Skip to main content

Hurdiid radiodontans from the middle Cambrian (Series 3) of Utah

  • Stephen Pates (a1), Allison C. Daley (a1) (a2) (a3) and Bruce S. Lieberman (a4) (a5)

Radiodontan body elements, some belonging to Peytoia and Hurdia and some unassigned, have been reported from the Langston Formation (Spence Shale Member), Wheeler Formation, and Marjum Formation of the middle Cambrian (Series 3) of Utah. These identifications are reassessed in light of recent work on the morphology of the radiodontan Hurdia. New specimens of Hurdia are identified from the Spence Shale, representing mouthparts (oral cones), cephalic carapace H-elements, frontal appendages, and a single isolated swimming flap. The shape of the H-elements allows H. victoria Walcott, 1912 to be identified from the Spence Shale for the first time. The flap is larger and more complete than any reported from the Burgess Shale and allows for a better understanding of the morphology of Hurdia swimming flaps. A 3D model of a Hurdia frontal appendage indicates that there is only one morph of Hurdia frontal appendage found in both species, and apparent morphological differences between disarticulated appendages reflect a preservational continuum caused by varying oblique angles relative to the seafloor. Peytoia should no longer be reported from the Spence Shale, but its presence is confirmed in the Wheeler and Marjum formations. New mouthparts (oral cones) of Hurdia from the Spence Shale and Peytoia from the Marjum Formation with surface textures of submillimeter-diameter raised nodes are described. These new features have not been observed in material from the Burgess Shale and suggest slight differences in preservation.

Hide All
Aria C., and Caron J.B., 2015, Cephalic and limb anatomy of a new isoxyid from the burgess shale and the role of “stem bivalved arthropods” in the disparity of the frontalmost appendage: PloS One, v. 10, p. e0124979.
Babcock L.E., and Robison R.A., 1988, Taxonomy and paleobiology of some middle Cambrian Scenella (Cnidaria) and hyolithids (Mollusca) from western North America: University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, v. 121, p. 122.
Brett C.E., Allison P.A., DeSantis M.K., Liddell W.D., and Kramer A., 2009, Sequence stratigraphy, cyclic facies, and lagerstätten in the middle Cambrian Wheeler and Marjum formations, Great Basin, Utah: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v. 277, p. 933.
Briggs D.E., and Nedin C., 1997, The taphonomy and affinities of the problematic fossil Myoscolex from the lower Cambrian Emu Bay Shale of South Australia: Journal of Paleontology, v. 71, p. 2232.
Briggs D.E., and Robison R.A., 1984, Exceptionally preserved nontrilobite arthropods and Anomalocaris from the middle Cambrian of Utah: University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, v. 111, p. 123.
Briggs D.E., Lieberman B.S., Halgedahl S.L., and Jarrard R.D., 2005, A new metazoan from the middle Cambrian of Utah and the nature of the Vetulicolia: Palaeontology, v. 48, p. 681686.
Briggs D.E., Lieberman B.S., Hendricks J.R., Halgedahl S.L., and Jarrard R.D., 2008, Middle Cambrian arthropods from Utah: Journal of Paleontology, v. 82, p. 238254.
Brooks H.K., and Caster K.E., 1956, Pseudoarctolepis sharpi, n. gen., n. sp. (Phyllocarida), from the Wheeler Shale (middle Cambrian) of Utah: Journal of Paleontology, v. 30, p. 914.
Bruton D.L., 1981, The arthropod Sidneyia inexpectans, middle Cambrian, Burgess Shale, British Columbia: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, v. 295, p. 619653.
Budd G.E., 1998, Stem group arthropods from the lower Cambrian Sirius Passet fauna of north Greenland, in Fortey, R. A., and Thomas, R. H., eds., Arthropod Relationships: Dordrecht, Springer Netherlands, p. 125138.
Caron J.B., Gaines R.R., Mángano M.G., Streng M., and Daley A.C., 2010, A new Burgess Shale–type assemblage from the “thin” Stephen Formation of the southern Canadian Rockies: Geology, v. 38, p. 811814.
Chen J.Y., Ramsköld L., and Zhou G.Q., 1994, Evidence for monophyly and arthropod affinity of Cambrian giant predators: Science, v. 264, p. 13041308.
Chlupáč I., and Kordule V., 2002, Arthropods of Burgess Shale type from the middle Cambrian of Bohemia (Czech Republic): Bulletin of the Czech Geological Survey, v. 77, p. 167182.
Cong P., Ma X., Hou X., Edgecombe G.D., and Strausfeld N.J., 2014, Brain structure resolves the segmental affinity of anomalocaridid appendages: Nature, v. 513, p. 538542.
Conway Morris S., and Robison R.A., 1982, The enigmatic medusoid Peytoia and a comparison of some Cambrian biotas: Journal of Paleontology, v. 56, p. 116122.
Conway Morris S., and Robison R.A., 1986, Middle Cambrian priapulids and other soft-bodied fossils from Utah and Spain: University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, v. 117, p. 122.
Conway Morris S., and Robison R.A., 1988, More soft-bodied animals and algae from the middle Cambrian of Utah and British Columbia: University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, v. 122, p. 148.
Conway Morris S., Selden P.A., Gunther G., Jamison P.G., and Robison R.A., 2015, New records of Burgess Shale-type taxa from the middle Cambrian of Utah: Journal of Paleontology, v. 89, p. 411423.
Cui Z., and Huo S., 1990, New discoveries of lower Cambrian crustacean fossils from Western Hubei: Acta Palaeontologica Sinica, v. 29, p. 321330.
Daley A.C., and Bergström J., 2012, The oral cone of Anomalocaris is not a classic “Peytoia” : Naturwissenschaften, v. 99, p. 501504.
Daley A.C., and Budd G.E., 2010, New anomalocaridid appendages from the Burgess Shale, Canada: Palaeontology, v. 53, p. 721738.
Daley A.C., and Edgecombe G.D., 2014, Morphology of Anomalocaris canadensis from the Burgess Shale: Journal of Paleontology, v. 88, p. 6891.
Daley A.C., and Legg D.A., 2015, A morphological and taxonomic appraisal of the oldest anomalocaridid from the lower Cambrian of Poland: Geological Magazine, v. 152, p. 949955.
Daley A.C., Budd G.E., Caron J.B., Edgecombe G.D., and Collins D., 2009, The Burgess Shale anomalocaridid Hurdia and its significance for early euarthropod evolution: Science, v. 323, p. 15971600.
Daley A.C., Budd G.E., and Caron J.B., 2013a, Morphology and systematics of the anomalocaridid arthropod Hurdia from the middle Cambrian of British Columbia and Utah: Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, v. 11, p. 743787.
Daley A.C., Paterson J.R., Edgecombe G.D., García‐Bellido D.C., and Jago J.B., 2013b, New anatomical information on Anomalocaris from the Cambrian Emu Bay Shale of South Australia and a reassessment of its inferred predatory habits: Palaeontology, v. 56, p. 971990.
Elrick M., and Snider A.C., 2002, Deep-water stratigraphic cyclicity and carbonate mud mound development in the middle Cambrian Marjum Formation, House Range, Utah, USA: Sedimentology, v. 49, p. 10211047.
Gaines R.R., 2014, Burgess Shale-type preservation and its distribution in space and time. Reading and Writing of the Fossil Record: Preservational Pathways to Exceptional Fossilization: Paleontological Society Papers, v. 20, p. 123146.
Gaines R.R., and Droser M.L., 2003, Paleoecology of the familiar trilobite Elrathia kingii: An early exaerobic zone inhabitant: Geology, v. 31, p. 941944.
Gaines R.R., and Droser M.L., 2005, New approaches to understanding the mechanics of Burgess Shale-type deposits: From the micron scale to the global picture: Sedimentary Record, v. 3, p. 48.
Gaines R.R., and Droser M.L., 2010, The paleoredox setting of Burgess Shale-type deposits: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v. 297, p. 649661.
Gaines R.R., Briggs D.E., and Yuanlong Z., 2008, Cambrian Burgess Shale–type deposits share a common mode of fossilization: Geology, v. 36, p. 755758.
Gaines R.R., Hammarlund E.U., Hou X., Qi C., Gabbott S.E., Zhao Y., Peng J., and Canfield D.E., 2012, Mechanism for Burgess Shale-type preservation: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, v. 109, p. 51805184.
Garson D.E., Gaines R.R., Droser M.L., Liddell W.D., and Sappenfield A., 2012, Dynamic palaeoredox and exceptional preservation in the Cambrian Spence Shale of Utah: Lethaia, v. 45, p. 164177.
Goloboff P., and Catalano S., 2016, TNT version 1.5, including a full implementation of phylogenetic morphometrics: Cladistics, v. 32, p. 221238.
Gunther L.F., and Gunther V.G., 1981, Some middle Cambrian fossils of Utah: Brigham Young University Geology Studies, v. 28, p. 181.
Halgedahl S.L., Jarrard R.D., Brett C.E., and Allison P.A., 2009, Geophysical and geological signatures of relative sea level change in the upper Wheeler Formation, Drum Mountains, West-Central Utah: A perspective into exceptional preservation of fossils: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v. 277, p. 3456.
Hendricks J.R., 2013, Global distributional dynamics of Cambrian clades as revealed by Burgess Shale-type deposits: Geological Society, London, Memoirs, v. 38, p. 3543.
Hendricks J.R., and Lieberman B.S., 2008, New phylogenetic insights into the Cambrian radiation of arachnomorph arthropods: Journal of Paleontology, v. 82, p. 585594.
Hendricks J.R., Lieberman B.S., and Stigall A.L., 2008, Using GIS to study palaeobiogeographic and macroevolutionary patterns in soft-bodied Cambrian arthropods: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v. 264, p. 163175.
Hou X., Bergström J., and Ahlberg P., 1995, Anomalocaris and other large animals in the lower Cambrian Chengjiang fauna of southwest China: GFF, v. 117, p. 163183.
Kloss T.J., Dornbos S.Q., Chen J.Y., McHenry L.J., and Marenco P.J., 2015, High-resolution geochemical evidence for oxic bottom waters in three Cambrian Burgess Shale-type deposits: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v. 440, p. 9095.
Lerosey-Aubril R., Hegna T.A., Kier C., Bonino E., Habersetzer J., and Carré M., 2012, Controls on gut phosphatisation: The trilobites from the Weeks Formation Lagerstätte (Cambrian; Utah): PLoS One, v. 7, p. e32934.
Lerosey-Aubril R., Hegna T.A., Babcock L.E., Bonino E., and Kier C., 2014, Arthropod appendages from the Weeks Formation Konservat-Lagerstätte: New occurrences of anomalocaridids in the Cambrian of Utah, USA: Bulletin of Geosciences, v. 89, p. 269282.
Liddell W.D., Wright S.W., and Brett C.E., 1997, Sequence stratigraphy and paleoecology of the middle Cambrian Spence Shale in northern Utah and southern Idaho: Brigham Young University Geology Studies, v. 42, p. 5978.
LoDuca S.T., Caron J.B., Schiffbauer J.D., Xiao S., and Kramer A., 2015, A reexamination of Yuknessia from the Cambrian of British Columbia and Utah: Journal of Paleontology, v. 89, p. 8295.
Liu Q., 2013, The first discovery of anomalocaridid appendages from the Balang Formation (Cambrian Series 2) in Hunan, China: Alcheringa, v. 37, p. 16.
Maddison W.P., and Maddison D.R., 2017, Mesquite: A modular system for evolutionary analysis. Version 3.2:
Moore R.A., and Lieberman B.S., 2009, Preservation of early and middle Cambrian soft-bodied arthropods from the Pioche Shale, Nevada, USA: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v. 277, p. 5762.
Olcott Marshall A., Wehrbein R.L., Lieberman B.S., and Marshall C.P., 2012, Raman spectroscopic investigations of Burgess Shale–type preservation: A new way forward: Palaios, v. 27, p. 288292.
Rees M.N., 1986, A fault-controlled trough through a carbonate platform: The middle Cambrian House Range embayment: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 97, p. 10541069.
Resser C.E., 1939, The Spence shale and its fauna (with six plates): Smithsonian Institution Miscellaneous Collections, v. 97, p. 129.
Robison R.A., 1964, Late middle Cambrian faunas from western Utah: Journal of Paleontology, v. 38, p. 510566.
Robison R.A., 1965, Middle Cambrian eocrinoids from western North America: Journal of Paleontology, v. 39, p. 355364.
Robison R.A., 1991, Middle Cambrian biotic diversity: Examples from four Utah Lagerstätten, in Simonetta, A., and Conway Morris, S., eds., The Early Evolution of Metazoa and the Significance of Problematic Taxa: Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, p. 7798.
Robison R.A., and Babcock L.E., 2011, Systematics, paleobiology, and taphonomy of some exceptionally preserved trilobites from Cambrian Lagerstätten of Utah: Paleontological contributions, v. 5, p. 147.
Robison R.A., and Richards B.C., 1981, Larger bivalve arthropods from the middle Cambrian of Utah: University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, v. 106, p. 128.
Robison R.A., and Wiley E.O., 1995, A new arthropod, Meristosoma: More fallout from the Cambrian explosion: Journal of Paleontology, v. 69, p. 447459.
Robison R.A., Babcock L.E., and Gunther V.G., 2015, Exceptional Cambrian fossils from Utah: A window into the Age of Trilobites: Utah Geological Survey Miscellaneous Publications, v. 15, p. 197.
Rogers J.C., 1984, Depositional environments and paleoecology of two quarry sites in the middle Cambrian Marjum and Wheeler Formations, House Range, Utah: Brigham Young University Geology Studies, v. 31, p. 97115.
Stein M., 2013, Cephalic and appendage morphology of the Cambrian arthropod Sidneyia inexpectans : Zoologischer Anzeiger–A Journal of Comparative Zoology, v. 253, p. 164178.
Stein M., Church S.B., and Robison R.A., 2011, A new Cambrian arthropod, Emeraldella brutoni, from Utah: Paleontological Contributions, v. 3, p. 19.
Van Roy P., and Briggs D.E., 2011, A giant Ordovician anomalocaridid: Nature, v. 473, p. 510513.
Van Roy P., Daley A.C., and Briggs D.E.G., 2015, Anomalocaridid trunk limb homology revealed by a giant filter-feeder with paired flaps: Nature, v. 522, p. 7780.
Vinther J., Stein M., Longrich N.R., and Harper D.A., 2014, A suspension-feeding anomalocarid from the early Cambrian: Nature, v. 507, p. 496499.
Walcott C.D., 1911, Middle Cambrian holothurians and medusae: Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, v. 57, p. 4168.
Walcott C.D., 1912, Middle Cambrian Brachiopoda, Malacostraca, Trilobita and Merostomata: Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, v. 57, p. 145288.
Whiteaves J.F., 1892, Description of a new genus and species of phyllocarid Crustacea from the middle Cambrian of Mount Stephen, B.C.: Canadian Record of Science, v. 5, p. 205208.
Whittington H.B., and Briggs D.E., 1985, The largest Cambrian animal, Anomalocaris, Burgess Shale, British Columbia: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, v. 309, p. 569609.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of Paleontology
  • ISSN: 0022-3360
  • EISSN: 1937-2337
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-paleontology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 7
Total number of PDF views: 34 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 160 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 24th July 2017 - 17th December 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.