Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Phylogeny and morphologic evolution of the Ordovician Camerata (Class Crinoidea, Phylum Echinodermata)

  • Selina R. Cole (a1)
Abstract
Abstract

The subclass Camerata (Crinoidea, Echinodermata) is a major group of Paleozoic crinoids that represents an early divergence in the evolutionary history and morphologic diversification of class Crinoidea, yet phylogenetic relationships among early camerates remain unresolved. This study conducted a series of quantitative phylogenetic analyses using parsimony methods to infer relationships of all well-preserved Ordovician camerate genera (52 taxa), establish the branching sequence of early camerates, and test the monophyly of traditionally recognized higher taxa, including orders Monobathrida and Diplobathrida. The first phylogenetic analysis identified a suitable outroup for rooting the Ordovician camerate tree and assessed affinities of the atypical dicyclic family Reteocrinidae. The second analysis inferred the phylogeny of all well-preserved Ordovician camerate genera. Inferred phylogenies confirm: (1) the Tremadocian genera Cnemecrinus and Eknomocrinus are sister to the Camerata; (2) as historically defined, orders Monobathrida and Diplobathrida do not represent monophyletic groups; (3) with minimal revision, Monobathrida and Diplobathrida can be re-diagnosed to represent monophyletic clades; (4) family Reteocrinidae is more closely related to camerates than to other crinoid groups currently recognized at the subclass level; and (5) several genera in subclass Camerata represent stem taxa that cannot be classified as either true monobathrids or true diplobathrids. The clade containing Monobathrida and Diplobathrida, as recognized herein, is termed Eucamerata to distinguish its constituent taxa from more basally positioned taxa, termed stem eucamerates. The results of this study provide a phylogenetic framework for revising camerate classification, elucidating patterns of morphologic evolution, and informing outgroup selection for future phylogenetic analyses of post-Ordovician camerates.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Phylogeny and morphologic evolution of the Ordovician Camerata (Class Crinoidea, Phylum Echinodermata)
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Phylogeny and morphologic evolution of the Ordovician Camerata (Class Crinoidea, Phylum Echinodermata)
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Phylogeny and morphologic evolution of the Ordovician Camerata (Class Crinoidea, Phylum Echinodermata)
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

W.I. Ausich , 1986, Early Silurian rhodocrinitacean crinoids (Brassfield Formation, Ohio): Journal of Paleontology, v. 60, p. 84106.

W.I. Ausich , 1996, Crinoid plate circlet homologies: Journal of Paleontology, v. 70, p. 955964.

W.I. Ausich , 1998a, Early phylogeny and subclass division of the Crinoidea (Phylum Echinodermata): Journal of Paleontology, v. 72, p. 499510.

W.I. Ausich , T.W. Kammer , and T.K. Baumiller , 1994, Demise of the middle Paleozoic crinoid fauna: A single extinction event or rapid faunal turnover?: Paleobiology, v. 20, p. 345361.

W.I. Ausich , T.E. Bolton , and L.M. Cummings , 1998, Whiterockian (Ordovician) crinoid fauna from the Table Head Group, western Newfoundland, Canada: Canadian Journal of Earth Science, v. 35, p. 121130.

W.I. Ausich , M.D. Gil Cid , and P.D. Alonso , 2002, Ordovician [Dobrotivian (Llandeillian Stage) to Ashgill] crinoids (Phylum Echinodermata) from the Montes de Toledo and Sierra Morena, Spain with implications for paleogeography of peri-Gondwana: Journal of Paleontology, v. 76, p. 975992.

W.I. Ausich , A.A. , and J. Gutiérrez-Marco , 2007, New and revised occurrences of Ordovician crinoids from southwestern Europe: Journal of Paleontology, v. 81, p. 13741383.

W.I. Ausich , T.W. Kammer , E.C. Rhenberg , and D.F. Wright , 2015, Early phylogeny of crinoids within the pelmatozoan clade: Palaeontology, v. 58, p. 937952.

R.S. Bassler , 1943, New Ordovician cystidean echinoderms from Olkahoma: American Journal of Science, v. 241, p. 694703.

M.A. Bell , and G.T. Lloyd , 2015, strap: An R package for plotting phylogenies against stratigraphy and assessing their stratigraphic congruence: Palaeontology, v. 58, p. 379389.

M.J. Benton , and G.W. Storrs , 1994, Testing the quality of the fossil record: Paleontological knowledge is improving: Geology, v. 22, p. 111114.

J.F. Bockelie , 1981, Functional morphology and evolution of the cystoid Echinosphaerites : Lethaia, v. 14, p. 189202.

J.P. Botting , 2003, Llanvirn (Middle Ordovician) echinoderms from Llandegley Rocks, central Wales: Palaeontology, v. 46, p. 685708.

J.C. Brower , 1994, Camerate crinoids from the Middle Ordovician (Galena Group, Dunleith Formation) of northern Iowa and southern Minnesota: Journal of Paleontology, v. 68, p. 570599.

S.J. Carlson , 2001, Ghosts of the past, present, and future in brachiopod systematics: Journal of Paleontology, v. 75, p. 11091118.

S.R. Cole , W.I. Ausich , J. Colmenar , and S. Zamora , 2017, Filling the Gondwanan gap: Diverse crinoids from the Castillejo and Fombuena formations (Middle and Upper Ordovician, Iberian Chains, Spain): Journal of Paleontology, doi: 10.1017/jpa.2016.135.

S.K. Donovan , and N. Gilmour , 2003, New camerate crinoids from the Ordovician of Scotland and Wales: Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth Sciences, v. 93, p. 155161.

J.D. Eckert , 1988, Late Ordovician extinction of North American and British crinoids: Lethaia, v. 21, p. 147167.

J.S. Farris , 1989, The retention index and rescaled consistency index: Cladistics, v. 5, p. 417419.

M. Foote , 1994, Morphological disparity in Ordovician–Devonian crinoids and the early saturation of morphological space: Paleobiology, v. 20, p. 320344.

M. Foote , 1997, Estimating taxonomic durations and preservation probability: Paleobiology, v. 23, p. 278300.

M. Foote , 1999, Morphological diversity in the evolutionary radiation of Paleozoic and post-Paleozoic crinoids: Paleobiology, v. 25, p. 1115.

M. Foote , and D.M. Raup , 1996, Fossil preservation and the stratigraphic ranges of taxa: Paleobiology, v. 22, p. 121140.

D. Gil , P. Domínguez , M. Torres , and I. Jiménez , 1999, A mathematical tool to analyze radially symmetrical organisms and its application to a new camerate from Upper Ordovician of south western Spain: Geobios, v. 32, p. 861867.

T.E. Guensburg , 2012, Phylogenetic implications of the oldest crinoids: Journal of Paleontology, v. 86, p. 455461.

T.E. Guensburg , and J. Sprinkle , 2009, Solving the mystery of crinoid ancestry: New fossil evidence of arm origin and development: Journal of Paleontology, v. 83, p. 350364.

T.E. Guensburg , and B.G. Waisfeld , 2015, South America’s earliest (Ordovician, Floian) crinoids: Journal of Paleontology, v. 89, p. 622630.

J.P. Huelsenbeck , 1994, Comparing the stratigraphic record to estimates of phylogeny: Paleobiology, v. 20, p. 470483.

T.W. Kammer , C.D. Sumrall , S. Zamora , W.I. Ausich , and B. Deline , 2013, Oral region homologies in Paleozoic crinoids and other plesiomorphic pentaradial echinoderms: PLoS ONE, v. 8, 16 p. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0077989.

P.H. Kelley , D.E. Fastovsky , M.A. Wilson , R.A. Laws , and A. Raymond , 2013, From paleontology to paleobiology: A half-century of progress in understanding life history: Geological Society of America Special Papers, v. 500, p. 191232.

J. Le Menn , and N. Spjeldnaes , 1996, Un nouveau crinoïde Dimerocrinitidae (Camerata, Diplobathrida) de l’Ordovicien supérieur du Maroc: Rosfacrinus robustus nov. gen., nov. sp.: Geobios, v. 29, p. 341351.

R.C. Moore , and L.R. Laudon , 1943a, Evolution and classification of Paleozoic crinoids: Geological Society of America Special Paper, v. 46, p. 1154.

R.C. Moore , and L.R. Laudon , 1943b, Trichinocrinus, a new camerate crinoid from Lower Ordovician (Canadian?) rocks of Newfoundland: American Journal of Science, v. 241, p. 262268.

C.E. O’Malley , W.I. Ausich , and Y. Chin , 2016, Deep echinoderm phylogeny preserved in organic molecules from Paleozoic fossils: Geology, v. 44, p. 379382.

D. Pol , and M.A. Norell , 2001, Comments on the Manhattan stratigraphic measure: Cladistics, v. 17, p. 285289.

E.C. Rhenberg , W.I. Ausich , and T.W. Kammer , 2015, Generic concepts in the Actinocrinitidae Austin and Austin, 1842 (class Crinoidea) and evaluation of generic assignments of species: Journal of Paleontology, v. 89, p. 119.

L. Shavit , D. Penny , M.D. Hendy , and B.R. Holland , 2007, The problem of rooting rapid radiations: Molecular Biology and Evolution, v. 24, p. 24002411.

M.E. Siddall , 1998, Stratigraphic fit to phylogenetics: A proposed solution: Cladistics, v. 14, p. 201208.

M.J Simms , 1993, Reinterpretation of thecal plate homology and phylogeny in the Class Crinoidea: Lethaia, v. 26, p. 303312.

A.B. Smith , 1994a, Rooting molecular trees: Problems and strategies: Biological Journal of the Linnaean Society, v. 51, p. 279292.

A.B. Smith , and S. Zamora , 2009, Rooting phylogenies of problematic fossil taxa; a case study using cinctans (stem-group echinoderms): Palaeontology, v. 52, p. 803821.

A.B. Smith , B. Lafay , and R. Christen , 1992, Comparative variation of morphological and molecular evolution through geologic time: 28S ribosomal RNA versus morphology in echinoids: Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences, v. 338, p. 365382.

J. Sprinkle , and G.P. Wahlman , 1994, New echinoderms from the Early Ordovician of west Texas: Journal of Paleontology, v. 68, p. 324338.

C.D. Sumrall , and G.A. Schumacher , 2002, Cheirocystis fultonensis, a new glyptocystitidoid rhombiferan from the Upper Ordovician of the Cincinnati Arch—Comments on cheirocrinid ontogeny: Journal of Paleontology, v. 76, p. 843851.

G.D. Webster , and C.G. Maples , 2006, Cladid crinoid (Echinodermata) anal conditions: A terminology problem and a proposed solution: Palaeontology, v. 49, p. 187212.

W.C. Wheeler , 1990, Nucleic acid sequence phylogeny and random outgroups: Cladistics, v. 6, p. 363368.

D.F. Wright , 2015, Fossils, homology, and “Phylogenetic Paleo-ontogeny”: A reassessment of primary posterior plate homologies among fossil and living crinoids with insight from developmental biology: Paleobiology, v. 41, p. 570591.

D.F. Wright , 2017, Bayesian estimation of fossil phylogenies and the evolution of early to middle Paleozoic crinoids (Echinodermata): Journal of Paleontology, doi: 10.1017/jpa.2016.141.

D.F. Wright , W.I. Ausich , S.R. Cole , E.C. Rhenberg , and M.E. Peter , 2017, Phylogenetic taxonomy and classification of the Crinoidea (Echinodermata): Journal of Paleontology, doi: 10.1017/jpa.2016.142.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of Paleontology
  • ISSN: 0022-3360
  • EISSN: 1937-2337
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-paleontology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 9
Total number of PDF views: 84 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 343 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 9th February 2017 - 21st July 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.