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Shell orientation terminology among the Bivalvia (Mollusca): Problems and proposed solutions

  • Jack Bowman Bailey (a1)

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Traditional terms used to describe shell orientation in bivalves are unsatisfactory in three important ways: 1) for poorly known bivalve taxa, unbiased and directionally neutral terms are sometimes needed to replace anterior and posterior where data are incomplete; 2) there is a striking absence of simple terms to apply to the long and short ends of the shell; and 3) the term lateral is either incorrectly or inconsistently applied. in the following discussion, I shall explore each of these issues and suggest remediation.

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References

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Bradshaw, J. D. and Bradshaw, M. A. 1971. Functional morphology of some fossil palaeotaxodont bivalve hinges as a guide to orientation. Palaeontology, 14(2):242249.
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Cox, L. R. 1969. Orientation and axes. Relation to biologic features, p. N78N83. In Moore, R. C. and Teichert, C. (eds.), Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Pt. N, Volume 1, Mollusca 6 Bivalvia. The Geological Society of America, and the University of Kansas.
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Newell, N. D. and Boyd, D. W. 1975. Parallel evolution in early trigonacean bivalves. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 154(2):53162.
Peel, J. S. 1991. Functional morphology of the Class Helcionelloida nov., and the early evolution of the Mollusca, p. 157178. In Simonetta, A. M. and Conway Morris, S. (eds.), The Early Evolution of Metazoa and the Significance of Problematic Taxa. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, New York, and Melbourne. 296 p.
Stanley, S. M. 1970. Relation of shell form to life habits of the Bivalvia (Mollusca). Geological Society of America, Memoir, 125:1296.
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Journal of Paleontology
  • ISSN: 0022-3360
  • EISSN: 1937-2337
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-paleontology
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