Hostname: page-component-6b989bf9dc-vmcqm Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-04-14T11:59:56.088Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Optimum angle for side injection of electrons into linear plasma wakefields

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  12 April 2012

Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia (


A unified model of electron penetration into linear plasma wakefields is formulated and studied. The optimum angle for side injection of electrons is found. At smaller angles, all electrons are reflected radially. At larger angles, electrons enter the wakefield with superfluous transverse momentum that is unfavorable for trapping. Separation of incident electrons into penetrated and reflected fractions occurs in the outer region of the wakefield at some ‘reflection’ radius that depends on electron energy.

Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2012

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Caldwell, A. and Lotov, K. V. 2011 Plasma wakefield acceleration with a modulated proton bunch. Phys. Plasmas 18, 103101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chen, P. 1987 A possible final focusing mechanism for linear colliders. Part. Accel. 20, 171182.Google Scholar
Chen, P., Dawson, J. M., Huff, R. W. and Katsouleas, T. 1985 Acceleration of electrons by the interaction of a bunched electron beam with a plasma. Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 693708CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Esarey, E. and Pilloff, M. 1995 Trapping and acceleration in nonlinear plasma waves. Phys. Plasmas 2, 14321436.Google Scholar
Esarey, E., Schroeder, C. B. and Leemans, W. P. 2009 Physics of laser-driven plasma-based electron accelerators. Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 12291285.Google Scholar
Kalmykov, S. Y., Gorbunov, L. M., Mora, P. and Shvets, G. 2006 Injection, trapping, and acceleration of electrons in a three-dimensional nonlinear laser wakefield. Phys. Plasmas 13, 113102.Google Scholar
Lotov, K. V. 1998 Simulation of ultrarelativistic beam dynamics in plasma wake-field accelerator. Phys. Plasmas 5, 785791.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Luttikhof, M. J. H., Khachatryan, A. G., van Goor, F. A. and Boller, K. J. 2007 The effect of the vacuum–plasma transition and an injection angle on electron-bunch injection into a laser wakefield. Phys. Plasmas 14, 083101.Google Scholar
Luttikhof, M. J. H., Khachatryan, A. G., van Goor, F. A., Boller, K. J. and Mora, P. 2009 Electron bunch injection at an angle into a laser wakefield. Laser Part. Beams 27, 6977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pukhov, A., Kumar, N., Tuckmantel, T., Upadhyay, A., Lotov, K., Muggli, P., Khudik, V., Siemon, C. and Shvets, G. 2011 Phase velocity and particle injection in a self-modulated proton-driven plasma wakefield accelerator. Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 145003.Google Scholar
Tajima, T. and Dawson, J. M. 1979 Laser electron accelerator. Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 267270.Google Scholar