Skip to main content
×
Home

Gladius-bearing coleoids from the Upper Cretaceous Lebanese Lagerstätten: diversity, morphology, and phylogenetic implications

  • Romain Jattiot (a1) (a2), Arnaud Brayard (a1), Emmanuel Fara (a1) and Sylvain Charbonnier (a3)
Abstract
Abstract

Gladius-bearing coleoids are rare in the fossil record. For the Cretaceous period, these cephalopods are mainly recorded in a few Lagerstätten in Lebanon (Haqel, Hajoula, En Nammoura, and Sahel Aalma). Here, we study 16 specimens of gladius-bearing coleoids from these Upper Cretaceous Lebanese Lagerstätten to investigate their taxonomic diversity. Besides two species that were already reported (Dorateuthis syriaca and Glyphiteuthis libanotica), one new species is identified in the Cenomanian site of Hajoula: Rachiteuthis acutali n. sp., as well as another form of Glyphiteuthis from En Nammoura. Several studied specimens exhibit well-preserved soft-part characters. Among them, we document for the first time two transverse rows of sessile suckers in D. syriaca and we confirm the absence of tentacles, as well as the presence of a crop in this species. This strongly supports the phylogenetic proximity of D. syriaca with modern vampyropods rather than with modern decabrachians. In turn, the similarity in gladius morphology between this taxon and modern squids is regarded as convergent.

Copyright
References
Hide All
Agassiz L., 1847, An introduction to the study of natural history in a series of lectures delivered in the hall of the College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, 58 p.
Arkhipkin A.I., Bizikov V., and Fuchs D., 2012, Vestigial phragmocone in the gladius points to a deepwater origin of squid (Mollusca: Cephalopoda): Deep-sea Research I, v. 61, p. 109122.
Audo D., and Charbonnier S., 2013, Late Cretaceous crest-bearing shrimps from the Sahel Alma Lagerstätte of Lebanon: Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, v. 58, p. 335349.
Bandel K., and Leich H., 1986, Jurassic Vampyromorpha (dibranchiate cephalopods): Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Monatshefte, v. 1986, p. 129148.
Bather F.A., 1888, Shell-growth in Cephalopoda (Siphonopoda): Annals and Magazine of Natural History, v. 6, p. 421427.
Binkhorst van den Binkhorst J.-T., 1861, Monographie des Gastropodes et Céphalopodes de la Craie Supérieure du Limburg: Brussels, Belgium, Maastricht, the Netherlands, Verlag Muller, 44 p.
Bizikov V.A., 2008, Evolution of the Shell in Cephalopoda: Moscow, Russia, VNIRO Publishing, 445 p.
Boettger C.R., 1952, Die Stamme des Tierreichs in ihrer systematischen Gliederung: Abhandlungen der Braunschweigischen Wissenschaftilchen Gesellschaft, v. 4, p. 238300.
Boletzky S.V., 1992, Evolutionary aspects of development, life style, and reproduction mode in incirrate octopods (Mollusca, Cephalopoda): Revue Suisse de Zoologie, v. 4, p. 755770.
Boyle P.R., and Rodhouse P.G., 2005, Cephalopods: Ecology and Fisheries: Oxford, UK, Blackwell Science, 452 p.
Charbonnier S., 2009, Le Lagerstätte de La Voulte: un environnement bathyal au Jurassique: Mémoires du Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, v. 199, p. 1272.
Chun C., 1903, Aus den Tiefen des Weltmeeres: Schilderungen von der Deutschen Tiefsee-Expedition, 549 p.
Cuvier G., 1797, Tableau Élémentaire de l’Histoire Naturelle des Animaux: Paris, France, Baudouin, 710 p.
Doguzhaeva L.A., 2005, A gladius-bearing coleoid cephalopod from the Aptian of Central Russia: Mitteilungen des Geologisch-Paläontologischen Instituts, Universität Hamburg, v. 89, p. 4148.
Doguzhaeva L.A., and Mutvei H., 2003, Gladius composition and ultrastructure in extinct squid-like coleoids Loligosepia, Trachyteuthis and Teudopsis: Revue de Paléobiologie, v. 22, p. 877894.
Donovan D.T., 1977, Evolution of the dibranchiate Cephalopoda: Symposia of the Zoological Society of London, v. 38, p. 1548.
Donovan D.T., and Toll R.B., 1988, The gladius in coleoid (Cephalopoda) evolution, in Clarke, M.R., and Trueman, E.R., eds., The Mollusca. Palaeontology and Neontology of Cephalopods, Vol. 12, San Diego, California, Academic Press, p. 89101.
Donovan D.T., and Strugnell J., 2010, A redescription of the fossil coleoid cephalopod genus Palaeololigo Naef, 1921 and its relationship to recent squids: Journal of Natural History, v. 44, p. 14751492.
Doyle P., Donovan D.T., and Nixon M., 1994, Phylogeny and systematics of the Coleoida: Paleontological Contributions, v. 5, p. 115.
Ejel F., and Dubertret L., 1966, Sur l’âge précis du gisement de poissons et de crustacés de Sahel Alma (Liban): Compte Rendu Sommaire des Séances de la Société Géologique de France, v. 6, p. 353.
Engeser T., 1988, Vampyromorpha (“Fossile Teuthiden”), in Westphal, F., ed. Fossilium Catalogus. I: Animalia, vol. 130, Amsterdam, Kugler Publications, p. 1167.
Engeser T., and Reitner J., 1985, Teuthiden aus dem Unterapt (“Töck”) von Helgoland (Schleswig-Holstein, Norddeutschland): Paläontologische Zeitschrift, v. 59, p. 245260.
Engeser T., and Reitner J., 1986, Coleoidenreste aus der Oberkreide des Libanon im Staatlichen Museum für Naturkunde in Stuttgart: Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde, Series B, v. 124, p. 117.
Engeser T., and Keupp H., 1999, Zwei neue vampyromorphe Tintenfische (Coleoidea, Cephalopoda) aus dem oberjurassischen Solnhofener Plattenkalk von Eichstätt: Archaeopteryx, v. 17, p. 2132.
Eudes-Deslongchamps J.-A., 1835, Mémoire sur les Teudopsides, animaux fossiles, voisins des calmars: Mémoires de la Société Linnéenne de Normandie, v. 5, p. 6878.
Ferry S., Merran Y., Grosheny D., and Mroueh M., 2007, The Cretaceous of Lebanon in the Middle East (levant) context: Carnets de Géologie, Mémoire 2007/2 Abstract 08, p. 3842.
Fioroni P., 1981, Die Sonderstellung der Sepioliden, ein Vergleich der Ordnungen der rezenten Cephalopoden: Zoologische Jahrbücher, Systematik, v. 108, p. 178228.
Fischer J.-C., and Riou B., 1982, Les Teuthoïdes (Cephalopoda, Dibranchiata) du Callovien Inférieur de la Voulte-sur-Rhône (Ardèche, France): Annales de Paléontologie, v. 68, p. 295325.
Forey P.L., Yi L., Patterson C., and Davies C.E., 2003, Fossil fishes from the Cenomanian (Upper Cretaceous) of Namoura, Lebanon: Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, v. 1, p. 227330.
Fraas O., 1878, Geologisches aus dem Libanon: Jahreshefte des Vereins für vaterländische Naturkunde in Württemberg, v. 34, p. 257391.
Fritsch A., 1910, Neue Cephalopoden aus der Kreideformation Boehmens, in Fritsch, A., ed., Miscellanea Palaeontologica II. Volume Mesozoica: Prague, Czech Republic, p. 1215.
Fuchs D., 2006a, Diversity, taxonomy and morphology of vampyropod coleoids (Cephalopoda) from the Upper Cretaceous of Lebanon: Memorie della Società Italiana di Scienze Naturali et del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Milano, v. 34, p. 128.
Fuchs D., 2006b, Fossil erhaltungsfähige Merkmalskomplexe der Coleoidea (Cephalopoda) und ihre phylogenetische Bedeutung: Berliner Paläobiologische Abhandlungen, v. 8, p. 1115.
Fuchs D., 2007, Coleoid cephalopods from the Plattenkalks of the late Jurassic of southern Germany and the late Cretaceous of Lebanon–a faunal comparison: Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Abhandlungen, v. 245, p. 5969.
Fuchs D., 2009, Octobrachia––a diphyletic taxon?: Berliner Paläobiologische Abhandlungen, v. 10, p. 182192.
Fuchs D., and Weis R., 2008, Taxonomy, morphology and phylogeny of Lower Jurassic loligosepiid coleoids (Cephalopoda): Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Abhandlungen, v. 249, p. 93112.
Fuchs D., and Weis R., 2009, A new Cenomanian (late Cretaceous) coleoid (Cephalopoda) from Hâdjoula, Lebanon: Fossil Record, v. 12, p. 175181.
Fuchs D., and Weis R., 2010, Taxonomy, morphology and phylogeny of Lower Jurassic teudopseid coleoids (Cephalopoda): Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Abhandlungen, v. 257, p. 351366.
Fuchs D., and Larson N., 2011a, Diversity, morphology and phylogeny of coleoid cephalopods from the Upper Cretaceous Plattenkalks of Lebanon–part I: Prototeuthidina: Journal of Paleontology, v. 85, p. 234249.
Fuchs D., and Larson N., 2011b, Diversity, morphology and phylogeny of coleoid cephalopods from the Upper Cretaceous Plattenkalks of Lebanon–part II: Teudopseina: Journal of Paleontology, v. 85, p. 815834.
Fuchs D., Keupp H., and Engeser T., 2003, New records of soft parts of Muensterella scutellaris Muenster, 1842 (Coleoidea) from the late Jurassic Plattenkalks of Eichstätt and their significance for octobrachian relationships: Berliner Paläobiologische Abhandlungen, v. 3, p. 101111.
Fuchs D., Engeser T., and Keupp H., 2007a, Gladius shape variation in coleoid cephalopod Trachyteuthis from the upper Jurassic Nusplingen and Solnhofen Plattenkalks: Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, v. 52, p. 575589.
Fuchs D., Klinghammer A., and Keupp H., 2007b, Taxonomy, morphology and phylogeny of plesioteuthidid coleoids from the Upper Jurassic (Tithonian) Plattenkalks of Solnhofen: Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Abhandlungen, v. 245, p. 239252.
Fuchs D., Bracchi G., and Weis R., 2009, New records of octopods (Cephalopoda: Coleoidea) from the late Cretaceous (upper Cenomanian) of Hakel and Hadjoula (Lebanon): Palaeontology, v. 52, p. 6581.
Fuchs D., Stinnesbeck W., Ifrim C., Giersch S., Gutierrez J.M.P., and Frey E., 2010a, Glyphiteuthis rhinophora n. sp., a trachyteuthidid (Coleoidea, Cephalopoda) from the cenomanian (late cretaceous) of Mexico: Paläontologische Zeitschrift, v. 84, p. 523532.
Fuchs D., Boletzky S.V., and Tischlinger H., 2010b, New evidence of functional suckers in belemnoid coleoids (Cephalopoda) weakens support for the ‘Neocoleoidea’ concept: Journal of Molluscan Studies, v. 76, p. 404406.
Fuchs D., Keupp H., and Wiese F., 2012, Protoconch morphology of Conoteuthis (Diplobelida, Coleoidea) and its implications on the presumed origin of the Sepiida: Cretaceous Research, v. 34, p. 200207.
Gayet M., 1980, Contribution à l’étude anatomique et systématique des poissons Cénomaniens du Liban anciennement placés dans les Acanthoptérygiens: Mémoires du Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Série C, Sciences de la Terre, v. 44, p. 1149.
Haas W., 1997, Der ablauf der entwicklungsgeschichte der Decabrachia (Cephalopoda, Coleoidea): Palaeontographica, Abteilung A, v. 254, p. 6381.
Haas W., 2002, The evolutionary history of the eight-armed Coleoidea, in Summesberger, H., Histon, K., and Daurer, A., eds., Cephalopods—Present & Past: Vienna, Austria, Abhandlungen der Geologischen Bundesanstalt, v. 57, p. 341351.
Haas W., 2003, Trends in the evolution of the Decabrachia: Berliner Paläobiologische Abhandlungen, v. 3, p. 113129.
Jeletzky J.A., 1965, Taxonomy and phylogeny of fossil Coleoidea (=Dibranchiata): Geological Survey of Canada, Papers 65-2, 42, p. 7678.
Jeletzky J.A., 1966, Comparative morphology, phylogeny and classification of fossil Coleoidea: Paleontological Contributions, University of Kansas, Mollusca, v. 7, p. 1166.
Kear A., Briggs D.E.G., and Donovan D.T., 1995, Decay and fossilization of non-mineralized tissue in coleoid cephalopods: Palaeontology, v. 38, p. 105131.
Klinghardt F., 1943, Vergleichende untersuchungen über tintenfische und belemnitenähnliche weichtiere: Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft naturforschender Freunde in Berlin, v. 1942, p. 517.
Kolbe H.J., 1888, Zur Kenntnis der insektenbohrgänge in fossilen hölzern: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Geologischen Gesellschaft, v. 40, p. 131137.
Kostak M., 2002, Teuthoidea from the Bohemian Cretaceous Basin (Czech Republik)–a critical review, in Summesberger, H., Histon, K., and Daurer, A., eds., Cephalopods–Present & Past, Abhandlungen der Geologischen Bundesanstalt, v. 57, p. 359369.
Kretzoi M., 1942, Necroteuthis n. gen. (ceph. dibr. Necroteuthidae n. f.) aus dem oligozän von Budapest und das system der Dibranchiata: Földtani Közlöny, v. 72, p. 124138.
Kröger B., Vinther J., and Fuchs D., 2011, Cephalopod origin and evolution: a congruent picture emerging from fossils, development and molecules: Bioessays, 112.
Lamarck J.B., 1798, Extrait d’un mémoire sur le genre de la Sèche, du Calmar et du Poulpe, vulgairement nommés Polypes de Mer: Bulletin des Sciences par la Société Philomatique de Paris, v. 5, p. 129131.
Larson N.L., Morton R.W., Larson P.L., and Bergmann U., 2010, A new look at fossil cephalopods, in Tanabe, K., Shigeta, Y., Sasaki, T., and Hirano, H., eds., Cephalopods—Present & Past: Tokyo, Japan, Tokai University Press, p. 303314.
Leach W.E., 1817, Synopsis of the orders, families, and genera of the class Cephalopoda: The Zoological Miscellany, being descriptions of new or interesting animals, v. 3, p. 137141.
Leach W.E., 1818, Sur plusieurs espèces nouvelles de la classe des cephalopodes et sur une nouvelle distribution systematique des ordres, familles et genres de cette classe: Journal de Physique, de Chimie et d'Histoire Naturelle, v. 86, p. 393396.
Lennier G., 1866, Notes pour servir à l’étude de la paléontologie Normande: Bulletin de la Société de Géologie de Normandie, v. 11, p. 2131.
Lichtenstein H.C., 1818, Von den sepien mit krallen: Isis, oder Encyclopädische Zeitung, v. 9, p. 15911592.
Linnaeus C., 1758, Systema Naturæ per Regna Tria Naturæ, Secundum Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, Cum Characteribus, Differentiis, Synonymis, Locis: Stockholm, Sweden, Laurentius Salvius, 824 p.
Lukeneder A., and Harzhauser M., 2004, The Cretaceous coleoid Dorateuthis syriaca Woodward: morphology, feeding habits and phylogenetic implications: Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums Wien, v. 106, p. 114.
Mangold K.M., and Bidder A.M., 1989a, L’appareil digestif et la digestion, in Grassé, P.-P., ed., Traité de Zoologie: Anatomie, Systématique, Biologie: Céphalopodes, Tome V, Fascicule 4, p. 321373.
Mangold K.M., and Bidder A.M., 1989b, Appareils respiratoire et circulatoire: respiration et circulation, in Grassé, P.-P., ed., Traité de Zoologie: Anatomie, Systématique, Biologie: Céphalopodes, Tome V, Fascicule 4, p. 387434.
Mangold K.M., and Young R.E., 1998, The systematic value of the digestive organs, in Voss, N.A., Vecchione, M., Toll, R., and Sweeney, M., eds., Systematics and Biogeography of Cephalopods, Smithonian Contributions to Zoology, v. 1, p. 2130.
Mangold K.M., Bidder A.M., and Portmann A., 1989a, Organisation générale des céphalopodes, in Grassé, P.-P., ed., Traité de Zoologie: Anatomie, Systématique, Biologie: Céphalopodes, Tome V, Fascicule 4, p. 769.
Mangold K.M., Bidder A.M., and Portmann A., 1989b, Structures cutanées, in Grassé, P.-P., ed., Traité de Zoologie: Anatomie, Systématique, Biologie: Céphalopodes, Tome V, Fascicule 4, p. 121162.
Marck W.Von Der, 1873, Neue Beiträge zur kenntnis der fossilen fische und anderer thierreste aus der jüngsten kreide Westfalens, sowie aufzählung sämtlicher seither in der Westfälischen kreide aufgefundenen fischreste: Palaeontographica, v. 22, p. 5574.
Meister C., 1993, Les collections du département de géologie et de paléontologie du Musée d’Histoire Naturelle de Genève, La collection des poissons du Liban: Revue de Paléobiologie, v. 12, p. 301310.
Meyer H., 1846, Mitteilungen an Prof. Bronn Gerichtet: Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geognosieund Geologie und Petrefactenkunde, v. 1846, p. 596599.
Münster G. Graf zu, 1843, Die schalenlosen cephalopoden im unteren Jura, den Lias-schiefern von Franken und Schwaben: Beiträge zur Petrefaktenkunde, v. 6, p. 5777.
Münster G. Graf zu, 1846, Ueber die schalenlosen cephalopoden des oberen juragebirges, der lithographischen kalkschiefern von Bayern: Beiträge zur Petrefaktenkunde, v. 7, p. 5165.
Naef A., 1921–1923, Fauna e flora del Golfo di Napoli, monograph no. 35, Cephalopoda: Berlin, Germany, Friedländer und Sohn, 917 p.
Naef A., 1922, Die fossilen tintenfische–eine paläozoologische monographie: Jena, Germany, Fischerverlag, G. Fischer, 322 p.
Nixon M., 1998, Cephalic cartilage of Cephalopoda, in Voss, N.A., Vecchione, M., Toll, R., and Sweeney, M., eds., Systematics and Biogeography of Cephalopods: Smithonian Contributions to Zoology, v. 1, p. 3138.
Norman M.D., 1992, Ameloctopus littoralis gen. et sp. nov (Cephalopoda, Octopodidae), a new shallow-water Octopus from tropical Australian waters: Invertebrate Taxonomy, v. 6, p. 567582.
Owen R., 1856, Descriptive Catalogue of the Fossil Organic Remains of Invertebrata: Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons of England, 260 p.
Philip J., Babinot J.F., Tronchetti G., Fourcade E., Ricou L.E., Guiaud R., Bellion Y., Herbin J.P., Combes P.E., Conee J.J., and Dercourt J., 1993, Late Cenomanian palaeoenvironments (94–92Ma), in Dercourt, J., Ricou, L.E., and Vrielynck, B., eds., Atlas Tethys Palaeoenvironmental Maps: Paris, France, Gauthier-Villarss.
Quenstedt F.A., 1849, Petrefactenkunde Deutschlands, 1. Abteilung, 1. Band, Cephalopoden: Tübingen, Germany, Verlag Fues, 581 p.
Regteren Altena C.O.V., 1949, Teyler’s Museum systematic catalogue of the palaeontological collection–sixth supplement (Teuthoidea): Archives du Musée Teyler, v. 3, p. 5362.
Reitner J., 2009, Preserved gill remains in Phragmoteuthis conocauda (Quenstedt, 1846–1849) (Toarcian, southern western Germany): Berliner Paläobiologische Abhandlungen, v. 10, p. 289295.
Reitner J., and Engeser T., 1982, Teuthiden aus dem barrême der insel maio (kapverdische inseln): Paläontologische Zeitschrift, v. 56, p. 209216.
Reuss A.E., 1854, Loliginidenreste in der kreideformation: Abhandlungen der königlichen böhmischen Gesellschaft für Wissenschaften, v. 5, p. 2932.
Riegraf W., 1987, Plesioteuthis arcuata Von Der Marck 1873 (Cephalopoda, Teuthida) from the Campanian (late Cretaceous) of Westfalia (NW Germany): Münsterische Forschung zur Geologie und Paläontologie, v. 66, p. 95110.
Rioult M., 1962, Un calmar fossile du Cénomanien de Haute-Normandie: Bulletin de la Société Géologique de Normandie, v. 52, p. 1013.
Roemer F.A., 1852, Die Kreidebildungen von Texas und Ihre Organischen Einschüsse: Germany, Adolf Marcus, Bonn, 100 p.
Roger J., 1946, Les invertébrés des couches à poissons du Crétacé Supérieur du Liban: Mémoires de la Société Géologique de France, v. 51, p. 192.
Roger J., 1952, Sous-classes des Dibranchiata Owen 1836, in Piveteau, J., ed., Traité de Paléontologie, v. 2, Paris, France, Masson, p. 689755.
Roman F., 1928, Callovien Inférieur–horizon à nodules de crustacés et poissons, in Sayn, G., and Roman, F., eds., Monographie Stratigraphique et Paléontologique du Jurassique Moyen de La Voulte-sur-Rhône: Travaux du Laboratoire de Géologie de la Faculté des Sciences de Lyon, v. 13, p. 102115.
Rüppel E., 1829, Abbildung und Beschreibung einiger neuer oder wenig bekannten Versteinerungen aus der Kalkschieferformation von Solnhofen: Frankfurt, Germany, Brönner Verlag, 12 p.
Rüppel E., 1844, Intorno ad alcuni cefalopodi del mare di Messina: Giornale del Gabinetto Letteràrio di Messina, v. 27–28, p. 129135.
Starobogatov Y.I., 1983, The system of the Cephalopoda, in Starobogatov, Y.I., and Nesis, K.N., eds., Taxonomy and ecology of Cephalopoda: Leningrad, USSR, Zoological Institute, USSR Academy of Sciences, p. 47.
Stoliczka F., 1863–1866, Ammonitidae, with revision of the Nautilidae, in Blanford, H.F., and Stoliczka, F., eds., The Fossil Cephalopoda of the Cretaceous Rocks of Southern India: Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India, Palaeontologia Indica (Series 1 & 3), v. 1, p. 41216.
Strugnell J., Norman M., Jackson J., Drummond A.J., and Cooper A., 2005, Molecular phylogeny of coleoid cephalopods (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) using a multigene approach; the effect of portioning on resolving phylogenies in a Bayesian framework: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, v. 37, p. 426441.
Strugnell J., Jackson J., Drummond A.J., and Cooper A., 2006, Divergence times estimates for major cephalopod groups: evidence from multiple genes: Cladistics, v. 22, p. 8996.
Sweeney M.J., and Roper C.F.E., 1998, Classification, type localities, and type repositories of recent Cephalopoda: Smithsonian Contribution to Zoology, v. 586, p. 561599.
Teichert C., 1988, Main features of cephalopod evolution, in Clarke, M.R., and Trueman, E.R., eds., The Mollusca: Paleontology and Neontology of Cephalopods, v. 12, p. 1179.
Toll R.B., 1998, The gladius in teuthoid systematics, in Voss, N.A., Vecchione, M., Toll, R., and Sweeney, M., eds., Systematics and Biogeography of Cephalopods; Smithonian Contributions to Zoology, v. 1, p. 5567.
Vecchione M., Young R.E., Donovan D.T., and Rodhouse P.G., 1999, Reevaluation of coleoid cephalopod relationships based on modified arms in the Jurassic coleoid Mastigophora: Lethaia, v. 32, p. 113118.
Voight J.R., 1993, The arrangement of suckers on octopodid (incirrata) arms as a continuous character: Malacologia, v. 35, p. 351359.
Wagner A., 1859, Revision der bisherigen systematischen bestimmungen der überreste von nackten dintenfischen aus dem süddeutschen juragebirge: Gelehrte Anzeigen der Koöniglichen Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, v. 34, p. 273278.
Wilby P.R., Hudson J.D., Clements R.G., and Hollingworth N.T.J., 2004, Taphonomy and origin of an accumulate of soft-bodied cephalopods in the Oxford Clay Formation (Jurassic, England): Palaeontology, v. 45, p. 11591180.
Whiteaves J.F., 1897, On some remains of a sepia-like cuttlefish from the Cretaceous rocks of the south Saskatchewan: The Canadian Record of Science, v. 7, p. 459462.
Woodward H., 1883, On a new genus of fossil “calamary” from the Cretaceous formation of Sahel Alma, near Beirût, Lebanon, Syria: Geological Magazine, new series, v. 10, p. 15.
Woodward H., 1896, On a fossil octopus (Calais newboldi, J. de C. Sby. MS.) from the Cretaceous of the Lebanon: Quaternary Journal of the Geological Society of London, v. 52, p. 229234.
Young R.E., and Vecchione M., 1996, Analysis of morphology to determine primary sister-taxon relationships within coleoid cephalopods: American Malacological Bulletin, v. 12, p. 91112.
Young R.E., Vecchione M., and Donovan D.T., 1998, The evolution of cephalopods and their present biodiversity and ecology: South Africa Journal of Marine Science, v. 20, p. 393420.
Zittel K.A., 1895, Mollusca. Grundzüge der Palaentologie (Palaeozoologie): München, Leibzig, Germany, Verlag von Oldenbourg, p. 386435.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of Paleontology
  • ISSN: 0022-3360
  • EISSN: 1937-2337
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-paleontology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 1
Total number of PDF views: 16 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 279 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 19th November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.