Skip to main content
×
×
Home

When Life Got Smart: The Evolution of Behavioral Complexity Through the Ediacaran and Early Cambrian of NW Canada

  • Calla Carbone (a1) and Guy M. Narbonne (a1)
Abstract

Ediacaran and early Cambrian strata in NW Canada contain abundant trace fossils that record the progressive development of complex behavior in early animal evolution. Five feeding groups can be recognized: microbial grazing, deposit-feeding, deposit-feeding/predatory, filter-feeding/predatory, and arthropod tracks and trails. The lower Blueflower Formation (ca. 560–550 Ma) contains abundant burrows that completely cover bedding surfaces with small (∼1 mm diameter) cylindrical burrows that were strictly restricted to microbial bedding surfaces and exhibited only primitive and inconsistent avoidance strategies. The upper Blueflower contains three-dimensional avoidance burrows and rare filter-feeding or possibly predatory burrows, suggesting increased behavioral responses in food gathering that marked the beginning of the agronomic revolution in substrate utilization. Cambrian strata of the Ingta Formation contain systematically meandering burrows and more diverse feeding strategies, including the onset of treptichnid probing burrows that may reflect predation. These observations imply that Ediacaran burrowers were largely characterized by crude, two-dimensional avoidance meanders that represented simple behavioral responses of individual burrowers to sensory information, and that the subsequent development of more diverse and complex feeding patterns with genetically programmed search pathways occurred during the earliest stages of the Cambrian explosion. These observations further imply that changes occurred in both the food source and substrate during the ecological transition from Proterozoic matgrounds to Phanerozoic mixgrounds.

Copyright
References
Hide All
Aitken, J. D. 1989. Uppermost Proterozoic formations in central Mackenzie Mountains, Northwest Territories, Canada. Geological Survey of Canada Bulletin, 368:126.
Alpert, S. P. 1973. Bergaueria Prantl (Cambrian and Ordovician), a probable actinian trace fossil. Journal of Paleontology, 47:919924.
Amthor, J. E., Grotzinger, J. P., Schröder, S., Bowring, S. A., Ramezani, J., Martin, M. W., and Matter, A. 2003. Extinction of Cloudina and Namacalathus at the Precambrian–Cambrian boundary in Oman. Geology, 31:431434.
Antcliffe, J. B., Gooday, A. J., and Brasier, M. D. 2011. Testing the protozoan hypothesis for Ediacaran fossils: a developmental analysis of Palaeopaschichnus . Palaeontology, 54:1,1571,175.
Archer, A. W. and Maples, C. G. 1984. Trace-fossil distribution across a marine-to-nonmarine gradient in the Pennsylvanian of southwest Indiana. Journal of Paleontology, 48:448466.
Bambach, R. K., Bush, A. M., and Erwin, D. H. 2007. Autecology and the filling of ecospace: key metazoan radiations. Palaeontology, 50:122.
Bandel, K. 1967. Trace fossils from two Upper Pennsylvanian sandstones in Kansas. The University of Kansas, Paleontological Contributions, 18:113.
Banks, N. L. 1970. Trace fossils from the late Precambrian and lower Cambrian of Finmark, Norway. Geological Journal Special Issue, 3:1924.
Banks, N. L. 1973. Trace fossils in the Halkhavarre section of the Dividal Group (?late Precambrian–lower Cambrian), Finmark. Norsk Geologisk Undersökelse, 288:16.
Bartley, J.K., Pope, M., Knoll, A. H., Semikhatov, M. A., and Petrov, P. Y. 1998. A Vendian–Cambrian boundary succession from the northwestern margin of the Siberian Platform: stratigraphy, palaeontology, chemostratigraphy and correlation. Geological Magazine, 135:473494.
Bergström, J. 1976. Lower Palaeozoic trace fossils from eastern Newfoundland. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 13:1, 6131, 633.
Billings, E. 1872. Fossils in Huronian rocks. Canadian Naturalist and Quarterly Journal of Science, 6:478.
Bottjer, D. J., Hagadorn, J. W., and Dornbos, S. Q. 2000. The Cambrian substrate revolution. GSA Today, 10:17.
Brandt, D. S. 2008. Multiple Rusophycus (arthropod ichnofossil) assemblages and their significance. Ichnos, 15:2843.
Brasier, M. D., Cowie, J., and Taylor, M. 1994. Decision on the Precambrian–Cambrian boundary stratotype. Episodes, 17:38.
Buatois, L. A. and Mángano, M. G. 1993. The ichnotaxonomic status of Plangtichnus and Treptichnus . Ichnos, 2:217224.
Buatois, L. A. and Mángano, M. G. 2003. Early colonization of the deep sea: ichnologic evidence of deep-marine benthic ecology from the early Cambrian of northwest Argentina. Palaios, 18:572581.
Buatois, L. A. and Mángano, M. G. 2004. Terminal Proterozoic–early Cambrian ecosystems: ichnology of the Puncoviscana Formation, northwest Argentina. Fossils and Strata, 51:116.
Buatois, L. A. and Mángano, M. G. 2011 a. The déja vu effect: recurrent patterns in exploitation of ecospace, establishment of the mixed layer, and distribution of matgrounds. Geology, 39:1,1631,166.
Buatois, L. A. and Mángano, M. G. 2011 b. The trace-fossil record of organism-matground interactions in space and time, p. 1528. In Noffke, N. and Chafetz, H. (eds.), Microbial mats in Siliciclastic Sediments. SEPM Special Publication 101.
Buatois, L. A. and Mángano, M. G. 2012. An early Cambrian shallow-marine ichnofauna from the Puncoviscana Formation of northwest Argentina: the interplay between sophisticated feeding behaviors, matgrounds and sea-level changes. Journal of Paleontology, 86:718.
Buatois, L. A., Almond, J., and Germs, G. J. B. 2013. Environmental tolerance and range offset of Treptichnus pedum: implications for the recognition of the Ediacaran–Cambrian boundary. Geology, 41:519522.
Callow, R. H. T. and Brasier, M. D. 2009. Remarkable preservation of microbial mats in Neoproterozoic siliciclastic settings: Implications for Ediacaran taphonomic models. Earth Science Reviews, 96:207219.
Chen, Z., Zhou, C., Meyer, M., Xiang, K., Schiffbauer, J. D., Yuan, X., and Xiao, S. 2013. Trace fossil evidence for Ediacaran bilaterian animals with complex behaviors. Precambrian Research, 224:690701.
Clarkson, E., Levi-Setti, R., and Horváth, G. 2006. The eyes of trilobites: the oldest preserved visual system. Arthropod Structure and Development, 35:247259.
Conway Morris, S. 1977. Fossil priapulid worms. Special Papers in Palaeontology, 20:195.
Conway Morris, S. and Fritz, W. H. 1980. Shelly microfossils near the Precambrian–Cambrian boundary, Mackenzie Mountains, northwestern Canada. Nature, 386:381384.
Cowie, J. W. and Brasier, M. D. 1989. The Precambrian–Cambrian Boundary: Oxford Monograph on Geology and Geophysics. Oxford University Press, Oxford, No. 12, 213 p.
Crimes, T. P. 1970. Trilobite tracks and other trace fossils from the upper Cambrian of North Wales. Geological Journal, 7:4768.
Crimes, T. P. 1973. The production and preservation of trilobite resting and furrowing traces. Lethaia, 8:3548.
Crimes, T. P. 1987. Trace fossils and correlation of late Precambrian and early Cambrian strata. Geological Magazine, 124:97119.
Crimes, T. P. 1992. Changes in the trace fossil biota across the Proterozoic–Phanerozoic boundary. Journal of the Geological Society, London, 149:637646.
Crimes, T. P. 1994. The period of early evolutionary failure and the dawn of evolutionary success: The record of biotic changes across the Precambrian–Cambrian boundary, p. 105133. In Donovan, S. K. (ed.), The Palaeobiology of Trace Fossils. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester.
Crimes, T. P. and Anderson, M. M. 1985. Trace fossils from late Precambrian–early Cambrian strata of southeastern Newfoundland (Canada): temporal and environmental implications. Journal of Paleontology, 59:310343.
Crimes, T. P. and Fedonkin, M. A. 1994. Evolution and dispersal of deep sea traces. Palaois, 9:7483.
Crimes, T.P. and McIlroy, D. 1999. A biota of Ediacaran aspect from lower Cambrian strata on the Digermul Peninsula, Arctic Norway. Geological Magazine, 136:633642.
Dahmer, G. 1937. Lebensspuren aus dem Taunusquarzit und den Siegener Schichten (Unterdevon). Preussische Geologische Landesanstalt zu Berlin, Jahrbuch 193657: 523539.
Dalrymple, R. W. and Narbonne, G. M. 1996. Continental slope sedimentation in the Sheepbed Formation (Neoproterozoic, Windermere Supergroup), Mackenzie Mountains, NWT. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 33:848862.
De Saporta, L. C. J. G. 1884. Les organismes problematiques des anciennes mers. G. Masson, Paris, 102 p.
d'Orbigny, A. D. 1882. Voyages darts l'Amérique méridionale—le Bresil, la République orientale d'Uruguay, la République Argentine, la Patagonie, la République du Chili, la République de Bolivia, la republique du Pérou—éxécuté pendant les annés 1826, 1827, 1828, 1829, 1830, 1831, 1832, et 1833. Pitois-Levrault, Ve Levrault, Paris, Strasbourg, 3.
Droser, M. L., Gehling, J. G., and Jensen, S. 2005. Ediacaran trace fossils: true and false, p.125–138. In Briggs, D. E. G. (ed.), Evolving Form and Function: Fossils and Development: Proceedings of a Symposium honoring Adolf Seilacher for his Contributions to Paleontology, in Celebration of his 80th Birthday. New Haven, Peabody Museum of Natural History, Yale University.
Droser, M. L., Jensen, S., and Gehling, J. G. 2002. Trace fossils and substrates of the terminal Proterozoic–Cambrian transition: Implications for the record of early bilaterians and sediment mixing. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 99:12,57212,576.
Durden, C. J. 1984. Age zonation of the Early Pennsylvanian using fossil insects, p.175191. In Sutherlan, P. K. and Manger, W. L., (eds.), The Atokan Series (Pennsylvanian) and Its Boundaries—A Symposium. Oklahoma Geological Survey Bulletin, 136.
Emmons, E. 1844. The Taconic System: Based on Observations in New York, Massachusetts, Maine, Vermont, and Rhode Island. Caroll and Cook, Albany, 68 p.
Ewing, M. and Davis, R. A. 1967. Lebensspuren photographed on the ocean floor, p. 259294. In Hersey, J. B. (ed.), Deep-Sea Photography. The Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, Maryland.
Fedonkin, M. A. 1981. Belomorskaya biota venda. Trudy Akademii Nauk SSSR, 342:1100.
Fedonkin, M. A. 1982. Novoye rodovoye nazvaniye dokembriyskikh kishechnopolostnykh (A new generic name for some Precambrian coelenterates). Paleontologicheskiy Zhurnal, 2:137.
Fedonkin, M. A. 1985. Paleoichnology of Vendian Metazoa, p. 112116. In Sokolov, B. S. and Ivanovskiy, A. B. (eds.), The Vendian System 1: Historic-Geological and Palaeontological Basis. Nauka, Moscow.
Fenton, C. L. and Fenton, M. A. 1937. Burrows and trails from Pennsylvanian rocks of Texas. American Midland Naturalist, 18:1,0791,084.
Fitch, A. 1850. A historical, topographical and agricultural survey of the County of Washington, pt. 2–5. Transactions of the New York Agricultural Society, 9:753944.
Fuchs, T. 1895. Studien über Fucoiden and Hieroglyphen. Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Wien, mathematischnaturwissenschaftliche Klasse. Denkschriften, 62:369448.
Gabrielse, H., Blusson, S. L. and Roddick, J. A. 1973. Geology of Flat River, Glacier Lake, and Wrigley Lake map-areas, District of Mackenzie and Yukon Territory. Geological Survey of Canada, Memoir 366.
Gehling, J. G. 1999. Microbial mats in terminal Proterozoic siliciclastics: Ediacaran death masks. Palaois, 14:4057.
Gehling, J. G. and Droser, M. L. 2009. Textured organic surfaces associated with the Ediacaran biota in South Australia. Earth Science Reviews, 96:196206.
Gehling, J. G., Narbonne, G. M., and Anderson, M. M. 2000. The first named Ediacaran body fossil, Aspidella terranovica . Palaeontology, 43:427456.
Gehling, J. G., Droser, M., Jensen, S., and Runnegar, B. 2005. Ediacaran organisms: relating form to function, p. 4366. In Briggs, D. E. G. (ed.), Evolving Form and Function: Fossils and Development. A Special Publication of the Peabody Museum of Natural History, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut.
Gehling, J. G., Jensen, S., Droser, M. L., Myrow, P. M., and Narbonne, G. M. 2001. Burrowing below the basal Cambrian GSSP, Fortune Head, Newfoundland. Geological Magazine, 138:213218.
Germs, G. J. B. 1972 a. Trace fossils from the Nama Group, South-West Africa. Journal of Paleontology, 46:864870.
Germs, G. J. B. 1972 b. New shelly fossils from Nama Group, South West Africa. American Journal of Science 272:752761.
Germs, G. J. B. 1972 c. The stratigraphy and paleontology of the Lower Nama Group, South West Africa. Chamber of Mines Precambrian Research Unit, University of Capetown, Department of Geology Bulletin, 12:1250.
Geyer, G. and Uchman, A. 1995. Ichnofossil assemblages from the Nama Group (Neoproterozoic–lower Cambrian) in Namibia and the Proterozoic–Cambrian boundary problem revisited, p. 175202. In Geyer, G. and Landing, E. (eds.), Morocco ‘95–The lower Cambrian–Middle Cambrian Standard of Western Gondwana, Beringeria Special Issue 2.
Gibson, G. G. 1989. Trace fossils from the Late Precambrian Carolina slate belt, south-central North Carolina. Journal of Paleontology, 63:110.
Gingras, M., Hagadorn, J. W., Seilacher, A., Lalonde, S. V., Pecoits, E., Petrash, D., and Konhauser, K. O. 2011. Possible evolution of mobile animals in association with microbial mats. Nature Geoscience, 4:372375.
Glaessner, M. F. 1969. Trace fossils from the Precambrian and basal Cambrian. Lethaia, 2:369393.
Glaessner, M. F. 1984. The dawn of animal life. A biohistorical study. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 244 p.
Grotzinger, J. P., Bowring, S. A., Saylor, S. Z., and Kaufman, A. J. 1995. Biostratigraphic and geochronologic constraints on early animal evolution. Science, 270:598604.
Gürich, G. 1930. Die bislang altesten Spuren von Organismen in Sudafrika. International Geological Congress (XV), 2:670680.
Hagadorn, J. W. and Bottjer, D. J. 1997. Wrinkle structures: microbially mediated sedimentary structures common in subtidal siliciclastic settings at the Proterozoic–Phanerozoic transition. Geology, 25:1,0471,050.
Hagadorn, J. W., Schellenberg, S. A., and Bottjer, D. J. 2000. Palaecology of a large early Cambrian bioturbator. Lethaia, 33:142156.
Haldeman, S. S. 1840. Supplement to number one of “A monography of Limniades, and other fresh-water univalve shells of North America,” containing descriptions of apparently new animals in different classes, and the names and characters of subgenera in Paludina and Anculosa. J. Dobson Philadelphia, 3 p.
Hall, J. 1847. Palaeontology of New York, Volume 1, C Van Benthuysen, Albany, 338 p.
Hall, J. 1852. Palaeontology of New York, Volume 2, C Van Benthuysen, Albany, 362 p.
Han, Y. and Pickerill, R. K. 1995. Taxonomic review of the ichnogenus Helminthopsis Heer 1877 with a statistical analysis of selected ichnospecies. Ichnos, 4:83118.
Häntzschel, W. 1962. Trace fossils and problematica, p. W177W245. In Moore, R. C. (ed.), Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Pt. W, Miscellanea. Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press, Lawrence.
Häntzschel, W. 1975. Miscellanea. Supplement 1, Trace fossils and problematica, p. 269. In Teichert, C. (ed.), Treatise on invertebrate paleontology. Geological Society of America, University of Kansas Press, Boulder, Colorado, Lawrence.
Hayes, B. 2003. In search of the optimal scum-sucking bottom feeder, American Scientist, 91:392396.
Heer, O. 1877. Flora fossilis Helvetiae. Die vorweltliche flora der Schweiz. J. Wurster and Co., Zurich, 182 p.
Hitchcock, E. 1858. Ichnology of New England. A report on the sandstone of the Connecticut valley, especially its fossil footprints. W. White, Boston, 220 p.
Hofmann, H. J. 1981. First record of a late Proterozoic faunal assemblage in the North American Cordillera. Lethaia, 14:303310.
Hofmann, H. J. 1990. Computer simulation of trace fossils with random patterns, and the use of goniograms. Ichnos, 1:1522.
Hofmann, H. J. and Patel, I. M. 1989. Trace fossils from the type Etcheminian Series (lower Cambrian Ratcliffe Brook Formation), Saint John Area, New Brunswick, Canada. Geological Magazine, 126:139157.
Hofmann, H. J. and Mountjoy, E. W. 2010. Ediacaran body and trace fossils in Miette Group (Windermere Supergroup) near Salient Mountain, British Columbia, Canada. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 47:1,3051,325.
Hofmann, H. J., Fritz, W. H., and Narbonne, G. M. 1983. Ediacaran (Precambrian) fossils from the Wernecke Mountains, northwestern Canada. Science, 221:455457.
Hofmann, R., Mängano, M. G., Elicki, O. and Shinaq, R. 2012. Paleoecologic and biostratigraphic significance of trace fossils from shallow-to-marginal marine environments from the middle Cambrian (Stage 5) of Jordan. Journal of Paleontology, 86:931955.
Hua, H., Chen, Z., Yuan, X., Zhang, L. and Xiao, S. 2005. Skeletogenesis and asexual reproduction in the earliest biomineralizing animal Cloudina . Geology, 33:277280.
Ivantsov, A. Y. and Malakhovskaya, Y. E. 2002. Giant traces of Vendian animals. Doklady Earth Sciences, 385A:618622.
Jensen, S. 1997. Trace fossils from the lower Cambrian Mickwitzia sandstone, south-central Sweden. Fossils and Strata, 42:1111.
Jensen, S. 2003. The Proterozoic and earliest Cambrian trace fossil record: patterns, problems and perspectives. Integrative and Comparative Biology, 43:219228.
Jensen, S. and Runnegar, B. N. 2005. A complex trace fossil from the Spitskop Member (terminal Ediacaran–?lower Cambrian) of southern Namibia. Geological Magazine, 142:561569.
Jensen, S., Gehling, J. G., and Droser, M. L. 1998. Ediacara-type fossils in Cambrian sediments. Nature, 393:567569.
Jensen, S., Saylor, B. Z., Gehling, J. G., and Germs, G. J. B. 2000. Complex trace fossils from the terminal Proterozoic of Namibia. Geology, 28:143146.
Jensen, S., Droser, M. L., and Gehling, J. G. 2006. A critical look at the Ediacaran trace fossil record, p. 115157. In Xiao, S. and Kaufman, J. K. (eds.), Neoproterozoic Geobiology and Paleobiology. Dordrecht, Spring.
Keighley, D. G. and Pickerill, R. K. 1995. Commentary: the ichnotaxa Palaeophycus and Planolites, historical perspectives and recommendations. Ichnos, 3:301309.
Keighley, D. G. and Pickerill, R. K. 1997. Systematic ichnology of the Mabou and Cumberland groups (Carboniferous) of western Cape Breton Island, eastern Canada, 1: burrows, pits, trails, and coprolites. Atlantic Geology, 33:181215.
Kitchell, J. A. 1979. Deep-sea foraging pathways: An analysis of randomness and resource exploitation. Paleobiology, 5:107125.
Koy, K. and Plotnick, R. E. 2007. Theoretical and experimental ichnology of mobile foraging, p. 428441. In Miller, W. III (ed.), Trace Fossils: Concepts, Problems, Prospects. Elsevier, Amsterdam.
Koy, K. and Plotnick, R. E. 2010. Ichnofossil morphology as a response to resource distribution: insights from modern invertebrate foraging. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 292:272281.
Książkiewicz, M. 1958. Stratigrafia serii magurskiej w Beskidzie Średnim. Państwowy Instytut Geologiczny, Biulletyn, 153:4396.
Książkiewicz, M. 1968. O niektórych problematykach z fliszu Karpat Polskich (Część III). Rocznik Polskiego Towarzystwa Geologicznego W. Krakowie, 38:317.
Książkiewicz, M. 1970. Observations on the ichnofauna of the Polish Carpathians. Geological Journal Special Issue, 3:283322.
Książkiewicz, M. 1977. Trace fossils in the flysch of the Polish Carpathians. Palaeontologica Polonica, 36:1208.
Laflamme, M., Darroch, S. A. F., Tweedt, S. M., Peterson, K. J., and Erwin, D. H., 2013. The end of the Ediacara biota: extinction, biotic replacement, or Cheshire cat? Gondwana Research, 23:558573.
Landing, E. 1994. Precambrian–Cambrian boundary global stratotype ratified and a new perspective of Cambrian time. Geology, 22:179182.
Landing, E., Geyer, G., Brassier, M. D., and Bowring, S. A. 2013. Cambrian evolutionary radiation: context, correlation, and chronostratigraphy—overcoming deficiencies in the first appearance datum (FAD) concept. Earth-Science Reviews, 123:133172.
Lee, M. S. Y., Jago, J. B., D. C. garcía-bellido, Edgecombe, G. D., Gehling, J. G., and Paterson, J. R. 2011. Modern optics in exceptionally preserved eyes of the early Cambrian arthropods from Australia. Nature, 474:631634.
Lesley, J. P. 1890. A dictionary of the fossils of Pennsylvania and neighboring states named in the reports and catalogues of the Survey. Geological Survey of Pennsylvania, Report P4, 1283 p.
Liu, A. G., McIlroy, D., and Brasier, M. D. 2010. First evidence for locomotion in the Ediacara biota from the 565 Ma Mistaken Point Formation, Newfoundland. Geology, 38:123126.
Macdonald, F. A., Pruss, S. B., and Strauss, J. V. 2014. Trace fossils with spreiten from the late Ediacaran Nama Group, Namibia: complex feeding patterns five million years before the Precambrian–Cambrian boundary. Journal of Paleontology, 88:299308.
Macdonald, F. A., Strauss, J. V., Sperling, E. A., Halverson, G. P., Narbonne, G. M., Johnston, D. T., Kunzmann, M., Schrag, D. P., and Higgins, J. A. 2013. The stratigraphic relationship between the Shuram carbon isotope excursion, the oxygenation of Neoproterozoic oceans, and the first appearance of the Ediacara biota and bilatitarian trace fossils in northwestern Canada. Chemical Geology, 362:250272.
Macleay, W. S. 1839. Note on the Annelida, p. 699701. In Murchinson, R. I. (ed.), The Silurian System Part 2 Organic Remains. I. Murray, London.
MacNaughton, R. B. and Narbonne, G. M. 1999. Evolution and Ecology of Neoproterozoic–lower Cambrian trace fossils, NW Canada. Palaios, 14:97115.
MacNaughton, R. B., Dalrymple, R. W., and Narbonne, G. M. 1997 a. Multiple orders of relative sea-level change in an earliest Cambrian passive-margin succession, Mackenzie Mountains, northwestern Canada. Journal of Sedimentary Research, 67:622637.
MacNaughton, R. B., Dalrymple, R. W., and Narbonne, G. M. 1997 b. Early Cambrian braid-delta deposits, Mackenzie Mountains, north-western Canada. Sedimentology, 44:587609.
MacNaughton, R. B., Narbonne, G. M., and Dalrymple, R. W. 2000. Neoproterozoic slope deposits, Mackenzie Mountains, northwestern Canada: implications for passive-margin development and Ediacaran faunal ecology. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 37:9971,020.
Maloof, A. C., Porter, S. M., Moore, J. L., Dudás, F. Ö., Bowring, S. A., Higgins, J. A., Fike, D. A., and Eddy, M. P. 2012. The earliest Cambrian record of animals and ocean geochemical change. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 11:1,7311,774.
Mángano, M. G., Buatois, L. A., Maples, C. G., and West, R. R. 2002. Ichnology of a Pennsylvanian equatorial tidal flat: the Stull Shale Member at Waverly, eastern Kansas. Kansas Geological Survey 245, 133 p.
Mángano, M. G., Bromley, R. G., Harper, D. A. T., Nielsen, A. T., Smith, M. P., and Vinther, J. 2012. Nonbiomineralized carapaces in Cambrian seafloor landscapes (Sirius Passet, Greenland): opening a new window into early Phanerozoic benthic ecology. Geology, 40:519522.
Maples, C. G. and Archer, A. W. 1987. Redescription of Early Pennsylvanian trace-fossil holotypes from the Whetstone Beds of Indiana. Journal of Paleontology, 61:890897.
Marenco, K. N. and Bottjer, D. J. 2008. The importance of Planolites in the Cambrian substrate revolution. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 258:189199.
McIlroy, D. and Heys, G. R. 1997. Palaeobiological significance of Plagiogmus arcuatus from the lower Cambrian of central Australia. Alcheringa, 21:161178.
McIlroy, D. and Logan, G. A. 1999. The impact of bioturbation on infaunal ecology and evolution during the Proterozoic–Cambrian transition. Palaios, 14:5872.
Meneghini, G. G. A. 1850. Paleodictyon . In Savi, P. and Meneghini, G. (eds.), Observazione stratigrafiche e paleontologiche concernati la geologie della Toscana e dei paesi limitrofi (Appendix to R. R. Murchison, Memoria sulla struttura geologie delle Alpi). Stamperia granducale, Firenze, 246 p.
Menon, L.R., McIlroy, D., Brasier, M. D. 2013. Evidence for Cnidaria-like behavior in ca. 560 Ma Ediacaran Aspidella. Geology, 41:895.
Miller, S. A. 1889. North American geology and palaeontology for the use of amateurs, students, and scientists. Western Methodist book concern, Cincinnati, Ohio, 664 p.
Missarzhevsky, V. V. 1973. Konodontoobraznye organizmy iz pogranichnykh sloev kembriya i dokembriya Sibirskoj platformy i Kazakhstana. Problemy paleontologii i biostratigrafii nizhnego kembriya Sibiri i Dalínego vostoka, p. 5357.
Myannil, R. M. 1966. O vertikalnykh norkakh zaryvaniya v Ordovikskikh izvestiyakakh Pribaltiki. Akademiya Nauk SSSR, Paleontoloicheskiy Institut, p. 200207.
Narbonne, G. M. 1994. New Ediacaran fossils from the Mackenzie Mountains, northwestern Canada. Journal of Paleontology, 68:411416.
Narbonne, G. M. 1998. The Ediacara biota; a terminal Neoproterozoic experiment in the evolution of life. GSA Today, 8:16.
Narbonne, G. M. 2005. The Ediacara biota: Neoproterozoic origin of animals and their ecosystems. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 33:421442.
Narbonne, G. M. and Aitken, J. D. 1990. Ediacaran fossils from the Sekwi, Brook and Mountains, Mackenzie, Yukon, Canada. Palaeontology, 33:945980.
Narbonne, G. M. and Aitken, J. D. 1995. Neoproterozoic of the Mackenzie Mountains, northwestern Canada. Precambrian Research, 73:101121.
Narbonne, G. M. and Hofmann, H. J. 1987. Ediacaran biota of the Wernecke Mountains, Yukon, Canada. Palaeontology, 30:647676.
Narbonne, G. M., Myrow, P. M., Landing, E., and Anderson, M. M. 1987. A candidate stratotype for the Precambrian–Cambrian boundary, Fortune Head, Burin Peninsula, southeastern Newfoundland. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 24:1,2771,293.
Narbonne, G. M., Kaufman, A. J., and Knoll, A. H. 1994. Integrated chemostratigraphy and biostratigraphy of the Windermere Supergroup, northwestern Canada: implications for Neoproterozoic correlations and the early evolution of animals. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 106:1,2811,292.
Narbonne, G. M., Xiao, S., and Shields, G. 2012. Ediacaran Period, p. 413445. In Gradstein, F., Ogg, J., Schmidt, M.D., and Ogg, G. (eds.), Geologic Timescale 2012. Elsevier, New York.
Narbonne, G. M., Laflamme, M., Trusler, P. W., Dalrymple, R. W., and Greentree, C. 2014. Deep-water Ediacaran fossils from Northwestern Canada: taphonomy, ecology, and evolution. Journal of Paleontology, 88:207223.
Nathan, R., Getz, W. M., Revilla, E., Holyoak, M., Kadmon, R., Saltz, D., and Smouse, P. E. 2008. A movement ecology paradigm for unifying organismal movement research. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the United States of America, 105:19,05219,059.
Nicholson, H. A. 1873. Contributions to the study of the errant annelids of the older Palaeozoic rocks. Royal Society of London Proceedings, 21:288290. (Also Geological Magazine, 10:309–310).
Nowlan, G. S., Narbonne, G. M., and Fritz, W. H. 1985. Small shelly fossils and trace fossils near the Precambrian–Cambrian boundary in the Yukon Territory, Canada. Lethaia, 18:233256.
Orłowski, S. 1968. Cambrian of Łysogóry Anticline in the Holy Cross Mountains. Biuletyn Instytutu Geologicznego, 10:195221. (In Polish)
Palij, V. M. 1976. Remains of soft-bodied animals and trace fossils from the upper Precambrian and lower Cambrian of Podolia, p. 6376. In Paleontologiya i stratigraphiya verkhnego dokembriya I nizhnego kembriya yugo-zapada Vostochno-Europeiskoi platformy. Naulova Dumka, Viev. (In Ukranian)
Palij, V. M., Posti, E., and Fedonkin, M. A. 1979. Myagkotelye metazoa i iskopaemye sledy zhivotnykh venda i rannego kembriya, p. 4982. In Keller, B. M. and Yu, A. Rozanov (eds.), Paleontologiya verkhnedokembrijskikh i kembrijskikh otlozhenij Vostochno-Evropejskoj platformy, Nauka, Moscow.
Paterson, J. R., García-bellido, D. C., Lee, M. S. Y., Brock, G. A., Jago, J. B., and Edgecombe, G. D. 2011. Acute vision in the giant Cambrian predator Anomalocaris and the origin of compound eyes. Nature, 480:237240.
Pemberton, S. G. and Frey, R. W. 1982. Ichnological nomenclature and the Palaeophycus–Planolites dilemma. Journal of Paleontology, 56:843881.
Pickerill, R. K. 1982. Glockerichnus, a new name for the trace fossil ichnogenus Glockeria Książkiewicz, 1968. Journal of Paleontology, 56:816.
Plotnick, R. E. and Koy, K. 2005 . Let us prey: simulations of grazing traces in the fossil record. Proceedings GeoComputation 2005: 8th International Conference on GeoComputation, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1:113.
Plotnick, R. E. 2007. Chemoreception, odor landscapes, and foraging in ancient marine landscapes. Palaeontologia Electronica, 10:111.
Plotnick, R. E. 2012. Behavioral biology of trace fossils. Paleobiology, 38:459473.
Plotnick, R. E., Dornbos, S. Q., and Chen, J. 2010. Information landscapes and sensory ecology of the Cambrian Radiation. Paleobiology, 36:303317.
Prantl, F. 1945. Dvé záhadné zkamenéliny (stopy) z vrstev chrustenickych-dδ2, Rozpravy II, Tridy Ceské Akademie, 55 (3):38.
Prescott, T. J. and Ibbotson, C. 1997. A robot tracemaker: modeling the fossil evidence of early invertebrate behavior. Artificial Life, 3:289306.
Raup, D. M. and Seilacher, A. 1969. Fossil foraging behavior: computer simulation. Science, 166:994995.
Richter, R. 1924. Flachseebeobachtungen zur Paläontologie und Geologie, VII–XI. Senckenbergiana, 6:119165.
Richter, R. 1937. Marken und Spuren aus allen Zeiten. I–II. Senckenbergiana, 19:150169.
Roedel, H. 1929. Ergänzung zu meiner Mitteilung über ein kambrisches Geschiebe mit problematischen Spuren. Zeitschrift für Geichiebeforschung, 5:4851.
Ross, G. M., Parrish, R. R., Villeneuve, M. E., and Bowring, S. A. 1989. Tectonic subdivision and U-Pb geochronology of the crystalline basement of the Alberta Basin, Western Canada. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 2103.
Runnegar, B. N. 1992. Evolution of the earliest animals, p. 6593. In Schopf, J.W. (ed.), Major Events in the History of Life. Jones and Publishers, Bartlett, Boston.
Sacco, F. 1888. Note di Paleoicnologia Italiana. Atti Societari Italiano Scienza Naturali, 31:151192.
Salter, J. W. 1857. On annelide-burrows and surface markings from the Cambrian rocks of the Longmynd and North Wales. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, 13:199205.
Schafhäutl, K. E. 1851. Geognostische Untersuchungen des südbayrischen Alpengebirges. Literarisch-artistische Anstalt, Müchen, 208 p.
Schmalfuss, H. 1981. Structure, pattern, and function of cuticular terraces in trilobites. Lethaia, 14:331341.
Seilacher, A. 1955. Spuren und Lebensweise der Trilobiten, p. 86116. In Schindewolf, O. H. (ed.), Beiträge zur Kenntnis des Kambriums in der Salt Range (Pakistan). Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur in Mainz, Wiesbaden.
Seilacher, A. 1964. Sedimentological classification and nomenclature of trace fossils. Sedimentology 3:253256.
Seilacher, A. 1967. Bathymetry of trace fossils. Marine Geology, 5:413428.
Seilacher, A. 1974. Flysch trace fossils: evolution of behavioral diversity in the deep-sea. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Monatshefte. 4:233245.
Seilacher, A. 1977. Evolution of trace fossil communities, p. 359376. In Hallam, A. (ed.), Patterns of Evolution, as Illustrated by the Fossil Record. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Amsterdam.
Seilacher, A. 1985. Trilobite palaeobiology and substrate relationships. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh Earth Sciences, 76:231238.
Seilacher, A. 1999. Biomat-related lifestyles in the Precambrian. Palaios, 14:8693.
Seilacher, A. 2007. Trace Fossil Analysis. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, Berlin, 226 p.
Seilacher, A. and Hemleben, C. 1966. Beiträge sur sedimentation und Fossilführung des Hunsrückschiefers 14. Spurenfauna und Bildungsteife der Hunsrückschiefer (Unterdevon). Notizblatt des Hessischen Landesamtes für Bodenforschung zu Wiesbaden, 94:4053.
Seilacher, A. and Pflüger, F. 1994. From biomats to benthic agriculture: a biohistoric revolution, p. 97105. In Krumbein, W. E., Peterson, D. M., and Stal, L. J. (eds.), Biostabilization of Sediments. Bibliotheksund Informationssystem der Carl von Ossietzky Universität Odenburg.
Seilacher, A., Buatois, L. A., and Mángano, M. G. 2005. Trace fossils in the Ediacaran–Cambrian transition: behavioral diversification, ecological turnover and environmental shift. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 227:323356.
Sperling, E. A., Frieder, C. A., Raman, A. V., Girguis, P. R., Levin, L. A., and Knoll, A. H. 2013. Oxygen, ecology, and the Cambrian radiation of animals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110:13,44613,451.
Sperling, E.A. and Vinther, J. 2010. A placozoan affinity for Dickinsonia and the evolution of late Proterozoic metazoan feeding modes. Evolution and Development, 12:201209.
Torell, O. M. 1870. Petrifacta Suecana Formationis Cambricae. Lunds Universitetshuset, Årskrift, 6:114.
Uchman, A. 1995. Taxonomy and palaeoecology of flysch trace fossils: the Marnosoarenacea Formation and associated facies (Miocene, Northern Apennines, Italy). Beringeria, 15:1115.
Uchman, A. 1998. Taxonomy and ethology of flysch trace fossils: revision of the Marian Ksiazkiewicz Collection and studies of complementary material. Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae, 68:105218.
Uchman, A., Nemec, W., Ilgar, A., and Messina, C. 2007. Lacustrine trace fossils and environmental conditions in the early Miocene Ermenek Basin, southern Turkey. Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae, 77:123139.
Vannier, J., Calandra, I., Gaillard, C., and Żylińska, A. 2010. Priapulid worms: pioneer horizontal burrowers at the Precambrian–Cambrian boundary. Geology, 38:711714.
Wade, M. 1972. Hydrozoa and scyphozoan and other medusoids from the Precambrian Ediacara fauna, South Australia. Palaeontology, 15:197225.
Webby, B. D. 1970. Late Precambrian trace fossils from New South Wales. Lethaia, 3:79109.
Weber, J. N., Peterson, B. K., and Hoekstra, H. E. 2013. Discrete genetic modules are responsible for complex burrow evolution in Peromyscus mice. Nature, 493:402405.
Wills, M. A., Briggs, D. E. G., Fortey, R. A., Wilkinson, M., and Sneath, P. H. A. 1998. An arthropod phylogeny based on fossil and recent taxa, p. 33106. In Edgecombe, G. D. (ed.), Arthropod Fossils and Phylogeny. Columbia University Press, New York.
Wilson, J. P., Grotzinger, J. P., Fischer, W. W., Hand, K. P., Jensen, S., Knoll, A. H., Abelson, J., Metz, J. M., Mcloughlin, N., Cohen, P. A., and Tice, M. M. 2012. Deep-water incised valley deposits at the Ediacaran–Cambrian boundary in southern Namibia contain abundant Treptichnus pedum . Palaios, 27:252273.
Wu, X. 1985. Trace fossils and their significance in non-marine turbidite deposits of Meozoic coal and oil bearing sequences from Yima-Jiyuan basin, western Henan, China. Acta Sedimentologica Sinica, 3:2331. (In Chinese)
Young, F. G. 1972. Early Cambrian and older trace fossils from the southern Cordillera of Canada. Journal of Earth Sciences, 9:117.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of Paleontology
  • ISSN: 0022-3360
  • EISSN: 1937-2337
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-paleontology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed