Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Reversal in some fossil polychaete jaws

  • C. F. Bergman (a1)
Abstract

Scolecodonts, the jaws of polychaetes, are the fossil evidence of the rich and diverse fauna that prospered in shelf seas. Among eunicid polychaetes, the largest jaws in the jaw apparatus occur in pairs. Normally these pairs are not exact mirror images of each other. Rarely, left and right jaws are found to be reversed, the jaw in the left position having the morphology of a mirror image of the normal right jaw and vice-versa. This type of morphological reversal (reversed handedness) is recorded with a frequency that varies from one reversed jaw in 430 to one in 5,838 of normal jaws. Reversed jaws so far are documented in four species from the Upper Ordovician of Indiana, USA, and one species from the Silurian of Gotland, Sweden. The reversed morphology is thought to be a natural, genetically induced feature. The polychaetes with morphological reversal grew to normal size, but never became common.

Copyright
References
Hide All
Åkesson, B. 1973. Morphology and life history of Ophryotrocha maculata sp. n. (Polychaeta, Dorvilleidae). Zoologica Scripta, 2:141144.
Babcock, L. E. 1993. Trilobite malformations and the fossil record of behavioral asymmetry. Journal of Paleontology, 67:217229.
Bergman, C. F. 1989. Silurian paulinitid polychaetes from Gotland. Fossils and Strata, 25:1128.
Bergman, C. F. 1991. Revision of some Silurian paulinitid scolecodonts from western New York. Journal of Paleontology, 65:248254.
Bergman, C. F. 1995a. Symmetroprion spatiosus (Hinde), a jawed polychaete showing preference for reef environments in the Silurian of Gotland. GFF, 117:143150.
Bergman, C. F. 1995b. Transposed scolecodonts. Abstracts, First Australian conodont symposium (AUSCOS-1) and the Boucot symposium, Sydney, 31.
Brown, N. A., and Wolpert, L. 1990. The development in handedness in left/right asymmetry. Development, Cambridge, 109:19.
Bruechner, M., McGraph, J., D'Eustachio, P., and Horwich, A. L. 1991. Establishment of left-right asymmetry in vertebrates: genetically distinct steps are involved, p. 202211. In Bock, G. R. and Marsh, J. (eds.), Biological Asymmetry and Handedness. Ciba foundation Symposium 162, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester.
Bulman, O. M. B. 1955. Graptolithina, p. 1101. In Moore, R. C. (ed.), Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Pt. V. Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press, Lawrence, Kansas.
Bulman, O. M. B. 1970. Graptolithina, p. 1103. In Teichert, C. (ed.)., Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Pt. V, 2nd edition. Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press, Lawrence, Kansas.
Burn, J. 1991. Disturbance of morphological laterality in humans, p. 292299. In Bock, G. R. and Marsh, J. (eds.), Biological Asymmetry and Handedness. Ciba foundation Symposium 162, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester.
Colbath, G. K. 1986. Jaw mineralogy in eunicean polychaetes (Annelida). Micropaleontology, 32:186189.
Colbath, G. K. 1987. Evidence for shedding of maxillary jaws in eunicoid polychaetes. Journal of Natural History, 21:443447.
Colbath, G. K. 1988. Taphonomy of Recent polychaete jaws from Florida and Belize. Micropaleontology, 34:8389.
Cooper, R. A., and Fortey, R. A. 1982. The Ordovician graptolites of Spitsbergen. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), 36:157302.
Corradini, D., and Olivieri, R. 1974. Langeites siciliensis n. sp., a polychaete jaw apparatus from the Permo-Carboniferous of northwestern Sicily. Bolletino della Società Paleontologica Italiana, 13:156163.
Ehlers, E. 1864-1868. Die Borstenwürmer, nach systematischen und anatomischen Untersuchungen dargestellt (Annelida, Chaetopoda), Leipzig. 748 p.
Eriksson, M. 1996. Taxonomy and palaeoecology of some labidognathid polychaetes from the Lower Silurian of Gotland. GFF, Jubilee Issue, 118:A59.
Eriksson, M. 1997. Lower Silurian polychaetaspid polychaetes from Gotland, Sweden. GFF, 119:213230.
Fauvel, P. 1923. Polychètes errantes, 5, Faune de France, Paris. 488 p.
Hartman, O. 1944. Polychaetous Annelids. Part V: Eunicea. Los Angeles. 200 p.
Hay, H., Kirchner, B., and Cuffey, R. J. 1992. “Excello” to basal Saluda strata on Indiana Rt 1 at South Gate Hill. In Davies, R. A., and Cuffey, R. J. (eds.), Sampling the Layer Cake that Isn't. The stratigraphy and paleontology of the “Type Cincinnatian,” Field Trip Guidebooks, 1992 Annual Meeting, Geological Society of America.
Heider, K. 1922. Über Zahnwechsel bei polychäten Anneliden. Sitzungsberichte der Deutschen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, 1922:488491.
Heider, K. 1924. Vom Zahnwechsel bei polychäten Anneliden. Sitzungsberichte der Deutschen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, 1924:258260.
Holland, S. M. 1993. Sequence stratigraphy of a carbonate-clastic ramp: The Cincinnatian Series (Upper Ordovician) in its type area. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 105:306322.
Jansonius, J., and Craig, J. H. 1971. Scolecodonts: I. Descriptive terminology and revision of systematic nomenclature; II lectotypes, new names for homonyms, index of species. Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology, 19:251302.
Jeppsson, L. 1983. Silurian conodont faunas from Gotland, p. 121144. In Taxonomy, Ecology and Identity of Conodonts. Proceedings of the ECOS III Symposium Lund 1982. Fossils and Strata, 15.
Jeppsson, L., Vira, V., and Männik, P. 1994. Silurian conodont-based correlations between Gotland (Sweden) and Saaremaa (Estonia). Geological Magazine, 131:201218.
Kielan-Jaworowska, Z. 1966. Polychaete jaw apparatuses from the Ordovician and Silurian of Poland and comparison with modern forms. Palaeontologica Polonica, 16:1152.
Lane, H. R. 1968. Symmetry in conodont element-pairs. Journal of Paleontology, 42:12581263.
Lange, F. W. 1947. Anelideos poliquetas dos folhelhos devonianos do Parana. Arquivos do Museu Paranaense, 6:161230. [English translation 1949] Polychaete annelids from the Devonian of Parana, Brazil. Bulletins of American Paleontology, 33:5-103.
Laufeld, S. 1974. Silurian Chitinozoa from Gotland. Fossils and Strata, 5:1130.
Levin, M., Johnson, R. L., Stern, C. D., Kuehn, M., and Tabin, C. 1995. A molecular pathway determining left-right asymmetry in chick embryogenesis. Cell, 82:803814.
Mierzejewski, P. 1978. Molting of the jaws of the Early Paleozoic Eunicida (Annelida, polychaeta). Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 23:7388.
Morgan, M. J. 1991. The asymmetrical genetic determination of laterality: flatfish, frogs and human handedness, p. 234250. In Bock, G. R. and Marsh, J. (eds.), Biological Asymmetry and Handedness. Ciba foundation Symposium 162, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester.
Olive, P. J. W. 1980. Growth lines in polychaete jaws (teeth), p. 561626. In Rhoads, D. C. and Lutz, R. A. (eds.), Skeletal Growth of Aquatic Organisms. Biological Records of Environmental Change. Plenum Press, New York.
Paxton, H. 1980. Jaw growth and replacement in Polychaeta. Journal of Natural History, 14:543546.
Paxton, H. 1983. Revision of the Genus Micronereis (Polychaeta: Nereididae: Notophycinae). Records of the Australian Museum, 35:118.
Paxton, H. 1987. Diopatra dexiognatha, a new species of Onuphidae (Polychaeta) from Oahu, Hawaiian Islands. Pacific Science, 40:16.
Policansky, D. 1982. Flatfishes and the inheritance of asymmetries. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 5:262265.
Policansky, D. 1984. Do genes know left from right? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 7:733735.
Scotese, C. R. and McKerrow, W. S. 1990. Revised World maps and introduction, p. 121. In McKerrow, W. S. and Scotese, C. R., (eds.), Palaeozoic Palaeogeography and Biogeography. Geological Society Memoir, 12.
Stubblefield, C. J. 1929. Notes on some early British graptolites. Geological Magazine, 66:268285.
Sweet, W. C. 1988. The Conodonta. Morphology, Taxonomy, Paleoecology and Evolutionary History of a Long-Extinct Animal Phylum. Clarendon Press, Oxford, x + 212 p.
Underhay, N. K., and Williams, S. H. 1995. Lower Ordovician scolecodonts from the Cow Head Group, western Newfoundland. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 32:895901.
Wolf, G. 1980. Morphologische Untersuchungen an den Kieferapparaten einiger rezenter und fossiler Eunicoidea (Polychaeta). Senckenbergiana Maritima, 12:1182.
Wood, W. B. and Kershaw, D. 1991. Handed asymmetry, handedness reversal and mechanisms of cell fate determination in nematode embryos, p. 143164. In Bock, G. R. and Marsh, J. (eds.), Biological Asymmetry and Handedness. Ciba foundation Symposium 162, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of Paleontology
  • ISSN: 0022-3360
  • EISSN: 1937-2337
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-paleontology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×