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A new hybodont shark (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii) from the Upper Triassic Tiki Formation of India with remarks on its dental histology and biostratigraphy

  • Mohd Shafi Bhat (a1), Sanghamitra Ray (a1) and P. M. Datta (a2)

A new lonchidiid genus, Pristrisodus, from the Upper Triassic Tiki Formation of India is described based on multiple, well-preserved, isolated teeth. Comparative analysis resulted in synonymizing Parvodus tikiensis and Lissodus duffini, which are known from the same horizon and resulted in a new taxon, Pristrisodus tikiensis n. comb. These teeth are elongated with mesiodistal length greater than or equal to twice the labiolingual width and have a high principal cusp, lateral cusplets, a distinct ridge near the crown-root junction labially and higher up on the crown lingually, weak ornamentation, and linear depression along the crown-root junction. Five morphotypes based on overall shape, robustness and crown height are determined. The teeth show a gradual monognathic heterodonty. The anterolateral teeth (morphotypes I−II) have high, pyramidal principal cusp with two or three small but pointed cusplets, and triangular labial and lingual protuberance. The posterolateral teeth (morphotypes III−IV) have four incipient cusplets, relatively low principal cusp, bilobed/rounded, hanging labial and incipient lingual protuberances. Morphotype V comprises anterior teeth that are broad, triangular and robust, and have rounded/blunt principal cusp, one cusplet, and low, hanging labial peg. Multivariate analyses corroborate the qualitative assessment of the Indian hybodonts. Dental histology of Pristrisodus n. gen., shows that it is distinctly different from other lonchidiid genera. The assemblage of freshwater sharks, along with other vertebrate microfossils of the Tiki Formation, shows similarity with that of the lower Tecovas Formation of the Chinle Group, USA. The euryhaline nature resulted in the adaptation of the hybodonts to freshwater systems in India during the Carnian.

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