Skip to main content
×
Home

Gomphothere proboscidean (Gomphotherium) from the late Neogene of Panama

  • Bruce J. MacFadden (a1), Gary S. Morgan (a2), Douglas S. Jones (a1) and Aldo F. Rincon (a1)
Abstract
Abstract

The proboscidean Gomphotherium is reported here from the Alajuela Formation of Panama. Gomphotherium was widespread throughout Holarctica during the Miocene, and the Panama fossil represents the extreme southernmost occurrence of this genus in the New World. Allocation of the Panama Gomphotherium to a valid species is impossible given both the fragmentary material represented and the taxonomic complexity of species assigned to this genus. In North America, Gomphotherium has a relatively long biochronological range from the middle Miocene (~15 Ma) to early Pliocene (~5 Ma). Based on morphological comparisons, the Panama Gomphotherium is either middle Miocene, thus representing the earliest-known entry of this genus into Central America, or late Miocene/early Pliocene, which challenges the currently accepted middle Miocene age of the Alajuela Formation as it has been previously reported from Panama.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Gomphothere proboscidean (Gomphotherium) from the late Neogene of Panama
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Gomphothere proboscidean (Gomphotherium) from the late Neogene of Panama
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Gomphothere proboscidean (Gomphotherium) from the late Neogene of Panama
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
References
Hide All
Agassiz L., 1843, Recherches Sur Les Poissons Fossiles, Tome III (livr. 15-16). Neuchatel, Switzerland, Imprimérie de Petitpierre.
Aguilar D.H., and Laurito C.A., 2011, Nuevo registro de Gomphotherium hondurensis (Frick, 1933) (Proboscidea, Gomphoteriidae [sic.]) para el Mioceno Superior de El Salvador, América Central: Revista Geológica de América Central, v. 45, p. 95100.
Burmeister C., 1837, Handbuch der Naturgeschichte. Zum Gebrauch bei Vorlesungen entworfen. Zweite Abteilung, Zoologie, T. C. F. Enslin, Berlin, xvill+302 p.
Campbell K.E., Frailey C.D., and Romero-Pittman L., 2000, The late Miocene gomphothere Amahuacatherium peruvium (Proboscidea: Gomphotheriidae) from Amazonian Peru: implications for the Great American Faunal Interchange: Instituto Geológico Minero y Metalúrgico [Péru], Serie D, Estudios Regionales, Boletín 23, p. 1–152.
Downs E., 1952, A new mastodont from the Miocene of Oregon with remarks on Gomphotherium [sic.]: University of California Publications in Geological Sciences, v. 29, p. 120.
Falconer H., 1868, Paleontological Memoirs. Volume II: 7475, London.
Ferrusquía-Villafranca I., 1978, Distribution of Cenozoic vertebrate faunas in middle America and problems of migration between North and South America: Instituto de Geología, Universidad Nacional Autonoma México, v. 101, p. 193329.
Frick C., 1933, New remains of trilophodont-tetrabelodont mastodons: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, v. 59, p. 505652.
Gazin C.L., and Collins R.L., 1950, Remains of land mammals from the Miocene of the Chesapeake Bay Region: Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, v. 116, no. 2, p. 121.
Hay O.P., 1922, Further observations on some extinct elephants: Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, v. 35, p. 97102.
Hay O.P., 1925, On remains of mastodons found in Texas, Anacus brazosius and Gomphotherium cimarronis [sic.]: Proceedings of the United States National Museum, v. 66, no. 2572, 4 plates, p. 1–15.
Heckert A.B., Lucas S.G., and Morgan G.S., 2000, Specimens of Gomphotherium in the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science and the species-level taxonomy of North American Gomphotherium: New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin, v. 16, p. 187194.
Hendy A., 2013, Spatial and stratigraphic variation of marine paleoenvironments in the middle and upper Miocene Gatun Formation, Isthmus of Panama: Palaios, v. 28, p. 210227.
Illinger C., 1811, Prodromus systematis mammalium et avium additis terminis zoographicis utriusque classis: Berlin, Germany, C. Salfield.
Kirby M.X., Jones D.S., and MacFadden B.J., 2008, Lower Miocene stratigraphy along the Panama Canal and its bearing on the Central American peninsula: PLoS One, v. 3(7): e2791, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0002791
Lamarck J.B., 1799, Prodrome d’une nouvelle classification des coquilles: Mémoires de la Société d’Histoire Naturelle de Paris, v. 74, 29 p.
Lambert W.D., and Shoshani J., 1998, Chapter 43, Proboscidea, in Janis, C.M., Scott, K.M., and Jacobs, L.L., eds, Evolution of Tertiary Mammals of North America, Volume 1, Terrestrial Carnivores, Ungulates, and Ungulatelike Mammals: Cambridge, UK, Cambridge University Press, p. 606621.
Linnaeus C., 1758, Systema Naturae per Regna tria Naturae, secundum Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, cum Characteribus, Differentis, Synonymis, Locis (tenth edition): Stockholm, Sweden, Laurentii, Slavi, 824 p.
Lucas S.G., and Alvarado G.E., 2011, Fossil Proboscidea from the Upper Cenozoic of Central America: taxonomy, evolutionary and paleobiogeographic significance: Revista Geológica de América Central, v. 42, p. 942.
Laurito C.A., and Valerio A.L.Z., 2010, Los caballos fósiles de la formacíon Curré Cantón de Coto Brus, Costa Rica:San José, Museo Nacional Costa Rica, 131 p.
MacFadden B.J., Kirby M.X., Rincon A., Montes C., Moron S., Strong N., and Jaramillo C., 2010, Extinct peccary “Cynorcaoccidentale (Tayassuidae, Tayassuinae) from the Miocene of Panama and correlations to North America: Journal of Paleontology, v. 84, p. 288298.
McKenna M.C., and Bell S.K., 1997, Classification of Mammals Above the Species Level: New York, Columbia University Press, 631 p.
Morgan G.S., personal observation.
Morton E.S., 1977, Intratropical migration in the Yellow-Green Vireo and Piratic Flycatcher: The Auk, v. 94, p. 97106.
Mothé D., Avila L.S., and Cozzul M.A., 2012, The South American gomphotheres (Mammalia, Proboscidea, Gomphotheriidae): taxonomy, phylogeny, and biogeography: Journal of Mammalian Evolution, v. 20, p. 2332, doi 10.1007/s10914-012-9192-3.
Osborn H.F., 1923, New subfamily, generic, and specific stages in the evolution of the Proboscidea: American Museum Novitates, v. 99, 4 p.
Pearson G.A., 2005, Late Pleistocene megafaunal deposits of the Isthmus of Panama and their paleoenvironmental implications: Caribbean Journal of Science, v. 41, p. 113.
Prothero D.R., Davis E.B., and Hopkins S.B., 2008, Magnetic stratigraphy of the Massacre Lake beds (late Hemingfordian, early Miocene), northwest Nevada, and the age of the “Proboscidean Datum” in North America. Neogene Mammals: New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin, v. 44, p. 239245.
Stewart R.H., Stewart J.L., and Woodring W.P., 1980, Geologic map of the Panama Canal and vicinity, Republic of Panama: United States Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Series Map I-1232, scale 1:100,000, 1 sheet.
Tassy P., 1996a, Chapter 3. Dental homologies and nomenclature in the Proboscidea, in Shoshani, J., and Tassy, P. The Proboscidea: Evolution and Palaeoecology of Elephants and their Relatives: Oxford, Oxford University Press, p. 2125.
Tassy P., 1996b, Chapter 11. Growth and sexual dimorphism among Miocene elephantoids: the example of Gomphotherium angustidens, in Shoshani, J., and Tassy, P., The Proboscidea: Evolution and Palaeoecology of Elephants and their Relatives: Oxford, Oxford University Press, p. 92100.
Tobien H., 1972, Status of the genus Serridentinus Osborn 1923 (Proboscidea, Mammalia) and related forms: Mainzer Geowissenschaftliche Mitteilungen, v. 1, p. 143191.
Tobien H., 1973, On the evolution of mastodonts (Proboscidea, Mammalia) Part 1: The bunodont trilophodont groups: Notizblatt des Hessischen Landesamtes für Bodenforschung zu Weisbaden, v. 101, p. 202276.
Tedford R.H., Albright L.B. III, Barnosky A.D., Ferrusquía-Villafranca I., Hunt R.M. Jr., Storer J.E., Swisher C.C. III, Voorhies M.R., Webb S.D., and Whistler D.P., 2004, Mammalian biochronology of the Arikareean through Hemphillian interval (late Oligocene through early Pliocene epochs), in Woodburne, M.O., ed., Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic Mammals of North America: Biostratigraphy and Geochronology: New York, Columbia University Press, p. 169231.
Vacek M., 1877, Uber Osterreichische Mastodonten und ihre Beziehungen zu den Mastodonarten Europas: Abhandlungen der Kaiserlich-königlichen Geologischen Reichsanstalt, Wien, v. 7, Heft, 4, p. 145.
Webb S.D., Hulbert R.C. Jr., Morgan G.S., and Evans H.F., 2008, Terrestrial mammals of the Palmetto Fauna (early Pliocene, latest Hemphillian) from the Central Florida Phosphate District: Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County Science Series, v. 41, p. 293312.
Webb S.D., and Perrigo S.C., 1984, Late Cenozoic vertebrates from Honduras and El Salvador: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, v. 4, p. 237254.
Woodburne M.O., 1969, Systematics, biogeography, and evolution of Cynorca and Dyseohyus (Tayassuidae): Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, v. 141, p. 271356.
Woodring W.P., 1957, Geology and paleontology of Canal Zone and adjoining parts of Panama, Geological Survey Professional Paper 306-A, Washington DC, United States Government Printing Office, p. 1–239.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of Paleontology
  • ISSN: 0022-3360
  • EISSN: 1937-2337
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-paleontology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 21
Total number of PDF views: 217 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 177 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 14th December 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.