretaceous Research, v. 27, p. 364376.
Borsuk-Bialynicka, M., 1977, A new camarasaurid sauropod Opisthocoelicaudia skarzynskii gen. n., sp. n. from the Upper Cretaceous of Mongolia: Palaeontologica Polonica, v. 37, p. 563.
Canudo, J.I., R. Royo-Torres, R., and Cuenca-Bescós, G., 2008, A new sauropod: Tastavinsaurus sanzi gen. et sp. nov. from the Early Cretaceous (Aptian) of Spain: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, v. 28, p. 712731.
Carballido, J.L., and Sander, P.M., 2014, Postcranial axial skeleton of Europasaurus holgeri (Dinosauria, Sauropoda) from the Upper Jurassic of Germany: implications for sauropod ontogeny and phylogenetic relationships of basal Macronaria: Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, v. 12, p. 335387.
Carrano, M.T., 2005, The evolution of sauropod locomotion: morphological diversity of a secondarily quadrupedal radiation, in Curry Rogers, K.A., and Wilson, J.A., eds., The Sauropods: Evolution and Paleobiology, Berkeley, University of California Press, p. 229251.
Cerling, T.E., 1984, The stable isotopic composition of modern soil carbonate and its relationship to climate: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 71, p. 229240.
Cerling, T.E., and Quade, J., 1993, Stable carbon and oxygen isotopes in soil carbonates, in Swart, P.K., Lohmann, K.C., McKenzie, J., and Savin, S., eds., Climate Change in Continental Isotopic Records: Geophysical Monograph 78, Washington DC, American Geophysical Union, p. 217231.
Cifelli, R., Kirkland, J.I., Weil, A., Deino, A., and Kowallis, B.J., 1997, High-precision 40Ar-39Ar geochronology and the advent of North America’s Late Cretaceous terrestrial fauna: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, v. 94, p. 1116311167.
Cubo, J., Le Roy, N., Martinez-Maza, C., and Montes, L., 2012, Paleohistological estimation of bone growth rate in extinct archosaurs: Paleobiology, v. 38, p. 335349.
Curtice, B.D., 2000, The axial skeleton of Sonorasaurus thompsoni Ratkevitch 1998: Proceedings of the Southwest Paleontological Symposium, Mesa, Arizona, v. 7, p. 8387.
D’Emic, M.D., 2012, The early evolution of titanosauriform sauropod dinosaurs: Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, v. 166, p. 624671.
D’Emic, M.D., 2013, Revision of the sauropod dinosaurs of the Lower Cretaceous Trinity Group, southern USA, with the description of a new genus: Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, v. 11, p. 707726.
D’Emic, M.D., and Foster, J.F., in press, The oldest Cretaceous North American sauropod dinosaur: Historical Biology
D’Emic, M.D., and Foreman, B.Z., 2012, The beginning of the sauropod dinosaur hiatus in North America: insights from the Lower Cretaceous Cloverly Formation of Wyoming: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, v. 32, p. 883902.
D’Emic, M.D., Williamson, T.E., and Wilson, J.A., 2011, A sauropod dinosaur pes from the latest Cretaceous of North America and the validity of Alamosaurus sanjuanensis (Sauropoda, Titanosauria): Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, v. 31, p. 10721079.
D’Emic, M.D., Mannion, P.D., Upchurch, P., Benson, R.B.J., Pang, Q., and Cheng, Z., 2013, Osteology of Huabeisaurus allocotus (Sauropoda: Titanosauriformes) from the Upper Cretaceous of China: PLoS ONE, v. 8, p. e69375.
Dickinson, W.R., Fiorillo, A.R., Hall, D.L., Monreal, R., Potochnik, A.R., and Swift, P.N., 1989, Cretaceous Strata of Southern Arizona, in Reynolds, J.P., and Jenny, S.J.. Geologic Evolution of Arizona: Arizona Geological Society Digest, v. 17, p. 447461.
Dickinson, W.R., Lawton, T.F., and Gehrels, G.E., 2009, Recycling detrital zircons: a case study from the Cretaceous Bisbee Group of southern Arizona: Geology, v. 37, p. 503506.
Falcon-Lang, H.J., 2003, Growth interruptions in silicified conifer woods from the Upper Cretaceous Two Medicine Formation, Montana, USA: implications for palaeoclimate and dinosaur palaeoecology: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v. 199, p. 299314.
Farquhar, G.D., Ehleringer, J.R., and Hubick, K.T., 1989, Carbon isotope discrimination and photosynthesis: Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology, v. 40, p. 503538.
Fielding, C.R., 2006, Upper flow regime sheets, lenses and scour fills: Extending the range of architectural elements for fluvial sediment bodies: Sedimentary Geology, v. 190, p. 227240.
Foreman, B.Z., Fricke, H.C., Lohmann, K.C., and Rogers, R.R., 2011, Reconstructing paleocatchments by integrating stable isotope records, sedimentology, and taphonomy: A Late Cretaceous case study (Montana, United States): PALAIOS, v. 26, p. 545554.
Gaffney, E.S., and Jenkins, F.A., 2010, The cranial morphology of Kayentachelys, an Early Jurassic cryptodire, and the early history of turtles: Acta Zoologica, v. 91, p. 335368.
Galton, P.M., and Jensen, J.A., 1979, Hypsilophodon and Iguanodon from the Lower Cretaceous of North America: Nature, v. 257, p. 668669.
Gehrels, G., 2012, Detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology: current methods and new opportunities, in Busby, C., and Azor, A., eds., Tectonics of Sedimentary Basins: Recent Advances, London, Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, p. 4762.
Gehrels, G., and Dickinson, W.R., 2009, Use of U-Pb ages of detrital zircons to infer maximum depositional ages of strata: A test against a Colorado Plateau Mesozoic database: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 288, p. 115125.
Gingerich, P.D., Franzen, J.L., Habersetzer, J., Hurum, J.H., and Smith, B.H., 2010, Darwinius masillae is a Haplorhine -Reply to Williams et al. (2010): Journal of Human Evolution, v. 59, p. 574579.
González-León, C.M., Scott, R.W., Löser, H., Lawton, T.F., Robert, E., and Valencia, V.A., 2008, Upper Aptian-Lower Albian Mural Formation: stratigraphy, biostratigraphy and depositional cycles on the Sonoran shelf, northern México: Cretaceous Research, v. 29, p. 249266.
Gomani, E.M., 2005, Sauropod dinosaurs from the Early Cretaceous of Malawi, Africa: Paleontologica Electronica, v. 8, p. 137.
Hasiotis, S.T., 2002, Continental Trace Fossils: SEPM Short Course Notes, v. 51, 132 pp.
Hendrickx, C., Mateus, O., and Araújo, R., 2015, The dentition of megalosaurid theropods: Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, v. 60, p. 627642.
Hill, R., and Ratkevitch, R., 1996, A microscopic look at the Sonorasaurus site, Cochise County, Arizona: Southwest Paleontological Symposium, Mesa, Arizona, v. 4.
Hodnett, J.-P., 2003, A preliminary review of the vertebrate fauna of the Turney Ranch Formation (Albian/Cenomanian) of Pima County, Arizona: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 23 (supplement to 3), 61A.
IAWA Committee, 2004, IAWA list of microscopic features for softwood identification, IAWA Journal, v. 25, p. 170.
Inman, K.F., 1987, Depositional environments and sandstone petrography of Cretaceous sedimentary rocks, Adobe Canyon, Santa Rita Mountains, southeastern Arizona: Arizona Geological Society Digest, v. 18, p. 301314.
Janensch, W., 1950, Die Wirbelsäule von Brachiosaurus brancai: Palaeontographica, (Suppl 7), v. 3, p. 2793.
Janensch, W., 1961, Die gliedmaßen und gliedmaßen gürtel der sauropoden der Tendaguru–Schichten: Palaeontographica, (Suppl. 7), v. 3, p. 177235.
Joyce, W.G., and Sterli, J., 2012, Congruence, non-homology, and the phylogeny of basal turtles: Acta Zoologica, v. 93, p. 149159.
Klein, N., and Sander, P.M., 2008, Ontogenetic stages in the long bone histology of sauropod dinosaurs: Paleobiology, v. 34, p. 247263.
Koch, P.L., 1998, Isotopic reconstruction of past continental environments: Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Science, v. 26, p. 573613.
Lucas, S.G., and Heckert, A.B., 2005, Distribution, age, and correlation of Cretaceous fossil vertebrates from Arizona, in Heckert, A.B., and Lucas, S.G., eds., Vertebrate Paleontology in Arizona: New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin, v. 29, p. 105110.
Mannion, P.D., and Upchurch, P., 2011, A re–evaluation of the ‘mid-Cretaceous sauropod hiatus’ and the impact of uneven sampling of the fossil record on patterns of regional dinosaur extinction: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v. 299, p. 529540.
Mannion, P.D., Upchurch, P., Barnes, R., and Mateus, O., 2013, Osteology of the Late Jurassic Portuguese sauropod dinosaur Lusotitan atalaiensis (Macronaria) and the evolutionary history of basal titanosauriforms: Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, v. 168, p. 98206.
Marpmann, J.S., Carballido, J.L., Sander, P.M., and Knötschke, N., 2015, Cranial anatomy of the Late Jurassic dwarf sauropod Europasaurus holgeri (Dinosauria, Camarasauromorpha): ontogenetic changes and size dimorphism: Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, v. 13, p. 221263.
Marsh, O.C., 1878, Principal characters of American Jurassic dinosaurs, part I: American Journal of Sciences, v. 16, p. 411416.
Maxwell, W.D., and Cifelli, R.L., 2000, Last evidence of sauropod dinosaurs (Saurischia: Sauropodomorpha) in the North American mid-Cretaceous: Brigham Young University Geology Studies, v. 45, p. 1924.
McCord, R.D., and Gillette, D., 2005, Cretaceous Vertebrates of Arizona: Mesa Southwest Museum Bulletin, v. 11, p. 94103.
McIntosh, J.S., Coombs, W.P. Jr., and Russell, D.A., 1992, A new diplodocid sauropod (Dinosauria) from Wyoming, USA: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, v. 12, p. 158167.
Miller, H.W., 1964, Cretaceous dinosaurian remains from southern Arizona: Journal of Paleontology, v. 38, p. 378384.
Mohrig, D., Heller, P.L., Paola, C., and Lyons, W.J., 2000, Interpreting avulsion process from ancient alluvial sequences: Guadalope-Matarranya system (northern Spain) and Wasatch Formation (western Colorado): Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 112, p. 17871803.
Nesbitt, S.J., 2011, The early evolution of archosaurs: relationships and the origin of major clades: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, v. 352, p. 1292.
Niklas, K.J., 1994, Predicting the height of fossil plant remains: An allometric approach to an old problem. American Journal of Botany v. 81, p. 12351242.
Osborn, H.F., and Mook, C.C., 1921, Camarasaurus, Amphicoelias, and other sauropods of Cope: Memoirs of the American Museum of Natural History New Series, v. 3, p. 247387.
Ostrom, J.H., and McIntosh, J.S., 1966, Marsh’s Dinosaurs, New Haven, Yale University Press.
Peralta-Medina, E., and Falcon-Lang, H.J., 2012, Cretaceous forest composition and productivity inferred from a global fossil wood database: Geology, v. 40, p. 219222.
Philippe, M., and Bamford, M.K., 2008, A key to morphogenera used for Mesozoic conifer-like woods: Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, v. 148, p. 184207.
Rasband, W.S., 1997, ImageJ. U. S. National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA. Available at:
Ratkevitch, R., 1997a, Dinosaur remains of southern Arizona, Dinofest International, Arizona State University, p. 213221.
Ratkevitch, R., 1997b, Sonorasaurus: dinosaur of the desert: Arizona Sonora Desert Museum, 17 p.
Ratkevitch, R., 1998, New Cretaceous brachiosaurid dinosaur, Sonorasaurus thompsoni gen. et sp. nov, from Arizona: Journal of the Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, v. 31, p. 7182.
Riggs, E.S., 1903, Structure and relationships of opisthocoelian dinosaurs, part I: Apatosaurus Marsh: Field Columbian Museum Geological Series, v. 2, p. 165196.
Royo-Torres, R., 2009, El saurópodo de Peñarroya de Tastavins. Instituto de Estudios Turolenses-Fundación Conjunto Paleontológico de Teruel-Dinópolis: Monografías Turolenses, v. 6, p. 1548.
Salgado, L.S., Apesteguía, S., and Heredia, S.E., 2005, A new specimen of Neuquensaurus australis, a Late Cretaceous saltasaurine titanosaur from north Patagonia: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, v. 25, p. 623634.
Salgado, L., Coria, R.A., and Calvo, J.O., 1997, Evolution of titanosaurid sauropods, I: phylogenetic analysis based on the postcranial evidence: Ameghiniana, v. 34, p. 332.
Sander, P.M., 2000, Long bone histology of the Tendaguru sauropods: Implications for growth and biology: Paleobiology, v. 26, p. 466488.
Scarborough, R., 2000, Site stratigraphy and depositional environment for Sonorasaurus thompsoni in the Whetstone Mountains, Pima County, Arizona: Southwest Paleontological Symposium, Mesa, Arizona, v. 7, p. 7382.
Schafroth, D.W., 1968, Stratigraphy of some Cretaceous Formations of southeastern Arizona, in Titley, S.R., ed., Southern Arizona Guidebook III: Arizona Geological Society Guidebook, p. 6063.
Scott, R.W., 2007, Late Aptian-early Albian bivalves of the Comanchean and Sonoran shelves: New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin, v. 39, p. 739.
Scott, R.W., Molineux, A., Löser, H., and Mancini, E.A., 2007, Lower Albian sequence stratigraphy and coral buildups: Glen Rose Formation, Texas, U.S.A., in Scott, R.W., ed., Cretaceous Rudists and Carbonate Platforms, Environmental Feedback, v. 87: SEPM Special Publication, p. 181191.
Smith, J.B., Vann, D.R., and Dodson, P., 2005, Dental morphology and variation in theropod dinosaurs: Implications for the taxonomic identification of isolated teeth: The Anatomical Record Part A, v. 285A, p. 699736.
Stein, K., and Sander, P.M., 2009, Histological core drilling: a less destructive method for studying bone histology, in Brown, M.A., Kane, J.F., and Parker, W.G., eds., Methods In Fossil Preparation: Proceedings of the First Annual Fossil Preparation and Collections Symposium, p. 69–80.
Stoyanow, A., 1949, Lower Cretaceous stratigraphy in southeastern Arizona: Geological Society of America Memoirs, v. 38, p. 1183.
Taylor, M.P., 2009, A reevaluation of Brachiosaurus altithorax Riggs, 1903 (Dinosauria, Sauropoda) and its generic separation from Brachiosaurus brancai (Janensch, 1914): Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, v. 29, p. 787806.
Thayer, D.W., and Ratkevitch, R., 1995, In-progress excavation at the mid-Cretaceous Turney Ranch Formation, southeastern Arizona: Proceedings of the Southwestern Paleontological Society, v. 3, p. 6374.
Thayn, G.F., Tidwell, W.D., and Stokes, W.L., 1985, Flora of the Lower Cretaceous Cedar Mountain Formation of Utah and Colorado, part III: Icacinoxylon pittiense n. sp: American Journal of Botany, v. 72, p. 175180.
Thayn, G.F., Tidwell, W.D., and Stokes, W.L., 1983, Flora of the Lower Cretaceous Cedar Mountain Formation of Utah and Colorado, Part I. Paraphyllanthoxylon utahense: Western North American Naturalist, v. 43, p. 394402.
Tidwell, V., Carpenter, K., and Brooks, W., 1999, New sauropod from the Lower Cretaceous of Utah, USA: Oryctos, v. 2, p. 2137.
Tidwell, W.D., and Thayn, G.F., 1985, Flora of the Lower Cretaceous Cedar Mountain Formation of Utah and Colorado, Part IV: Palaeopiceoxylon thinosus (Protopinaceae): The Southwestern Naturalist, v. 30, p. 525532.
Trujillo, K.C., and Chamberlain, K.R., 2013, The Morrison Formation U/Pb dating project: Using high-precision, chemical abrasion (CA-TIMS), single zircon, ashfall dates for chronostratigraphic correlations: Society of Vertebrate Paleontology Abstracts with Programs, v. 33, p. 227A.
Upchurch, P., Barrett, P.M., and Dodson, P., 2004, Sauropoda, in Weishampel, D.B., Dodson, P., and Osmólska H., eds, Berkeley, University of California Press, p. 259324.
White, T., González, L., Ludvigson, G., and Poulson, C., 2001, Middle Cretaceous greenhouse hydrologic cycle of North America: Geology, v. 29, p. 363366.
Williams, B.A., Kay, R.F., Kirk, E.C., and Ross, C.F., 2010, Darwinius masillae is a strepsirrhinee a reply to Franzen et al. (2009): Journal of Human Evolution, v. 59, p. 567573.
Wilson, C.J., and Jackson, R.B., 2006, Xylem cavitation caused by drought and freezing stress in four co-occurring Juniperus species: Physiologia Plantarum, v. 127, p. 374382.
Wilson, J.A., 1999, A nomenclature for vertebral laminae in sauropods and other saurischian dinosaurs: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, v. 19, p. 639653.
Wilson, J.A., 2002, Sauropod dinosaur phylogeny: critique and cladistic analysis: Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, v. 136, p. 217276.
Wilson, J.A., 2006, Anatomical nomenclature of fossil vertebrates: standardized terms or lingua franca?: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, v. 26, p. 511518.
Wilson, J.A., 2012, New vertebral laminae and patterns of serial variation in vertebral laminae of sauropod dinosaurs: Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology, University of Michigan, v. 32, p. 91110.
Wilson, J.A., and Sereno, P.C., 1998, Early evolution and higher-level phylogeny of sauropod dinosaurs: Society of Vertebrate Paleontology Memoir, v. 5, p. 168.
Wilson, J.A., and Upchurch, P., 2003, A revision of Titanosaurus Lydekker (Dinosauria-Sauropoda), the first dinosaur genus with a ‘Gondwanan’ distribution: Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, v. 1, p. 125160.
Wilson, J.A., and Upchurch, P., 2009, Redescription and reassessment of the phylogenetic affinities of Euhelopus zdanskyi (Dinosauria: Sauropoda) from the Late Jurassic or Early Cretaceous of China: Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, v. 7, p. 199239.
Wilson, J.A., D’Emic, M.D., Curry Rogers, K.A., Mohabey, D.M., and Sen, S., 2009, Reassessment of the sauropod dinosaur Jainosaurus (=“Antarctosaurus”) septentrionalis from the Upper Cretaceous of India: Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology, University of Michigan, v. 32, p. 1740.
Wilson, J.A., D’Emic, M.D., Ikejiri, T., Moacdieh, E.M., and Whitlock, J.A., 2011, A nomenclature for vertebral fossae in sauropods and other saurischian dinosaurs: PLoS ONE, v. 6, e17114.
Wings, O., and Sander, P.M., 2007, No gastric mill in sauropod dinosaurs: new evidence from analysis of gastrolith mass and function in ostriches: Proceedings of the Royal Society B, v. 274, p. 635640.
Worbes, M., 1999, Annual growth rings, rainfall-dependent growth and long-term growth patterns of tropical trees from the Caparo Forest Reserve in Venezuela: Journal of Ecology, v. 87, p. 391403.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of Paleontology
  • ISSN: 0022-3360
  • EISSN: 1937-2337
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-paleontology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed