Skip to main content
×
Home

The role of preservation on the quantification of morphology and patterns of disparity within Paleozoic echinoderms

  • Bradley Deline (a1) and James R. Thomka (a2)
Abstract
Abstract

The loss of information resulting from taphonomic degradation could represent a significant bias in the study of morphological diversity. This potential bias is even more concerning given the uneven effect of taphonomy across taxonomic groups, depositional facies, and stratigraphic successions and in response to secular changes through the Phanerozoic. The effect of taphonomic degradation is examined using character-based morphological data sets describing disparity in Paleozoic crinoids and blastozoans. Characters were sequentially excluded from the analyses following progressive taphonomic loss to determine how morphologic metrics, such as the relative distribution of taxa in morphospace and partial disparity, changed with increasing taphonomic alteration. Blastozoans showed very little change in these metrics with decreasing preservational quality, which is a result of characters that create distance in morphospace being recognizable in isolated plates. The opposite result is present in crinoids as the characters that are important in structuring the morphospace require intact modules (i.e., the calyx) to accurately assess. Temporal and stratigraphic trends produced encouraging results in that patterns could be largely recovered even with exaggerated taphonomic biases. However, certain parts of a stratigraphic sequence should be avoided and morphological outliers could potentially play a larger role through time, though both of these biases can be easily identified and avoided. The methods presented in this study provide a way to assess potential taphonomic biases in character-based studies of morphological diversity.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      The role of preservation on the quantification of morphology and patterns of disparity within Paleozoic echinoderms
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      The role of preservation on the quantification of morphology and patterns of disparity within Paleozoic echinoderms
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      The role of preservation on the quantification of morphology and patterns of disparity within Paleozoic echinoderms
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
References
Hide All
Allison P.A., 1990, Variation in rates of decay and disarticulation of Echinodermata: Implications for the application of actualistic data: Palaios, v. 5, p. 432440.
Allison P.A., and Briggs D.E.G., 1993, Exceptional fossil record: Distribution of soft-tissue preservation through the Phanerozoic: Geology, v. 21, p. 527530.
Ausich W.I., 1997, Regional encrinites: A vanished lithofacies, in Brett, C.E., and Baird, G.C., eds., Paleontological Events: Stratigraphic, Ecological, and Evolutionary Implications: New York, Columbia University Press, p. 509519.
Ausich W.I., 2001, Echinoderm taphonomy, in Jangoux, M., and Lawrence, J.M., eds., Echinoderm Studies, Volume 6: Rotterdam, A. A. Balkema, p. 171227.
Ausich W.I., and Baumiller T.K., 1993, Taphonomic method for determining muscular articulations in fossil crinoids: Palaios, v. 8, p. 477484.
Ausich W.I., and Baumiller T.K., 1998, Disarticulation patterns in Ordovician crinoids: Implications for the evolutionary history of connective tissue in the Crinoidea: Lethaia, v. 31, p. 113123.
Ausich W.I., Kammer T.W., Rhenberg E.C., and Wright D.F., 2015, Early phylogeny of crinoids within the pelmatozoan clade: Palaeontology, v. 58, p. 937952.
Baumiller T.K., 2003, Experimental and biostratinomic disarticulation of crinoids: Taphonomic implications, in Féral, J.P., and David, B., eds., Echinoderm Research 2001: Lisse, The Netherlands, Sweits and Zeitlinger, p. 243248.
Baumiller T.K., and Hagdorn H., 1995, Taphonomy as a guide to functional morphology of Holocrinus, the first post-Paleozoic crinoid: Lethaia, v. 28, p. 221228.
Baumiller T.K., Llewellyn G., Messing C.G., and Ausich W.I., 1995, Taphonomy of isocrinid stalks: Influence of decay and autotomy: Palaios, v. 10, p. 8795.
Blyth Cain J.D., 1968, Aspects of the depositional environment and palaeoecology of crinoidal limestones: Scottish Journal of Geology, v. 4, p. 191208.
Brett C.E., 1995, Sequence stratigraphy, biostratigraphy, and taphonomy in shallow marine environments: Palaios, v. 10, p. 597616.
Brett C.E., and Baird G.C., 1986, Comparative taphonomy: A key to paleoenvironmental interpretation based on fossil preservation: Palaios, v. 1, p. 207227.
Brett C.E., and Baird G.C., 1993, Taphonomic approaches to temporal resolution in stratigraphy: Examples from Paleozoic marine mudrocks, in Kidwell, S.M., and Behrensmeyer, A.K., eds., Taphonomic Approaches to Time Resolution in Fossil Assemblages: Paleontological Society Short Courses in Paleontology 6, Knoxville, Tennessee, Paleontological Society, p. 250274.
Brett C.E., Moffat H.A., and Taylor W.L., 1997, Echinoderm taphonomy, taphofacies, and Lagerstätten, in Waters, J.A., and Maples, C.G., eds., Geobiology of Echinoderms: Paleontology Special Papers 3, p. 147190.
Brett C.E., McLaughlin P.I., Cornell S.R., and Baird G.C., 2004, Comparative sequence stratigraphy of two classic Upper Ordovician successions, Trenton Shelf (New York-Ontario) and Lexington Platform (Kentucky-Ohio): Implications for eustasy and local tectonism in eastern Laurentia: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v. 210, p. 295329.
Brett C.E., Cramer B.D., McLaughlin P.I., Kleffner M.A., Showers W.J., and Thomka J.R., 2012, Revised Telychian-Sheinwoodian (Silurian) stratigraphy of the Laurentian mid-continent: Building uniform nomenclature along the Cincinnati Arch: Bulletin of Geosciences, v. 87, p. 733753.
Briggs D.E.G., Fortey R.A., and Wills M.A., 1992, Morphological disparity in the Cambrian: Science, v. 256, p. 16701673.
Butler R.J., Brusatte S.L., Andres B., and Benson R.B.J., 2012, How do geological sampling biases affect studies of morphological evolution in deep time? A case study of pterosaur (Reptilia: Archosauria) disparity: Evolution, v. 66, p. 147162.
Cailliez F., 1983, The analytical solution of the additive constant problem: Psychometrika, v. 48, p. 343349.
Catuneanu O., 2006, Principles of Sequence Stratigraphy: Amsterdam, Elsevier, 376 p.
Ciampaglio C.N., 2004, Measuring changes in articulate brachiopod morphology before and after the Permian mass extinction event: Do developmental constraints limit morphological innovation?: Evolution and Development, v. 6, p. 260274.
Ciampaglio C.N., Kemp M., and McShea D.W., 2001, Detecting changes in morphospace occupation patterns in the fossil record: Characterization and analysis of measures of disparity: Paleobiology, v. 27, p. 695715.
Crampton J.S., 2007, Elliptic Fourier shape analysis of fossil bivalves: Some practical considerations: Lethaia, v. 28, p. 179186.
Crônier C., Renaud S., Feist R., and Auffray J., 1998, Ontogeny of Trimerocephalus lelievrei (Trilobita, Phacopida), a representative of the Late Devonian phacopine paedomorphocline: A morphometric approach: Paleobiology, v. 24, p. 359370.
Deline B., 2009, The effects of rarity and abundance distributions on measurements of local morphological disparity: Paleobiology, v. 35, p. 175189.
Deline B., 2015, Quantifying morphological diversity in early Palaeozoic echinoderms, in Zamora, S., and Rábano, I., eds., Progress in Echinoderm Palaeobiology: Cuadernos del Museo Geominero, v. 19, p. 4548.
Deline B., and Ausich W.I., 2011, Testing the plateau: A reexamination of disparity and morphologic constraints in early Paleozoic crinoids: Paleobiology, v. 37, p. 214236.
Deline B., and Ausich W.I., 2017, Character selection and the quantification of morphological disparity: Paleobiology, v. 43, p. 68–84.
Deline B., Ausich W.I., and Brett C.E., 2012, Comparing taxonomic and geographic scales in the morphologic disparity of Ordovician through early Silurian Laurentian crinoids: Paleobiology, v. 38, p. 538553.
Donovan S.K., 1991, The taphonomy of echinoderms: Calcareous multi-element skeletons in the marine environment, in Donovan, S.K., ed., The Processes of Fossilization: New York, Columbia University Press, p. 241269.
Donovan S.K., 2001, Evolution of Caribbean echinoderms during the Cenozoic: Moving towards a complete picture using all of the fossils: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v. 166, p. 177192.
Donovan S.K., Lewis D.N., Widdison R.E., and Fearnhead F.E., 2008, Ever since Ramsbottom: Silurian crinoids of the British Isles since 1954, in Ausich ,W.I., and Webster, G.D., eds., Echinoderm Paleobiology: Bloomington, Indiana University Press, p. 330345.
Dornbos S.Q., and Bottjer D.J., 2001, Taphonomy and environmental distribution of helicoplacoid echinoderms: Palaios, v. 16, p. 197204.
Eble G.J., 2000, Contrasting evolutionary flexibility in sister groups: Disparity and diversity in Mesozoic atelostomate echinoids: Paleobiology, v. 26, p. 5679.
Erwin D.H., 2007, Disparity: Morphological pattern and developmental context: Palaeontology, v. 50, p. 5773.
Ettensohn F.R., Lierman R.T., Mason C.E., Andrews W.M., Hendricks R.T., Phelps D.J., and Gordon L.A., 2013, The Silurian of central Kentucky, U.S.A.: Stratigraphy, palaeoenvironments and palaeoecology: Association of Australasian Palaeontologists Memoirs, v. 44, p. 158189.
Foote M., 1992, Paleozoic record of morphological diversity in blastozoan echinoderms: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, v. 89, p. 73257329.
Foote M., 1993, Contributions of individual taxa to overall morphological disparity: Paleobiology, v. 19, p. 403419.
Foote M., 1994, Morphological disparity in Ordovician-Devonian crinoids and the early saturation of morphological space: Paleobiology, v. 20, p. 320344.
Foote M., 1997a, The evolution of morphological diversity: Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, v. 28, p. 129152.
Foote M., 1997b, Sampling, taxonomic description, and our evolving knowledge of morphological diversity: Paleobiology, v. 23, p. 181206.
Foote M., 1999, Morphological diversity in the evolutionary radiation of Paleozoic and post-Paleozoic crinoids: Paleobiology, v. 25, supplement, 115 p.
Frest T.J., Brett C.E., and Witzke B.J., 1999, Caradocian to Gedinnian echinoderm associations of central and eastern North America, in Boucot, A.J., and Lawson, J.D., eds., Paleocommunities: A Case Study from the Silurian and Lower Devonian: Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, p. 638783.
Gorscak E., and O’Connor P. M., 2016, Time-calibrated models support congruency between Cretaceous continental rifting and titanosaurian evolutionary history: Biology Letters, v. 12, 20151047.
Gorzelak P., and Salamon M.A., 2013, Experimental tumbling of echinoderms—Taphonomic patterns and implications: Palaeogeography, Palaeogeography, Palaeoecology, v. 386, p. 569574.
Goswami A., Milne N., and Wroe S., 2011, Biting through constraints: Cranial morphology, disparity and convergence across living and fossil carnivorous mammals: Proceedings of the Royal Society B, v. 278, p. 18311839.
Gower J.C., 1971, A general coefficient of similarity and some of its properties: Biometrics, v. 27, p. 857874.
Greenstein B.J., 1991, An integrated study of echinoid taphonomy: Predictions for the fossil record of four echinoid families: Palaios, v. 6, p. 519540.
Greenstein B.J., 1992, Taphonomic bias and the evolutionary history of the family Cidaridae (Echinodermata: Echinoidea): Paleobiology, v. 18, p. 5079.
Greenstein B.J., 1993, Is the fossil record of regular echinoids really so poor? A comparison of living and subfossil assemblages: Palaios, v. 8, p. 587601.
Greenstein B.J., Pandolfi J.M., and Moran P.J., 1995, Taphonomy of crown-of-thorns starfish: Implications for recognizing ancient population outbreaks: Coral Reefs, v. 14, p. 9197.
Guensburg T.E., and Sprinkle J., 2003, The oldest known crinoids (Early Ordovician, Utah) and a new crinoid plate homology system: Bulletin of American Paleontology, v. 364, 43 p.
Hall J., 1847, Palaeontology of New York, Volume 1, Containing Descriptions of the Organic Remains of the Lower Division of the New-York System (Equivalent of the Lower Silurian Rocks of Europe). Natural History of New York, Part 6: New York, D. Appleton & Company and Wiley & Putnam; Boston, Gould, Kendall, & Lincoln; Albany, Charles van Benthuysen, 338 p.
Hess H., Ausich W.I., Brett C.E., and Simms M.J., 1999, Fossil Crinoids: Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 296 p.
Hetherington A.J., Sherratt E., Ruta M., Wilkinson M., Deline B., and Donoghue P.C.J., 2015, Do cladistics and morphometric data capture common patterns of morphological disparity?: Palaeontology, v. 58, p. 393399.
Holland S.M., and Patzkowsky M.E., 1996, Sequence stratigraphy and long-term lithologic change in the Middle and Upper Ordovician of the eastern United States, in Witzke, B.J., Ludvigsen, G.A., and Day, J.E., eds., Paleozoic Sequence Stratigraphy: Views from the North American Craton: Geological Society of America Special Paper 306, p. 117130.
Hopkins M.J., 2014, The environmental structure of trilobite morphological disparity: Paleobiology, v. 40, p. 352373.
Hughes M., Gerber S., and Wills M.A., 2013, Clades reach highest morphological disparity early in their evolution: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, v. 110, p. 1387513879.
Hunter A.W., and Zonneveld J.-P., 2008, Palaeoecology of Jurassic encrinites: Reconstructing crinoid communities from the Western Interior Seaway of North America: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v. 263, p. 5870.
Kammer T.W., Sumrall C.D., Zamora S., Ausich W.I., and Deline B., 2013, Oral region homology in Paleozoic crinoids and other plesiomorphic pentaradial echinoderms: PLoS ONE, v. 8, 16 p.
Kidwell S.M., and Baumiller T.K., 1990, Experimental disintegration of regular echinoids: Roles of temperature, oxygen, and decay thresholds: Paleobiology, v. 16, p. 247271.
Kier P.M., 1977, The poor fossil record of the regular echinoid: Paleobiology, v. 3, p. 168174.
Knauss M.J., and Yacobucci M.M., 2014, Geographic information systems technology as a morphometric tool for quantifying morphological variation in an ammonoid clade: Palaeontologia Electronica, v. 17, Art. 1.19, 27 p.
Lefebvre B., Sumrall C.D., Shroat-Lewis R.A., Reich M., Webster G.D., Hunter A.W., Nardin E., Rozhnov S.V., Guensburg T.E., Touzeau A., Noailles F., and Sprinkle J., 2013, Palaeobiogeography of Ordovician echinoderms, in Harper, D.A.T., and Servais, T., eds., Early Palaeozoic Biogeography and Palaeogeography: Geological Society of London Memoir, v. 38, p. 173198.
Lewis R.D., 1986, Relative rates of skeletal disarticulation in modern ophiuroids and Paleozoic crinoids: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 18, p. 672.
Liddell W.D., 1975, Recent crinoid biostratinomy: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 7, p. 1169.
Lloyd G.T., 2016, Estimating morphological diversity and tempo with discrete character-taxon matrices: Implementation, challenges, progress, and future directions: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, v. 118, p. 131151.
Lowenstam H.A., 1957, Niagaran reefs in the Great Lakes area, in Ladd, H.S., ed., Treatise on Marine Ecology and Paleoecology: Geological Society of America Memoir 67, p. 215248.
Macurda D.B., and Meyer D.L., 1983, Sealilies and feather stars: American Scientist, v. 71, p. 354365.
Maples C.G., and Archer A.W., 1989, Paleoecological and sedimentological significance of bioturbated crinoid calyxes: Palaios, v. 4, p. 379383.
Martin E., Lefebvre B., and Vaucher R., 2015, Taphonomy of a stylophoran-dominated assemblage in the Lower Ordovician of Zagora area (central Anti-Atlas, Morocco), in Zamora, S., and Rábano, I., eds., Progress in Echinoderm Palaeobiology: Cuadernos del Museo Geominero, v. 19, p. 95100.
McLaughlin P.I., Cramer B.D., Brett C.E., and Kleffner M.A., 2008, Silurian high-resolution stratigraphy on the Cincinnati Arch: Progress on recalibrating the layer-cake, in Maria, A.H., and Counts, R.C., eds., From the Cincinnati Arch to the Illinois Basin: Geological Field Excursions along the Ohio River Valley: Geological Society of America Field Guide, v. 12, p. 119180.
Meyer D.L., 1971, Post-mortem disarticulation of Recent crinoids and ophiuroids under natural conditions: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 3, p. 645.
Meyer D.L., 1990, Comparative taphonomy and population paleoecology of two edrioasteroid (Echinodermata) pavements: Upper Ordovician of Kentucky and Ohio: Historical Biology, v. 4, p. 155178.
Meyer D.L., and Meyer K.B., 1986, Biostratinomy of Recent crinoids (Echinodermata) at Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia: Palaios, v. 1, p. 294302.
Meyer D.L., Miller A.I., Holland S.M., and Dattilo B.F., 2002, Crinoid distribution and feeding morphology through a depositional sequence: Kope and Fairivew formations, Upper Ordovician, Cincinnati Arch region: Journal of Paleontology, v. 76, p. 725732.
Millendorf S.A., 1979, The functional morphology and life habits of the Devonian blastoid Eleutherocrinus cassedayi Shumard and Yandel: Journal of Paleontology, v. 53, p. 553561.
Nebelsick J.H., Schmid B., and Stachowitsch M., 1997, The encrustation of fossil and recent sea-urchin tests: Ecological and taphonomic significance: Lethaia, v. 30, p. 271284.
Paul C.R.C., Donovan S.K., Muir L.A., Botting J.P., Lin J.-P., and Zhang Y., 2016, Primitive Ordovician (Floian) echinoderms for Sandu, Guizhou Province, South China, and their significance: Geological Journal, v. 51, p. 143156.
Pawson D.L., 2007, Phylum Echinodermata: Zootaxa, v. 1668, p. 749764.
R Core Team, 2014, R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing: Vienna, R Foundation for Statistical Computing.
Sansom R.S., and Wills M.A., 2013, Fossilization causes organisms to appear erroneously primitive by distorting evolutionary trees: Scientific Reports, v. 3, Art. 2545, 5 p.
Schiffbauer J.D., and Laflamme M., 2012, Lagerstätten through time: A collection of exceptional preservational pathways from the terminal Neoproterozoic through today: Palaios, v. 27, p. 275278.
Shäfer W., 1972, Ecology and Palaeoecology of Marine Environments: Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 568 p.
Sheffield S.L., Zachos L.G., and Lewis R.D., 2012, A morphometric study of Erisocrinus (Crinoidea) using ArcGIS: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 44, p. 232.
Smith A.B., 1984, Echinoid Palaeobiology: London, Allen and Unwin, 190 p.
Speyer S.E., and Brett C.E., 1986, Trilobite taphonomy and Middle Devonian taphofacies: Palaios, v. 1, p. 312327.
Speyer S.E., and Brett C.E., 1991, Taphofacies controls: Background and episodic processes in fossil assemblage preservation, in Allison, P.A., and Briggs, D.E.G., eds., Taphonomy: Releasing the Data Locked in the Fossil Record: New York, Plenum Press, p. 502541.
Sumrall C.D., 2000, The biological implications of an edrioasteroid attached to a pleurocystitid rhombiferan: Journal of Paleontology, v. 74, p. 6771.
Sumrall C.D., and Waters J.A., 2012, Universal Element Homology in glyptocystitoids, hemicosmitoids, coronoids, and blastoids: Steps toward echinoderm phylogenetic reconstruction in derived Blastozoa: Journal of Paleontology, v. 86, p. 956972.
Thomka J.R., and Brett C.E., 2015, Paleoecology of pelmatozoan attachment structures from a hardground surface in the middle Silurian Massie Formation, southeastern Indiana: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v. 420, p. 112.
Thomka J.R., Mosher D., Lewis R.D., and Pabian R.K., 2012, The utility of isolated crinoid ossicles and fragmentary crinoid remains in taphonomic and paleoenvironmental analysis: An example from the Upper Pennsylvanian of Oklahoma, United States: Palaios, v. 27, p. 465480.
Thomka J.R., Brett C.E., and Simpkins B.M., 2013, Anatomy of an epibole: Microstratigraphy of the ‘bead bed’ interval in the lower Silurian Brassfield Formation of central Kentucky: Proceedings of the 3rd International Geoscience Programme Project 591 Annual Meeting, p. 316.
Thomka J.R., Brett C.E., Bantel T.E., Young A.L., and Bissett D.L., 2016, Taphonomy of ‘cystoids’ (Echinodermata: Diploporita) from the Napoleon quarry of southeastern Indiana, USA: The lower Silurian Massie Formation as an atypical Lagerstätte: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v. 443, p. 263277.
Villier L., and Eble G.J., 2004, Assessing the robustness of disparity estimates: The impacts of morphologic scheme, temporal scale, and taxonomic level in spatangoid echinoids: Paleobiology, v. 30, p. 652665.
Wagner P.J., 1997, Patterns of morphological diversification among the Rostroconchia: Paleobiology, v. 23, p. 115150.
Webber A.J., and Hunda B.R., 2007, Quantitatively comparing morphological trends to environment in the fossil record (Cincinnatian Series; Upper Ordovician): Evolution, v. 61, p. 14551465.
Webster M., and Hughes N.C., 1999, Compaction-related deformation in Cambrian olenelloid trilobites and its implications for fossil morphometry: Journal of Paleontology, v. 73, p. 355371.
Wills M.A., 1998, Cambrian and Recent disparity: The picture from priapulids: Paleobiology, v. 24, p. 177199.
Wilson G.P., Evans A.R., Corfe I.J., Smits P.D., Fortelius M., and Jernvall J., 2012, Adaptive radiation of multituberculate mammals before the extinction of dinosaurs: Nature, v. 483, p. 457460.
Witzke B.J., and Strimple H.L., 1981, Early Silurian camerate crinoids of eastern Iowa: Proceedings of the Iowa Academy of Sciences, v. 88, p. 101137.
Zamora S., Lefebvre B., Álvaro J.J., Clausen S., Elicki O., Fatka O., Jell P., Kouchinsky A., Lin J.-P., Nardin E., Parsley R., Rozhnov S., Sprinkle J., Sumrall C.D., Vizcaïno D., and Smith A.B., 2013a, Cambrian echinoderm diversity and palaeobiogeography, in Harper, D.A.T., and Servais, T., eds., Early Palaeozoic Biogeography and Palaeogeography: Geological Society of London Memoir, v. 38, p. 157171.
Zamora S., Darroch S., and Rahman I., 2013b, Taphonomy and ontogeny of early pelmatozoan echinoderms: A case study of a mass-mortality assemblage of Gogia from the Cambrian of North America: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v. 377, p. 6272.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of Paleontology
  • ISSN: 0022-3360
  • EISSN: 1937-2337
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-paleontology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 20
Total number of PDF views: 117 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 508 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 28th February 2017 - 23rd November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.