Skip to main content

Ion diffusion and acceleration in plasma turbulence

  • F. Pecora (a1), S. Servidio (a1), A. Greco (a1), W. H. Matthaeus (a2), D. Burgess (a3), C. T. Haynes (a3), V. Carbone (a1) and P. Veltri (a1)...

Particle transport, acceleration and energization are phenomena of major importance for both space and laboratory plasmas. Despite years of study, an accurate theoretical description of these effects is still lacking. Validating models with self-consistent, kinetic simulations represents today a new challenge for the description of weakly collisional, turbulent plasmas. We perform simulations of steady state turbulence in the 2.5-dimensional approximation (three-dimensional fields that depend only on two-dimensional spatial directions). The chosen plasma parameters allow to span different systems, going from the solar corona to the solar wind, from the Earth’s magnetosheath to confinement devices. To describe the ion diffusion we adapted the nonlinear guiding centre (NLGC) theory to the two-dimensional case. Finally, we investigated the local influence of coherent structures on particle energization and acceleration: current sheets play an important role if the ions’ Larmor radii are of the order of the current sheet’s size. This resonance-like process leads to the violation of the magnetic moment conservation, eventually enhancing the velocity-space diffusion.

Corresponding author
Email address for correspondence:
Hide All
Ambrosiano, J., Matthaeus, W. H., Goldstein, M. L. & Plante, D. 1988 Test particle acceleration in turbulent reconnecting magnetic fields. J. Geophys. Res. 93, 1438314400.
Bale, S. D., Kellogg, P. J., Mozer, F. S., Horbury, T. S. & Reme, H. 2005 Measurement of the electric fluctuation spectrum of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 (21), 215002.
Bieber, J. W. & Matthaeus, W. H. 1997 Perpendicular diffusion and drift at intermediate cosmic-ray energies. Astrophys. J. 485, 655659.
Bieber, J. W., Matthaeus, W. H., Shalchi, A. & Qin, G. 2004 Nonlinear guiding center theory of perpendicular diffusion: general properties and comparison with observation. Geophys. Res. Lett. 31 (10), L10805.
Birn, J., Artemyev, A. V., Baker, D. N., Echim, M., Hoshino, M. & Zelenyi, L. M. 2012 Particle acceleration in the magnetotail and aurora. Space Sci. Rev. 173, 49102.
Bruno, R. & Carbone, V.(Eds) 2016 Turbulence in the Solar Wind, Lecture Notes in Physics, vol. 928. Springer.
Cadavid, A. C., Lawrence, J. K., Christian, D. J., Jess, D. B. & Nigro, G. 2014 Heating mechanisms for intermittent loops in active region cores from aia/sdo euv observations. Astrophys. J. 795 (1), 48.
Cargill, P. J., Vlahos, L., Baumann, G., Drake, J. F. & Nordlund, Å. 2012 Current fragmentation and particle acceleration in solar flares. Space Sci. Rev. 173, 223245.
Cargill, P. J., Vlahos, L., Turkmani, R., Galsgaard, K. & Isliker, H. 2006 Particle acceleration in a three-dimensional model of reconnecting coronal magnetic fields. Space Sci. Rev. 124, 249259.
Chandran, B. D. G., Li, B., Rogers, B. N., Quataert, E. & Germaschewski, K. 2010 Perpendicular ion heating by low-frequency Alfvén-wave turbulence in the solar wind. Astrophys. J. 720, 503515.
Chandrasekhar, S. 1943 Stochastic problems in physics and astronomy. Rev. Mod. Phys. 15 (1), 1.
Chen, S. & Kraichnan, R. H. 1989 Sweeping decorrelation in isotropic turbulence. Phys. Fluids A 1 (12), 20192024.
Dalena, S., Greco, A., Rappazzo, A. F., Mace, R. L. & Matthaeus, W. H. 2012 Magnetic moment nonconservation in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence models. Phys. Rev. E 86, 016402.
Dmitruk, P., Matthaeus, W. H. & Seenu, N. 2004 Test particle energization by current sheets and nonuniform fields in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. Astrophys. J. 617, 667679.
Drake, J. F., Opher, M., Swisdak, M. & Chamoun, J. N. 2010 A magnetic reconnection mechanism for the generation of anomalous cosmic rays. Astrophys. J. 709, 963974.
Drake, J. F., Swisdak, M., Che, H. & Shay, M. A. 2006 Electron acceleration from contracting magnetic islands during reconnection. Nature 443, 553556.
Franci, L., Landi, S., Matteini, L., Verdini, A. & Hellinger, P. 2015 High-resolution hybrid simulations of kinetic plasma turbulence at proton scales. Astrophys. J. 812, 21.
Frisch, U. 1995 Turbulence. Cambridge University Press.
Gosling, J. T. 2010 Magnetic reconnection in the solar wind: an update. Twelfth Intl Solar Wind Conf. 1216, 188193.
Greco, A., Matthaeus, W. H., Servidio, S., Chuychai, P. & Dmitruk, P. 2009a Statistical analysis of discontinuities in solar wind ACE data and comparison with intermittent MHD turbulence. Astrophys. J. 691, L111L114.
Greco, A., Matthaeus, W. H., Servidio, S. & Dmitruk, P. 2009b Waiting-time distributions of magnetic discontinuities: clustering or Poisson process? Phys. Rev. E 80 (4), 046401.
Green, M. S. 1951 Brownian motion in a gas of noninteracting molecules. J. Chem. Phys. 19, 10361046.
Hauff, T., Pueschel, M. J., Dannert, T. & Jenko, F. 2009 Electrostatic and magnetic transport of energetic ions in turbulent plasmas. Phys. Rev. Lett. 102 (7), 075004.
Haynes, C. T., Burgess, D. & Camporeale, E. 2014 Reconnection and electron temperature anisotropy in sub-proton scale plasma turbulence. Astrophys. J. 783, 38.
Hoshino, M., Mukai, T., Terasawa, T. & Shinohara, I. 2001 Superthermal electron acceleration in magnetic reconnection. J. Geophys. Res. 106, 25972.
Howes, G. G., Dorland, W., Cowley, S. C., Hammett, G. W., Quataert, E., Schekochihin, A. A. & Tatsuno, T. 2008 Kinetic simulations of magnetized turbulence in astrophysical plasmas. Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 (6), 065004.
Hussein, M. & Shalchi, A. 2016 Simulations of energetic particles interacting with dynamical magnetic turbulence. Astrophys. J. 817 (2), 136.
Jokipii, J. R. 1966 Cosmic-ray propagation. I. Charged particles in a random magnetic field. Astrophys. J. 146, 480.
Jokipii, J. R. & Parker, E. N. 1969 Stochastic aspects of magnetic lines of force with application to cosmic-ray propagation. Astrophys. J. 155, 777.
Kolmogorov, A. 1941 The local structure of turbulence in incompressible viscous fluid for very large Reynolds’ numbers. Akad. Nauk SSSR Dokl. 30, 301305.
Kubo, R. 1957 Statistical-mechanical theory of irreversible processes. I. J. Phys. Soc. Japan 12, 570586.
Lazarian, A. & Opher, M. 2009 A model of acceleration of anomalous cosmic rays by reconnection in the heliosheath. Astrophys. J. 703, 821.
Lepreti, F., Carbone, V., Abramenko, V. I., Yurchyshyn, V., Goode, P. R., Capparelli, V. & Vecchio, A. 2012 Turbulent pair dispersion of photospheric bright points. Astrophys. J. 759, L17.
Luo, H., Kronberg, E. A., Nykyri, K., Trattner, K. J., Daly, P. W., Chen, G. X., Du, A. M. & Ge, Y. S. 2017 Imf dependence of energetic oxygen and hydrogen ion distributions in the near-earth magnetosphere. J. Geophys. Res. 122 (5), 51685180.
Matthaeus, W. H., Ambrosiano, J. J. & Goldstein, M. L. 1984 Particle-acceleration by turbulent magnetohydrodynamic reconnection. Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 14491452.
Matthaeus, W. H., Gray, P. C., Pontius, D. H. Jr & Bieber, J. W. 1995 Spatial structure and field-line diffusion in transverse magnetic turbulence. Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 21362139.
Matthaeus, W. H. & Lamkin, S. L. 1986 Turbulent magnetic reconnection. Phys. Fluids 29, 25132534.
Matthaeus, W. H. & Montgomery, D. 1980 Selective decay hypothesis at high mechanical and magnetic Reynolds numbers. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 357, 203.
Matthaeus, W. H., Qin, G., Bieber, J. W. & Zank, G. P. 2003 Nonlinear collisionless perpendicular diffusion of charged particles. Astrophys. J. Lett. 590 (1), L53.
Matthaeus, W. H., Servidio, S. & Dmitruk, P. 2008 Comment on ‘Kinetic simulations of magnetized turbulence in astrophysical plasmas’. Phys. Rev. Lett. 101 (14), 149501.
Miller, J. A., Guessoum, N. & Ramaty, R. 1990 Stochastic Fermi acceleration in solar flares. Astrophys. J. 361, 701708.
Miller, J. A. & Roberts, D. A. 1995 Stochastic proton acceleration by cascading Alfven waves in impulsive solar flares. Astrophys. J. 452, 912.
Nelkin, M. & Tabor, M. 1990 Time correlations and random sweeping in isotropic turbulence. Phys. Fluids A 2 (1), 8183.
Oka, M., Phan, T.-D., Krucker, S., Fujimoto, M. & Shinohara, I. 2010 Electron acceleration by multi-island coalescence. Astrophys. J. 714, 915926.
Parker, E. N. 1957 Sweet’s mechanism for merging magnetic fields in conducting fluids. J. Geophys. Res. 62, 509520.
Perri, S., Servidio, S., Vaivads, A. & Valentini, F. 2017 Numerical study on the validity of the Taylor hypothesis in space plasmas. Astrophys. J. Suppl. 231, 4.
Rappazzo, A. F., Matthaeus, W. H., Ruffolo, D., Velli, M. & Servidio, S. 2017 Coronal heating topology: the interplay of current sheets and magnetic field lines. Astrophys. J. 844 (1), 87.
Richardson, L. F. 1926 Atmospheric diffusion shown on a distance-neighbour graph. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 110, 709737.
le Roux, J. A., Zank, G. P., Webb, G. M. & Khabarova, O. 2015 A kinetic transport theory for particle acceleration and transport in regions of multiple contracting and reconnecting inertial-scale flux ropes. Astrophys. J. 801, 112.
Ruffolo, D., Matthaeus, W. H. & Chuychai, P. 2003 Trapping of solar energetic particles by the small-scale topology of solar wind turbulence. Astrophys. J. 597, L169L172.
Ruffolo, D., Matthaeus, W. H. & Chuychai, P. 2004 Separation of magnetic field lines in two-component turbulence. Astrophys. J. 614, 420434.
Ruffolo, D., Pianpanit, T., Matthaeus, W. H. & Chuychai, P. 2012 Random ballistic interpretation of nonlinear guiding center theory. Astrophys. J. Lett. 747, L34.
Servidio, S., Carbone, V., Dmitruk, P. & Matthaeus, W. H. 2011a Time decorrelation in isotropic magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. Europhys. Lett. 96, 55003.
Servidio, S., Greco, A., Matthaeus, W. H., Osman, K. T. & Dmitruk, P. 2011b Statistical association of discontinuities and reconnection in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. J. Geophys. Res. 116, A09102.
Servidio, S., Haynes, C. T., Matthaeus, W. H., Burgess, D., Carbone, V. & Veltri, P. 2016 Explosive particle dispersion in plasma turbulence. Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 095101.
Servidio, S., Matthaeus, W. H., Shay, M. A., Cassak, P. A. & Dmitruk, P. 2009 Magnetic reconnection in two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. Phys. Rev. Lett. 102 (11), 115003.
Servidio, S., Valentini, F., Perrone, D., Greco, A., Califano, F., Matthaeus, W. H. & Veltri, P. 2015 A kinetic model of plasma turbulence. J. Plasma Phys. 81 (1), 325810107.
Shalchi, A. 2015 Perpendicular diffusion of energetic particles in collisionless plasmas. Phys. Plasmas 22 (1), 010704.
Shalchi, A., Bieber, J. W. & Matthaeus, W. H. 2004 Nonlinear guiding center theory of perpendicular diffusion in dynamical turbulence. Astrophys. J. 615 (2), 805.
Shalchi, A. & Dosch, A. 2008 Nonlinear guiding center theory of perpendicular diffusion: derivation from the Newton–Lorentz equation. Astrophys. J. 685, 971975.
Shebalin, J. V., Matthaeus, W. H. & Montgomery, D. 1983 Anisotropy in MHD turbulence due to a mean magnetic field. J. Plasma Phys. 29, 525547.
Subedi, P., Sonsrettee, W., Blasi, P., Ruffolo, D., Matthaeus, W. H., Montgomery, D., Chuychai, P., Dmitruk, P., Wan, M., Parashar, T. N. et al. 2017 Charged particle diffusion in isotropic random magnetic fields. Astrophys. J. 837, 140.
Taylor, G. I. 1922 Diffusion by continuous movements. Proc. Lond. Math. Soc. 20, 196.
Taylor, J. B. & McNamara, B. 1971 Plasma diffusion in two dimensions. Phys. Fluids 14, 14921499.
Tessein, J. A., Matthaeus, W. H., Wan, M., Osman, K. T., Ruffolo, D. & Giacalone, J. 2013 Association of suprathermal particles with coherent structures and shocks. Astrophys. J. 776, L8.
Zank, G. P., le Roux, J. A., Webb, G. M., Dosch, A. & Khabarova, O. 2014 Particle acceleration via reconnection processes in the supersonic solar wind. Astrophys. J. 797, 28.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of Plasma Physics
  • ISSN: 0022-3778
  • EISSN: 1469-7807
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-plasma-physics
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed