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Deconstructing an Ediacaran frond: three-dimensional preservation of Arborea from Ediacara, South Australia

  • Marc Laflamme (a1), James G. Gehling (a2) and Mary L. Droser (a3)

Abstract

Exquisitely preserved three-dimensional examples of the classic Ediacaran (late Neoproterozoic; 570–541 Ma) frond Charniodiscus arboreus Jenkins and Gehling, 1978 (herein referred to as Arborea arborea Glaessner in Glaessner and Daily, 1959) are reported from the Ediacara Member, Rawnsley Quartzite of South Australia, and allow for a detailed reinterpretation of its functional morphology and taxonomy. New specimens cast in three dimensions within sandy event beds showcase detailed branching morphology that highlights possible internal features that are strikingly different from rangeomorph and erniettomorph fronds. Combined with dozens of well-preserved two-dimensional impressions from the Flinders Ranges of South Australia, morphological variations within the traditional Arborea morphotype are interpreted as representing various stages of external molding. In rare cases, taphomorphs (morphological variants attributable to preservation) represent composite molding of internal features consisting of structural supports or anchoring sites for branching structures. Each primary branch consists of a central primary branching stalk from which emerge several oval secondary branches, which likely correspond to similar structures found in rare two-dimensional specimens. Considering this new evidence, previous synonymies within the Arboreomorpha are no longer justified, and we suggest that the taxonomy of the group be revised.

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This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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