Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Barnacles, their molluscan hosts, and comparative ecology in the St. Mary’s Formation (late Miocene) of Maryland, USA

  • Geerat J. Vermeij (a1) and Sara K. Ruch (a1)
Abstract

Fossils can inform the study of modern ecosystems by showing how species interactions in ancient communities compare with those today and how extinction is selective not only with respect to species but also with respect to entire modes of life. We studied the life habits and pattern of occurrence of the barnacle Chesaconcavus chesapeakensis Zullo, 1992 on the shells of the gastropod Conradconfusus parilis (Conrad) and the bivalve Chesapecten santamaria (Tucker) from Chancellor’s Point in the Windmill Point Member of the St. Mary’s Formation (late Miocene, Tortonian) of Maryland. Using several criteria, we show that the barnacle occupied living hosts only. The 59% incidence of the barnacle on Conradconfusus parilis is high compared to known living associations between barnacles and gastropods. Although Conradconfusus parilis with and without barnacles do not differ in size, suggesting that the barnacle had little effect on this gastropod, there is some indication that Chesapecten santamaria with barnacles are somewhat smaller than those without and may therefore have been adversely affected by the presence of barnacles. On the basis of morphology and the low (15%) incidence of repaired scars, Conradconfusus parilis was a predator that did not use its shell lip to subdue prey. No ecological equivalents of Conradconfusus and Chesaconcavus have existed in the temperate northwestern Atlantic between Cape Cod and Cape Hatteras for the past three million years.

Copyright
References
Hide All
Abbate D., and Simone L.R.L., 2015, Review of Pugilina from the Atlantic with description of a new species from Brazil (Neogastropoda, Melongenidae): African Invertebrates, v. 59, p. 559577.
Bowling C., 1994, Habitat and size of the Florida crown conch (Melongena corona Gmelin): Why big snails hang out at bars: Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, v. 175, p. 181195.
Buschbaum C., and Saier B., 2001, Growth of the mussel Mytilus edulis L. in the Wadden Sea affected by tidal emergence and barnacle epibionts: Journal of Sea Research, v. 45, p. 2736.
Cadée G.C., 2007, Balanuliths: Free-living clusters of the barnacle Balanus crenatus : Palaios, v. 22, p. 680681.
Casey M.M., Farrell K.C., Dietl G.P., and Veilleux D.J., 2015, Mixed assemblages of drilling predators and the problem of identity in the fossil record: A case study using the muricid gastropod Ecphora : Paleobiology, v. 41, p. 680696.
Chan D.H.L., and Chan B.K.K., 2005, Effects of epibionts on the fitness of the sandy shore snail Batillaria zonalis in Hong Kong: Marine Biology, v. 146, p. 695705.
Crisp D.J., 1961, Territorial behaviour in barnacle settlement: Journal of Experimental Biology, v. 38, p. 729746.
Crisp D.J., and Barnes H., 1954, The orientation and distribution of barnacles at settlement with particular reference to surface contour: Journal of Animal Ecology, v. 23, p. 142162.
Dietl G.P., 2003a, Coevolution of a marine gastropod predator and its dangerous bivalve prey: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, v. 80, p. 409436.
Dietl G.P., 2003b, Interaction strength between a predator and dangerous prey: Sinistrofulgur predation on Mercenaria : Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, v. 289, p. 287301.
Dietl G.P., 2004, Origins and circumstances of adaptive divergence in whelk feeding behavior: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v. 208, p. 279291.
Dietl G.P., Durham S.R., and Kelley P.R., 2010, Shell repair as a reliable indicator of bivalve predation by shell-wedging gastropods in the fossil record: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v. 296, p. 174184.
Donovan S.K., 2007, A cautionary tale: Razor shells, acorn barnacles and palaeoecology: Palaeontology, v. 50, p. 14791484.
Durham S.R., Dietl G.P., and Visaggi C.C., 2012, The mismeasure of behavior: Natural history revision of prey preference in the banded tulip snail: Journal of Shellfish Research, v. 31, p. 101109.
El Ayari T., Lahbib Y., and El Menif N.T., 2015, Associated fauna and effects of epibiotic barnacles on the relative growth and reproductive indices of Stramonita haemastoma (Gastropoda: Muricidae): Scientia Marina, v. 79, p. 223232.
Gould S.J., 1971, Muscular mechanisms and the ontogeny of swimming in scallops: Palaeontology, v. 14, p. 6194.
Iyengar E.V., Sitvarin M.I., and Cataldo M., 2008, Function of the flexible periostracal hairs in Trichotropis cancellatus : Invertebrate Biology, v. 127, p. 299313.
Kent B.W., 1983, Diet expansion of Busycon contrarium in the absence of Triplofusus giganteus (Gastropoda: Buccinacea): Nautilus, v. 97, p. 103104.
Landau B., and Vermeij G.J., 2013, A new species of Pugilina (Gastropoda, Caenogastropoda, Melongeninae) from the lower Miocene Cantaure Formation of Venezuela: Basteria, v. 77, p. 8995.
Lescinsky H.L., Edinger E., and Risk M.J., 2002, Mollusc shell encrustation and bioerosion rates in a modern epeiric sea: Taphonomy experiments in the Java Sea, Indonesia: Palaios, v. 17, p. 171191.
Matthews-Cascon H., Matthews H.R., and Ferreira Belúcio L., 1990, Notas sobre a anatomia, sistemática e biologia de Pugilina morio (Linnaeus, 1758) (Mollusca: Gastropoda): Arquivos de Ciencias do Mar, v. 28, p. 38.
Morton B.S., 1985, Prey preference, capture and ration in Hemifusus tuba (Gmelin) (Prosobranchia: Melongenidae): Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, v. 94, p. 191210.
Morton B.S., 1986, Prey preference and capture by Hemifusus ternatanus (Gastropoda: Melongenidae): Malacological Review, v. 19, p. 107110.
Newman W.A., 1960, The paucity of intertidal barnacles in the tropical western Pacific: Veliger, v. 2, p. 8994.
Nielsen C., 1975, Observations on Buccinum undatum L. attacking bivalves and on prey responses, with a short review on attack methods of other prosobranchs: Ophelia, v. l13, p. 87108.
Nielsen S.N., 2009, Pliocene balanuliths from northern Chile: The first report of fossil balanuliths: Palaios, v. 25, p. 334335.
Petuch E.J., 1988, New gastropods from the Maryland Miocene: Bulletin of Paleomalacology, v. 1, p. 6982.
Petuch E.J., 1993, Patterns of diversity and extinction in Transmarian muricacean, buccinacean, and conacean gastropods: Nautilus, v. 106, p. 155173.
Petuch E.J., 2004, Cenozoic Seas: The View from Eastern North America: Boca Raton, CRC Press, 308 p.
Petuch E.J., and Drolshagen M., 2010, Molluscan Paleontology of the Chesapeake Miocene: Boca Raton: CRC Press, 160 p.
Rosenthal R.J., 1971, Trophic interaction between the sea star Pisaster giganteus and the gastropod Kelletia kelleti : Fisheries Bulletin, v. 69, p. 669679.
Schmitt R.J., Osenberg C.W., and Bercovich M.G., 1983, Mechanisms and consequences of shell fouling in the kelp snail, Norrisia norrisi (Sowerby) (Trochidae): Indirect effect of Octopus drilling: Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, v. 69, p. 267281.
Scolding J.W.S., Richardson C.A., and Luckenbach M.J., 2007, Predation of cockles (Cerastoderma edule) by the whelk (Buccinum undatum) under laboratory conditions: Journal of Molluscan Studies, v. 73, p. 333337.
Shimek R.L., 1984, The diets of Alaskan Neptunea : Veliger, v. 26, p. 264281.
Silina A.V., and Zhukova N.V., 2016, Association of the scallop Patinopecten yessoensis and epibiotic barnacle Balanus rostratus: Inter-specific interactions and trophic relationships determined by fatty acid analysis: Marine Ecology, v. 37, p. 257268.
Snyder M.A., 2002, Conradoconfusus, a replacement name for Buccinofusus Conrad, 1868, non 1866 (Mollusca, Gastropoda): Cainozoic Research, v. 1, p. 129132.
Stanley S.M., 1986, Population size, extinction, and speciation: The fission effect in Neogene Bivalvia: Paleobiology, v. 12, p. 89110.
Stupakoff I., 1986, Observations on the feeding behavior of the gastropod Pleuroploca princeps (Fasciolariidae) in the Galapagos Islands: Nautilus, v. 100, p. 9295.
Tan K.S., and Phuah C.L., 1999, Diet and feeding habits of Pugilina cochlidium (Neogastropoda: Melongenidae) in Singapore: Journal of Molluscan Studies, v. 65, p. 499501.
Taylor J.D., and Glover E.A., 2003, Food of giants—field observations on the diet of Syrinx aruanus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Turbinellidae) the largest living gastropod, in Wells, F.E., Walker, D.I., and Jones, D.S., eds., The Marine Flora and Fauna of Dampier: Western Australia, Perth, Western Australian Museum, p. 217223.
Thieltges D.W., and Buschbaum C., 2007, Vicious circle in the intertidal: Facilitating between barnacle epibiont, a shell-boring polychaete and trematode parasites in the periwinkle Littorina littorea : Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, v. 349, p. 9095.
Vermeij G.J., 2005, From Europe to America: Pliocene to Recent trans-Atlantic expansion of cold-water North Atlantic molluscs: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, v. 272, p. 25452550.
Vermeij G.J., 2012, The evolution of gigantism on temperate seashores: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, v. 106, p. 776793.
Vermeij G.J., 2015, Fossil predation: Did some clavilithine fasciolariid gastropods employ valve-wedging to feed on bivalves?: Vita Malacologica, v. 13, p. 2730.
Vermeij G.J., 2017, Shell features associated with the sand-burying habit in gastropods: Journal of Molluscan Studies, v. 83, p. 153160.
Vermeij G.J., and Raven H., 2009, Southeast Asia as the birthplace of unusual traits: The Melongenidae (Gastropoda) of northwest Borneo: Contributions to Zoology, v. 78, p. 113127.
Vermeij G.J., Dietl G.P., and Reid D.G., 2008, The trans-Atlantic history of diversity and body size in ecological guilds: Ecology, v. 89, p. S39S52.
Walker S.E., 1988, Taphonomic significance of hermit crabs (Anomura: Paguridea): Epifaunal hermit crab – infaunal gastropod example: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v. 63, p. 4571.
Walker S.E., 1992, Criteria for recognizing marine hermit crabs in the fossil record using gastropod shells: Journal of Paleontology, v. 66, p. 535558.
Ward L.W., 1992, Molluscan biostratigraphy of the Miocene, Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain of North America: Virginia Museum of Natural History Memoir, v. 2, p. 1159.
Ward L.W., and Blackwelder B.W., 1975, Chesapecten, a new genus of Pectinidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia) from the Miocene and Pliocene of eastern North America: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper, v. 861, p. 124.
Wethey D.S., 1986, Ranking of settlement cues by barnacle larvae: Influence of surface contour: Bulletin of Marine Science, v. 39, p. 393400.
Zullo V.A., 1992, Revision of the balanid barnacle genus Concavus Newman, 1982, with the description of a new subfamily, two new genera, and eight new species: Paleontological Society Memoir, v. 27, p. 146.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of Paleontology
  • ISSN: 0022-3360
  • EISSN: 1937-2337
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-paleontology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 3
Total number of PDF views: 10 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 83 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 30th January 2018 - 21st February 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.