Skip to main content Accesibility Help
×
×
Home

Non-equilibrium modeling of the PMSE Overshoot Effect revisited: A comprehensive study

  • ALEXANDER BIEBRICHER (a1) and OVE HAVNES (a1) (a2)
Abstract

Numerical investigations of the Polar Mesosphere Summer Echoes (PMSE) Overshoot Effect have to date been undertaken under the premise of plasma neutrality and current equilibrium at any time. We find it necessary to revisit the calculations without these restrictions, since electrons and ions are attached to and absorbed by mesospheric dust particles at vastly different rates under PMSE conditions. We find that differences to earlier modeling might be so significant as to warrant further investigation. Furthermore, we conduct comprehensive studies of the PMSE Overshoot Effect and put the results in the context of experimental realities.

Copyright
References
Hide All
[1]Backhouse, T. W. 1885 The luminous cirrus cloud of June and July. Meteorol. Mag. 20, 133.
[2]Balsiger, F., Kopp, E., Friedrich, M., Torkar, K. M., Wälchli, U. and Witt, G. 1996 Positive ion depletion in a noctilucent cloud. Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 9396.
[3]Balsley, B. B., Ecklund, W. L. and Fritts, D. C. 1983 VHF echoes from high-latitude mesosphere and lower thermosphere observations and interpretations. J. Atmos. Sci. 40, 2451.
[4]Belova, E., Chilson, P., Kirkwood, S. and Rietveld, M. T. 2003 The response time of PMSE to ionospheric heating. J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8446.
[5]Belova, E. G., Pashin, A. B. and Lyatsky, W. B. 1995 Passage of powerful HF radio wave through the ionosphere as a function of initial electron density profiles. J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 57, 265272.
[6]Belova, E., Kirkwood, S., Ekeberg, J., Osepian, A., Häggström, I., Nilsson, H. and Rietveld, M. T. 2005 The dynamical background of polar mesosphere winter echoes from simultaneous EISCAT and ESRAD observations. Ann. Geophys. 23, 1239.
[7]Belova, E., Smirnova, M., Rietveld, M. T., Isham, B., Kirkwood, S. and Sirgienko, T. 2008 First observation of the overshoot effect for polar mesospheric winter echoes during radiowave electron temperature modulation. Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L03110.
[8]Berger, U. and Von Zahn, U. 2002 Icy particles in the summer mesopause region: 3-d modelling of their environment and 2-d modelling of their transport. J. Geophys. Res. 107, 1366.
[9]Biebricher, A., Havnes, O. and Bast, R. 2011 On the necessary complexity of modeling of the Polar Mesosphere Summer Echo Overshoot Effect. J. Plasma Phys. 78, 225239.
[10]Biebricher, A., Havnes, O., Hartquist, T. W. and LaHoz, C. 2006 On the influence of plasma absorption by dust on the PMSE overshoot effect. Adv. Space. Res. 38, 25412550.
[11]Brasseur, G. and Solomon, S. 1995 Aeronomy of the Middle Atmosphere. Dordrecht, Netherlands: D. Reidel.
[12]Brattli, A., Blix, T. A., Lie-Svendsen, Ø., Hoppe, U.-P., Lübken, F.-J., Rapp, M., Singer, W., Latteck, R. and Friedrich, M. 2006 Rocket measurements of positive ions during polar mesosphere winter echo conditions. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6, 5515.
[13]Brattli, A., Lie-Svendsen, Ø., Svenes, K., Hoppe, U.-P., Strelnikova, I., Rapp, M., Latteck, R. and Friedrich, M. 2009 The ECOMA 2007 campaign: rocket observations and numerical modelling of aerosol particle charging and plasma depletion in a PMSE/NLC layer. Ann. Geophys. 27, 781796.
[14]Bremer, J., Hoffmann, P., Latteck, R. and Singer, W. 2003 Seasonal and long-term variation of PMSE from VHF radar observations at Andenes, Norway. J. Geophys. Res. 108, (D8)8438.
[15]Bremer, J., Hoffmann, P., Manson, A., Meek, C., Rüster, R. and Singer, W. 1996 PMSE observations at three different frequencies in northern Europe during summer 1994. Ann. Geophys. 14, 13171327.
[16]Chen, C. and Scales, W. A. 2005 Electron temperature enhancement effects on plasma irregularities associated with charged dust in the Earth's mesosphere. J. Geophys. Res. 110, A12313 (13 pp).
[17]Chen, C. and Scales, W. A. 2007 Active perturbation of dust-associated electron irregularities in the earth's mesosphere: discrete-charging effects. IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 35, 731735.
[18]Chilson, P. B., Belova, E., Rietveld, M. T., Kirkwood, S. and Hoppe, U. P. 2000 First artificially induced modulation of PMSE using the EISCAT heating facility. Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3801.
[19]Cho, J. Y. N., Alcala, C. M., Kelley, M. C. and Swartz, W. E. 1996 Further effects of charged aerosols on summer mesospheric radar scatter. J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 58, 661.
[20]Cho, J. Y. N. and Kelley, M. C. 1992 Enhancement of Thomson scatter by charged aerosols in the polar mesosphere: measurements with a 1.29 GHz radar. Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 10971100.
[21]Cho, J. Y. N. and Kelley, M. C. 1993 Polar mesosphere summer radar echoes. Rev. Geophys. 31, 243265.
[22]Cho, J. Y. N. and Röttger, J. 1997 An updated review of polar mesospheric summer echoes: observations, theory and their relationship to noctilucent clouds and subvisible aerosols. J. Geophys. Res. 102, 2001.
[23]Czechowsky, P., Reid, I. M., Rüster, R. and Schmidt, G. 1989 VHF radar echoes observed in the summer and winter polar mesosphere over Andøya, Norway. J. Geophys. Res. 94, 5199.
[24]Dimant, Y. S. and Milikh, G. M. 2004 Effect of radio wave heating on polar mesospheric clouds. Adv. Space. Res. 34 (11), 2413.
[25]Draine, B. T. and Sutin, B. 1987 Collisional charging of interstellar grains. Astrophys. J. 320, 803.
[26]Ecklund, W. L. and Balsley, B. B. 1981 Long-term observations of the Arctic mesosphere with the MST radar at Poker Flat, Alaska. J. Geophys. Res. 86, 7775.
[27]Eremenko, M. N., Petelina, S. V., Zasetsky, A. Y., Karlsson, B., Rinsland, C. P., Llewellyn, E. J. and Sloan, J. J. 2005 Shape and composition of PMC particles derived from satellite remote sensing measurements. Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L16S06.
[28]Friedrich, M. and Rapp, M. 2009 News from the lower ionosphere: a review of recent developments. Surv. Geophys. 30, 525559.
[29]Fritts, D. C. and Alexander, M. J. 2003 Gravity wave dynamics and effects in the middle atmosphere. Rev. Geophys. 41, 1003.
[30]Gadsden, M. and Schröder, W. 2003 Noctilucent Clouds. New York: Springer Verlag.
[31]Garcia, R. R. 1989 Dynamics, radiation, and photochemistry in the mesosphere: implications for the formation of noctilucent clouds. J. Geophys. Res. 94, 1460514615.
[32]Ginsburg, V. L. 1964 The Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves in Plasmas. Oxford, UK: Pergamon Press.
[33]Hale, B. N. and Plummer, P. L. M. 1974 Molecular model for ice clusters in supersaturated vapor. J. Chem. Phys. 61, 4012.
[34]Hargreaves, J. K. 1992 The Solar-Terrestrial Environment. An Introduction to Geospace – The Science of the Terrestrial Upper Atmosphere, Ionosphere and Magnetosphere. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
[35]Havnes, O. 2004 Polar Mesospheric Summer Echoes (PMSE) overshoot effect due to cycling of artificial electron heating. J. Geophys. Res. 109 (A2), 17.
[36]Havnes, O., Brattli, A., Aslaksen, T., Singer, W., Latteck, R., Blix, T., Thrane, E. and Trøim, J. 2001 First common-volume observations of layered plasma structures and polar mesospheric echoes by rocket and radar. Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 1419.
[37]Havnes, O. and Kassa, M. 2009 On the sizes and observable effects of dust particles in polar mesospheric winter echoes. J. Geophys. Res. 114, D09209, 11 pp.
[38]Havnes, O. and Næsheim, L. I. 2007 On the secondary charging effects and structure of mesospheric dust particles impacting rocket probes. Ann. Geophys. 25, 623.
[39]Havnes, O., LaHoz, C., Biebricher, A., Kassa, M., Meseret, T., Næsheim, L. I. and Zivkovic, T. 2004 Investigation of the mesospheric PMSE conditions by use of the new overshoot effect. Phys. Scr. T107, 70.
[40]Havnes, O., LaHoz, C., Næsheim, L. I. and Rietveld, M. T. 2003 First observations of the PMSE overshoot effect and its use for investigating the conditions in the summer mesosphere. Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 2229.
[41]Havnes, O., LaHoz, C., Rietveld, M. T., Kassa, M., Baroni, G. and Biebricher, A. 2009 Observation and Analysis of Polar Mesospheric Winter Echoes Modulated by Artificial Electron Heating. Washington, DC: ESA Publication.
[42]Havnes, O., Melandsø, F., LaHoz, C., Aslaksen, T. K. and Hartquist, T. W. 1992 Charged dust in the Earth's mesopause, effects on radar backscatter. Phys. Scr. 45, 535.
[43]Hervig, M., Thompson, R., McHugh, M., Gordley, L., Russell, J. III and Summers, M. 2001 First confirmation that water ice is the primary component of polar mesospheric clouds. Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 971974.
[44]Hesstvedt, E. 1961 Note on the nature of noctilucent clouds. J. Geophys. Res. 66, 19851987.
[45]Hill, R. J. 1978 Non-neutral and quasi-neutral diffusion of weakly ionized multi-constituent plasma. J. Geophys. Res. 83, 989998.
[46]Hill, R. J. and Bowhill, S. A. 1977 Collision frequencies for use in the continuum momentum equations applied to the lower ionosphere. J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 39, 803.
[47]Hocking, W. K. and Röttger, J. 1983 Studies of polar mesosphere summer echoes over EISCAT using calibrated signal strengths and statistical parameters. Radio Sci. 18, 1312.
[48]Hocking, W. K. and Röttger, J. 1997 Pulse-length dependence of radar signal strengths for Fresnel backscatter. Radio Sci. 32, 1425.
[49]Holton, J. R. 1982 The role of gravity wave-induced drag and diffusion in the momentum budget of the mesosphere. J. Atmos. Sci. 39, 791799.
[50]Hoppe, U.-P., Hall, C. and Röttger, J. 1988 First observations of summer polar mesospheric backscatter with a 224 MHz radar. Geophys. Res. Lett. 15, 2831.
[51]Huaman, M. M., Kelley, M. C., Hocking, W. K. and Woodman, R. F. 2001 Polar mesosphere summer echo studies at 51.5 MHz at Resolute Bay, Canada: comparison with Poker Flat results. Radio Sci. 36, 18231837.
[52]Inhester, B., Ulwick, J., Cho, J. Y. N., Kelley, M. and Schmidt, G. 1990 Consistency of rocket and radar electron density observations: implications about the anisotropy of turbulence. J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 52, 855873.
[53]Jensen, E. and Thomas, G. E. 1988 A growth-sedimentation model of polar mesospheric clouds: comparisons with SME measurements. J. Geophys. Res. 93, 24612473.
[54]Jensen, E. and Thomas, G. E. 1991 Charging of mesospheric particles: implications of electron density and particle coagulation. J. Geophys. Res. 96, 18603.
[55]Jensen, E., Thomas, G. E. and Toon, O. B. 1989 On the diurnal variation of noctilucent clouds. J. Geophys. Res. 94, 1469314702.
[56]Jesse, O. 1885 Auffallende Erscheinungen am Abendhimmel. Met. Zeit. 2, 311312.
[57]Karashtin, A. N., Shlyugaev, Y. V., Abramov, V. I., Belov, I. F., Berezin, I. V., Bychkov, V. V., Eryshev, E. B. and Komrakov, G. P. 1997 First HF radar measurements of summer mesopause echoes at SURA. Ann. Geophys. 15, 935941.
[58]Kassa, M., Havnes, O. and Belova, E. 2005 The effect of electron bite-outs on artificial electron heating and PMSE overshoot. Ann. Geophys. 23, 3633.
[59]Kavanagh, A., Honary, F., Rietveld, M. T. and Senior, A. 2006 First observations of the artificial modulation of polar mesospheric winter echoes. Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L19801.
[60]Kelley, M. C., Huaman, M., Chen, C. Y., Ramos, C., Djuth, F. and Kennedy, E. 2002 Polar mesosphere summer observations at HF frequencies using the HAARP Gakona Ionospheric Observatory. Geophys. Res. Lett. 29 (12), 44-1–44-4.
[61]Kero, A., Bösinger, T., Pollari, P., Turunen, E. and Rietveld, M. 2000 First EISCAT measurements of electron-gas temperature in the artificially heated D-region ionosphere. Ann. Geophys. 18, 12101215.
[62]Kero, A., Enell, C. F., Kavanagh, A. J., Vierinen, J., Virtanen, I. and Turunen, E. 2008 Could negative ion production explain the polar mesosphere winter echo (PMWE) modulation in active HF heating experiments? Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, 23.
[63]Kirkwood, S., Barabash, V., Belova, E., Nilsson, H., Rao, T. N., Stebel, K., Osepian, A. and Chilson, P. B. 2002 Polar mesosphere winter echoes during solar proton events. Adv. Polar Upper Atmos. Res. 16, 111.
[64]Kirkwood, S., Chilson, P., Belova, E., Dalin, P., Häggström, I., Rietveld, M. T. and Singer, W. 2006 Infrasound – the cause of strong polar mesosphere winter echoes? Ann. Geophys. 24, 475.
[65]Klostermeyer, J. 1998 A simple model of the ice particle size distribution in noctilucent clouds. J. Geophys. Res. 103, 2874328752.
[66]Kopp, E., Eberhardt, P., Herrmann, U. and Björn, L. G. 1985 Positive ion composition of the high latitude summer D-region with noctilucent clouds. J. Geophys. Res. 90, 1304113051.
[67]LaHoz, C. and Havnes, O. 2008 Artificial modification of polar mesospheric winter echoes with an RF heater: do charged dust particles play an active role? J. Geophys. Res. 113, D19205.
[68]LaHoz, C., Havnes, O., Næsheim, L. I. and Hysell, D. L. 2006 Observations and theories of polar mesospheric summer echoes at a Bragg wavelength of 16 cm. J. Geophys. Res. 111, D04203.
[69]LaHoz, C., Næsheim, L. I., Havnes, O. and Rietveld, M. T. 2003 First observation of the artificial electron heating induced reduction of the PMSE strength at 933 MHz. In: Proceedings of the EISCAT Workshop, Menlo Park, USA, August 1419.
[70]Leslie, R. J. 1885 Sky glows. Nature 33, 245.
[71]Lie-Svendsen, Ø, Blix, T. A., Hoppe, U.-P. and Thrane, E. V. 2003 Modeling the plasma response to small-scale aerosol particle perturbations in the mesopause region. J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8442.
[72]Lindzen, R. S. and Holton, J. R. 1981 A theory of the quasi-bieninial oscillation. J. Atmos. Sci. 25, 1095.
[73]Lübken, F.-J. 1999 Thermal structure of the Arctic summer mesosphere. J. Geophys. Res. 104, 9135.
[74]Lübken, F.-J., Lehmacher, G., Blix, T. A., Hoppe, U.-P., Thrane, E., Cho, J. and Swartz, W. 1993 First in-situ observations of neutral and plasma density fluctuations within a PMSE layer. Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 23112314.
[75]Lübken, F.-J., Strelnikov, B., Rapp, M., Singer, W., Latteck, R., Brattli, A., Hoppe, U.-P. and Friedrich, M. 2006 The thermal and dynamical state of the atmosphere during polar mesospheric winter echoes. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6, 13.
[76]Morris, R. J., Murphy, D. J., Reid, I. M., Holdsworth, D. A. and Vincent, R. A. 1991 First polar mesosphere summer echoes observed at Davis, Antarctica (68.6°S). J. Geophys. Res. 96, 5837.
[77]Næsheim, L. I., Havnes, O. and LaHoz, C. 2008 A comparison of polar mesosphere summer echo at VHF (224 MHz) and UHF (930 MHz) and the effects of artificial electron heating. J. Geophys. Res. 113, D08205.
[78]Natanson, G. L. 1960 On the theory of the charging of amicroscopic aerosol particles as a result of capture of gas ions. Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 5, 538551.
[79]Nygren, T. 1996 Introduction to Incoherent Scatter Measurements. Sodankylä, Finland: Invers Oy.
[80]Ogawa, T., Arnold, N. F., Kirkwood, S., Nishitani, N. and Lester, M. 2003 Finnland HF and Esrange MST radar observations of polar mesosphere summer echoes. Ann. Geophys. 21, 10471055.
[81]Parthasarathy, P. 1976 Mesopause dust as a sink for ionization. J. Geophys. Res. 81, 2392.
[82]Plane, J. M. C. 2000 The role of sodium bicarbonate in the nucleation of noctilucent clouds. Ann. Geophys. 18, 807814.
[83]Rapp, M. 2000 Aerosol layers in the polar summer mesosphere: interaction with the plasma of the D-region and dependence on temperature and dynamics. Doctoral thesis, Bonn University, Germany.
[84]Rapp, M. 2009 Charging of mesospheric aerosol particles: the role of photo detachment and photoionization from meteoric smoke and ice particles. Ann. Geophys. 27, 24172422.
[85]Rapp, M. and Lübken, F.-J. 2000 Electron temperature control of PMSE. Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3285.
[86]Rapp, M. and Lübken, F.-J. 2001 Modelling of particle charging in the polar mesosphere: Part 1 – general results. J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 63, 759.
[87]Rapp, M. and Lübken, F.-J. 2003 On the nature of PMSE: electron diffusion in the vicinity of charged particles revisited. J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8437.
[88]Rapp, M. and Lübken, F.-J. 2004 Polar mesosphere summer echoes (PMSE): review of observations and current understanding. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4, 2601.
[89]Rapp, M., Lübken, F.-J., Müllemann, A., Thomas, G. E. and Jensen, E. 2002 Small-scale temperature variations in the vicinity of NLC: experimental and model results. J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4392.
[90]Rapp, M. and Thomas, G. E. 2006 Modeling of the microphysics of mesospheric ice particles: assessment of current capabilities and basic sensitivities. J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 68, 715744.
[91]Reid, G. C. 1975 Ice clouds at the summer polar mesopause. J. Atmos. Sci. 32, 523535.
[92]Reid, G. C. 1990 Ice particles and electron ‘bite-outs’ at the summer polar mesopause. J. Geophys. Res. 95, 1389113896.
[93]Reid, I. M., Czechowsky, P., Rüster, R. and Schmidt, G. 1989 First VHF radar measurements of mesopause summer echoes at mid-latitudes. Geophys. Res. Lett. 16, 135.
[94]Reid, I. M., Rüster, R. and Schmidt, G. 1987 VHF radar observations of cat's eye-like structures at mesospheric heights. Nature 327, 43.
[95]Rietveld, M. T., Kohl, H. K. and Kopka, H. 1993 Introduction to ionospheric heating at Tromsø. Part I: Experimental overview. J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 55, 577.
[96]Robertson, S., Horányi, M., Knappmiller, S., Sternovsky, Z., Holzworth, R., Shimogawa, M., Friedrich, M., Torkar, K., Gumbel, J., Megner, L., et al. 2009 Mass analysis of charged aerosol particles in NLC and PMSE during the ECOMA/MASS campaign. Ann. Geophys. 27, 1213.
[97]Röttger, J. 2001 Observations of the polar D-region and the mesosphere with the EISCAT Svalbard radar and the SOUSY Svalbard radar. Mem. Nat. Inst. Pol. Res. 54, 920.
[98]Röttger, J., LaHoz, C., Kelley, M. C., Hoppe, U.-P. and Hall, C. 1988 The structure and dynamics of polar mesosphere summer echoes observed with the EISCAT 224 MHz radar. Geophys. Res. Lett. 15, 13531356.
[99]Röttger, J., Rietveld, M. T., LaHoz, C., Hall, C., Kelley, M. C. and Swartz, W. 1990 Polar mesosphere summer echoes observed with the EISCAT 933-MHz radar and the CUPRI 46.9-MHz radar, their similarity to 224-MHz radar echoes and their relation to turbulence and electron density profiles. Radio Sci. 25, 671687.
[100]Røyrvik, O. and Smith, L. G. 1984 Comparison of mesospheric VHF radar echoes and rocket probe electron concentration measurements. J. Geophys. Res. 89, 9014.
[101]Sato, T. 1989 Radar principles. In: Handbook for MAP, Vol. 30 (ed. Fukao, S.). Urbana, IL: SCOSTEP, 19 pp.
[102]Scales, W. A. 2004 Electron temperature effects on small-scale plasma irregularities associated with charged dust in the earths mesosphere. IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 32, 724.
[103]Scales, W. A. and Chen, C. 2008 On initial enhancement of mesospheric dust associated plasma irregularities subsequent to radiowave heating. Ann. Geophys. 26, 22652271.
[104]Scales, W. A. and Chen, C. 2008 On the initial perturbation of mesospheric dust associated irregularities by high-powered radio waves. Adv. Space Res. 41 (1), 5056.
[105]Shimizu, S., Klumov, B., Shimizu, T., Rothermel, H., Havnes, O., Thomas, H. M. and Morfill, G. E. 2010 Synthesis of water ice particles in a plasma chamber. J. Geophys. Res. 115, D18205.
[106]Stebel, K., Blum, U., Fricke, K.-H., Kirkwood, S., Mitchell, N. J. and Osepian, A. 2004 Joint radar/lidar observations of possible aerosol layers in the winter mesosphere. J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 66, 957.
[107]Thomas, L., Astin, I. and Prichard, I. T. 1992 The characteristics of VHF echoes from the summer mesopause region and mid-latitudes. J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 54, 969.
[108]Turco, R. P., Toon, O. B., Whitten, R. C., Keesee, R. G. and Hollenbach, D. 1982 Noctilucent clouds: simulation studies of their genesis, properties and global influences. Planet. Space Sci. 3, 11471181.
[109]Vincent, R. A. and Reid, I. M. 1983 HF doppler measurements of mesospheric momentum fluxes. J. Atmos. Sci. 40, 13211333.
[110]von Cossart, G., Fiedler, J. and Von Zahn, U. 1999 Size distributions of NLC particles as determined from 3-color observations of NLC by ground-based lidar. Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 1513.
[111]Von Zahn, U. and Bremer, J. 1999 Simultaneous and common-volume observations of noctilucent clouds and polar mesosphere summer echoes. Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 1521.
[112]von Zahn, U. and Meyer, W. 1989 Mesopause temperatures in polar summer. J. Geophys. Res., 94, 14647.
[113]Weingartner, J. C. and Draine, B. T. 2001 Photoelectric emission from interstellar dust: grain charging and gas heating. Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 134, 263.
[114]Witt, G. 1969 The nature of noctilucent clouds. Space Res. IX, 157169.
[115]Woodman, R. F. and Guillen, A. 1974 Radar observations of winds and turbulence in the stratosphere and mesosphere. J. Atmos. Sci. 31, 493505.
[116]Zeller, O., Zecha, M., Bremer, J., Latteck, R. and Singer, W. 2006 Mean characteristics of mesosphere winter echoes at mid- and high-latitudes. J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 68, 1087.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of Plasma Physics
  • ISSN: 0022-3778
  • EISSN: 1469-7807
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-plasma-physics
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×
MathJax

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed