Published online by Cambridge University Press: 15 January 2010
A full-scale numerical study is performed of the nonlinear interaction between a large-amplitude electromagnetic wave and the Earth's ionosphere, and of the stimulated electromagnetic emission emerging from the turbulent layer, during the first 10 milliseconds after switch-on of the radio transmitter. The frequency spectra are downshifted in frequency and appear to emerge from a region somewhat below the cutoff of the O mode, which is characterized by Langmuir wave turbulence and localized Langmuir envelopes trapped in ion density cavities. The spectral features of escaping O-mode waves are very similar to those observed in experiments. The frequency components of Z-mode waves, trapped in the region between the O- and Z-mode cutoffs show strongly asymmetric and downshifted spectra.