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Guard Prefects of Trajan and Hadrian

  • Ronald Syme (a1)
Extract

For a space of forty years, from 98 to 138, few praefecti occur on named attestation. In fact only six : two registered in isolation, four in collegiate pairs. Apart from seasons of disturbance, the holders of this useful and necessary office tend to evade notice in written history.

It was not until 2 B.C. that Caesar Augustus appointed commanders of the Praetorian cohorts, so Cassius Dio states. The occasion might excite curiosity: perhaps after the grave crisis in the autumn. The historian adds no comment. He had previously put emphasis on the dangers inherent in a single prefect. Not perhaps clear at first—and Seius Strabo was in sole charge when Augustus died. Named associate with his parent by Tiberius Caesar, Aelius Seianus managed almost at once to have him sent away to be governor of Egypt.

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1 Dio LV. 10. 10 (earlier than the disgrace of Julia). At least one item traverses chronology. Dio registers the title ‘pater patriae’ subsequent to August (ibid.). It was voted on February 5.

2 Dio LII 24. 2 (in the oration of Maecenas).

3 Dio LVII. 19. 6. Not in Tacitus: relevant to the sources he used for 15 and 16.

4 Martial VI. 76. 1 (Cornelius Fuscus).

5 Dio LX. 33. 2 (Rufrius Pollio).

6 Amendments are required for the list in Passerini, A., Le Coorti Pretorie (1939), 295 ff. It was adopted by W. Ensslin in RE xxii, 2423 f.

7 For Egypt in the period see the lists in Stein, A., Die Präfekten von Ägypten (1950), 47 ff.; G. Bastiniani, ZPE 17 (1975), 278 ff. Brunt, P. A., JRS LXV (1975), 144 f. It is therefore not necessary to supply references for various facts or precise dates of easy access and not in dispute.

8 Dio LVIII. 5. 4. For conjecture about the role of this equivocal character see Tacitus (1958), 35, n. 4. Casperius had previously held the Guard under Domitian (LVIII. 3.3). That is, one of the pair put on trial in 95 (LVII. 14. 4).

9 P. Hibeh 215 (Julius Alexander). Not also at Rome, as assumed by Turner, E. G., JRS XLIV (1954), 54 ff.

10 Pliny, Pan. 67. 8; Dio LXVIII. 16. I2; Victor, Caes. 13. 9.

11 AE 1969, 60 (Heliopolis), cf. Pflaum, H.-G., Les Carrières procuratoriennes (1960), 128 ff.; Thomasson, B. E., Senatores Procuratoresque Romani Nonnulli (1975), 16 f.

12 Tacitus, Hist. I. 59. 2; 64. 3. Another procurator who had this regiment as sole military post is Sex. Pompeius Sabinus (CIL III. 12299: in Epirus), perhaps in the same period. His tribe might be ‘V]o[lt.’. Pflaum suggests ‘P]o[ll.’ (op. cit., 123).

13 The legate was Glitius Agricola (ILS 1021), proceeding to a consulate in the course of 97—and to a second in 102.

14 Hist. I. 12. I; 58. I (Pompeius Propinquus).

15 Suetonius, , Galba 14. 2.

16 Hist. II. 92. I.

17 ILS 1374.

18 ILS 9200, cf. Pflaum, , Carriéres, 114 ff.

19 Hist. I. 59. 2; 68. I. In January of 89 the procurator was Norbanus (Martial IX. 84), later praefectus praetorio.

20 ILS 9200; AE 1939, 60.

21 Perhaps somebody dug out from retirement by Trajan's allies at Rome—and now departing from Ostia to his ‘patria’.

22 Dio LVII. 19. 8 Not in Tacitus: perhaps postponed until Book v.

23 P. Berol. 8334, as interpreted by A. Piganiol, CRAI 1947, 376 ff.: followed in JRS XLIV (1954), 117, and (briefly) in Tacitus, 635 f.

Some have raised dissent. Thus Pflaum, H.-G., Latomus x (1951), 474;Carrirères, 130 f. But, for W. Eck, ‘kaum ein Zweifel’ (RE Supp. xiv, 212).

24 The original text (that of Kortenbeutel, published in 1940) is reproduced by R. Cavenaile, CPL (1958), 238. He did not register the improvement ‘precibus suis’ due to E. Birley.

25 The praenomen is certified on a Latin inscription in Egypt (AE 1956, 57) of which the date is not quite clear, cf. Tacitus, 635. For the prefecture of Ursus see further PIR 2, J 630 (which incautiously puts his tenure of the annona after the accession of Domitian). Ursus occurs on Brunt's list ‘between 73 and 82, perhaps in 79’ (op. cit. (n. 7), 144). Bastiniani assigns him to 83/4, between Laberius Maximus and Septimius Vegetus (op. cit. (n. 7), 276). That scholar rejected Piganiol's interpretation of P. Berol. 4334.

26 Dio LXVII. 3.1; 4. 2. Thu s Groag, cited by Stein in RE Supp. VII, 1624.

27 Reported by Zevi, F., Akten des VI Int. Kongresses für gr. u. lat. Epigraphik (München, 1973), 438. The third consulate of Vestricius Spurinna lapses.

28 A pontifex, as deduced from Sex. Attius Justus, his ‘calator’ on the list of 102 (CIL vi. 30134), cf. PIR 2. A 1366.

29 Dio LXVIII. 9. 2.

30 ILS 2081.

31 Pliny, Epp. x. 72. 1. Like the Ignotus of Pan. 86, the two items were ignored by Passerini. As for Livianus, he is now attested in January of 108. See the peculiar bronze tablet published as ‘Appendix’ by Roxan, M. M., Roman Military Diplomas 1954–1977 (1978). 103.

32 CIL xvi. 60.

33 Being Prefect of Egypt until succeeded by Rutilius Lupus.

34 The evidence is far from establishing a conspiracy, so most scholars conclude. Authenticity is suggested by Speidel, M., Guards of the Roman Army (1978), 29 f. He points to C. Calventius Viator, in charge of the singulares of Avidius Nigrinus, one of the four, when he governed Dacia (ILS 2417: Sarmizegethusa). This officer was taken up by Hadrian, attested not only in 130 (AE 1915, 42: Gerasa) but in Africa two years previously as the ‘Viator’ of ILS 9134 (Lambaesis), as argued by Le Glay, M., Mélanges Seston (1974), 277 f.

35 Neglect of the structure presents Hadrian with two journeys to Moesia in Henderson, B. W., The Life and Principate of the Emperor Hadrian (1923), 45, cf. 282. Likewise the article of C. H. V. S. and M. H. in OCD 2 (1970), 485.

36 As emphasized by G. Barbieri, Riv. fil. xxxii (1954), 39. For further specimens, Emperors and Biography (1971), 113 ff.; HAC 1970 (1972), 290 f. The argument that Maximus is not the basic source of the early biographies in the HA depends on the structure. It will be suitable to add that not all accept it.

37 Dio LXIX. 19. 2.

38 CIL vi. 2080.

39 Tacitus, Ann. III. 30. 4.

40 ILS 1448.

41 AE 1940, 38. A tenure from 107 to 112 is assumed by d'Escurac, H. Pavis, La Préfecture de l'Annone (1976), 336. Also Sulpicius Similis (Frag. Vat. 233) as the immediate successor. A solitary prefect is on certain attestation under Hadrian, viz. Claudius Julianus (Frag. Vat. 235).

42 The malevolent source also alleged that Hadrian poisoned Sabina (23. 9).

43 Tacitus, 779; Emperors and Biography, 113 f.

44 J. A. Crook, Proc. Comb. Phil. Soc. 1958, 18 ff.

45 Although some opt for 121. Thus Pflaum, , Carrières, 221; 224. Others hedge with 121/2.

46 ILAfr. 421 (Utica); AE 1953, 73 (Hippo). As concerns the year 128, doubts should have been conceived about Sabina's title. Surely much earlier, cf. W. Eck, RE Supp. xv, 910 f.

47 Joh. Lyd., De mag. 11. 6.

48 As firmly stated by Townend, G. B., Historia x (1961), 108 f., and briefly in OCD 2 (1970), 1120. Each time, however, with ‘121/2’.

49 Thus A. Stein, RE II A, 1557; A. Passerini, op. cit. (n. 6), 299.

50 As suggested in Tacitus, 779—and assumed independently by Pflaum, Carrières, 220, cf. 224. See further ‘The Travels of Suetonius Tranquillus’ forthcoming.

51 ILS 1029; 1061.

52 Doubted by Townend, op. cit., 108. But see now Millar, F., The Emperor in the Roman World (1977), 90 f.

53 Suetonius, Tit. 4.1. Compare the remarks about Augustus' furniture: his parsimony ‘apparet etiam nunc residuis lectis atque mensis’ (Aug. 73).

54 See the attractive arguments of G. B. Townend, CQ IX (1959), 285 ff.; Latin Biography (ed. T. A. Dorey, 1967), 88, cf. 90.

55 On which see a paper ‘Biographers of the Caesars’, forthcoming.

56 For the testimonia, Pflaum, , Carrières, 199 ff.; Dobson, B., Die Primipilares (1978), 226 ff. For a time confusion was caused through amalgamating Turbo with T. Flavius T. f. Pal. Priscus Gallonius Fronto Q. Marcius Turbo (AE 1946, 113: Caesarea). Against, JRS XLIV (1954), 118 (review of Stein, Die Präfekten von Ägypten). For the full statement, JRS LII (1962), 89 ff. = Roman Papers (1979), 545 ff. This man was procurator pro legato of Dacia Inferior and of Mauretania Caesariensis early in the reign of Pius, as there argued. Pflaum prefers a later date (Carrières 378).

56 Published by Frézouls, E., Syria xxx (1953), 247, whence AE 1955, 225; cf. Pflaum, , Carrières, 211 ff. Also Thomasson, B. E., Senatores Procuratoresque Romani Nonnulli, 41 f. (who had doubted the attribution).

57 CIL xiv. 4243 (Tibur).

58 Eusebius, Hist. eccl. iv. 2. 4, cf. Fuks, A., JRS LI (1961), 98 ff. Not, however, Prefect of Egypt, as assumed by that scholar and by Stein, A., Die Präfekten, 59. He is omitted from recent lists.

59 Some wished to adduce (Caesennius) Sospes, legate of XIII Gemina with military decorations in an ‘expedit. Suebic. et Sarm.’ (ILS 1017: Pisidian Antioch). Against which, JRS LXVII (1977), 47 f.

60 Pergamum VIII. 3. 21, cf. PIR 2, J 508.

61 For a discussion, JRS xxxvi (1946), 161 f. = Danubian Papers (1971), 164 f. But observe Pflaum, Carrières, 206: ‘son titre de praef. Aegypti’.

62 The military aspect is accorded exclusive emphasis by W. Weber, CAH xi (1936), 303; Mócsy, A., Pannonia and Upper Moesia (1974), 100.

63 CIL xvi. 68 (Sex. Julius Severus, suff. 127).

64 Published in JRS LI (1961), 63 ff., whence AE 1962, 255. See now Roxan, M. M., Roman Military Diplomas 1954–1977 (1978), 35.

65 AE 1973, 459 (Gherla) = M. M. Roxan, RMD, 21; along with die small fragment (ibid. 22) from Čovdin (60 km south-east from Viminacium) which helps to establish the name of the procurator.

66 Examined, in reference to Dacian diplomas, in JRS xxxvi (1946), 159 f. = Danubian Papers (1971), 161.

67 Thus Degrassi, I Fasti consolari (1952), 34 n. By aberration 115 was proposed in JRS xxxvi (1946), 160.

68 On the inner side, introducing the name of the commander, appears ‘alae Briton, c. R.’. Problems about the identity of regiments may be eschewed in this place.

69 Thus M. M. Roxan, in cautious comment: ‘the unusual form of the verb … may reflect the issuing of the diploma at least four years after honesta missio had been granted through Marcius Turbo, if it is accepted that he relinquished the joint command of Dacia and Pannonia in 119.’

For a thorough study of this diploma and others see G. Alföldy, ZPE 36 (1979), 233 ff.

70 According to the editors in AE 1973, 459, ‘le nouveau texte oblige à revoir la chronologie de la fin de sa carrière’. In pursuance therewith the proposal of H. G. Pflaum, Annuaire de l'École Pratique des Hautes Études 1975/1976, 373 f. Accepted and developed by Gascou, J., Latomus xxxvii (1978), 436 f. —to the point of having Septicius and Suetonius still in office in 128.

71 On the widely accepted view, a L. Neratius Priscus (the third of that name after the consuls of 87 and 97) was governor of Pannonia Inferior early in the reign of Hadrian: assumed from ILS 1034 (Saepinum). Thus Historia xiv (1965), 350 f. = Danubian Papers (1971), 233 f. For a drastic revision of problems about the Neratii see now Camodeca, G., Atti dell' Accademia di Scienze Morali e Politiche LXXXVII (Napoli, 1976), 19 ff.

72 Historia VI (1957), 484 = Roman Papers (1979), 357 (discussing Vibius Maximus).

73 ILS 1535. He was procurator of Syria under Domitian (SEG xvii. 755).

74 As conjectured by Hirschfeld on the basis of CIL XII. 671 (Arelate). Noted as highly dubious by Passerini, op. cit. (n. 6), 296.

75 His claims are discussed, and taken quite seriously, by Brunt, as no. 36a (op. cit. (n. 7), 144).

76 Juvenal iv. 32. Stated as ‘molto probabile’ by Passerini (op. cit. (n. 6), 200), and admitted without hesitation to Ensslin's list (RE xxii, 8395). As Stein coolly observed, ‘praefectum praetorio eum fuisse putant viri docti’ (PIR 2, c 1586).

77 Historia VI (1957), 483.

78 ibid. 483 f. The conjecture was made independently by Pflaum, Carrières, 154. Followed by H. Pavis d'Escurac, op. cit. (n. 41), 333. Note, as firmly against, Sherwin-White in his commentary ad loc. (1966).

79 ILS 1374.

80 P. Oxy. 471 (with charges against his morals).

81 Frag. Vat. 283.

82 AE 1940, 38.

83 Held distinct in PIR 1, R 173 f. But see A. Stein, Die Präfekten, 205.

84 ILS 2160 f.

85 ILS 1338.

86 For his brother or son (suff. 134) see PIR 2, H 30. He earned ornamenta triumphalia (ILS 1058), presumably as governor of Pannonia Superior under Aelius Caesar in 137, cf. CIL XVI. 84.

87 Hadrian's two long journeys were not well treated by W. Weber in CAH xi (1936), 319. In OCD 2 (1970), 485, the Emperor returns to Rome in 127—and he is at Rome ‘from 131 to 138’.

88 See especially Pflaum, HAC 1968/69 (1970), 180–82. And, for quarrels with intellectuals, Bowersock, G. W., Greek Sophists in the Roman Empire (1969), 50 ff.

89 Dio LXIX. 1. 6; 17. 1.

90 He is mentioned later, after Servianus, as ‘Fuscus’, with no sign of his identity (23. 3).

91 HA, Marcus 1. 9, cf. Marcus, , Ad se ipsum 1. 4. For a conjecture about the identity of the lady, Historia XVII (1968), 95 f. = Roman Papers (1979), 682 f.

92 Deduced from HA, Marcus 7. 4 and from tiles (CIL xv. 731). Cf. PIR 2, A 708.

93 Conjectured legate in 121–4, as successor to ‘[Se]rtorius’ (CIL III. 7539), in Historia XVII (1968), 90. A new portion of the inscription now shows them identical. See further Harvard Studies LXXXIII (1979), 291 f.

94 Demotion is the standard assumption. Thus A. Stein, RE xiv 1599.

96 ILS 1449; IGR III. 1077, cf. Pflaum, Carrières, 264 ff.

97 By conjecture he is installed as praefectus annonae immediately before 142 by H. Pavis d'Escurac, op. cit. (n. 41), 341. Hesitation is permissible.

98 Identical (cf. PIR 2, A 1405; H 51), but denied by Pflaum (Carrières, 253), because of the notice in the HA. Accepted, however, in HAC 1968/69 (1970), 181.

98 Dio LXIX. 18 f.

99 The item is registered among the testimonia for Turbo in Carrières, 201. It is also noted in the entry on Turbo in OCD 2, 1099—which omits the Cyrrhus inscription.

100 IGR I. 662 (Tomis). Consul suffect c. 150, rather than c. 145, as in PIR 2 F 305; and subsequently legate of Moesia Inferior, attested in 155.

101 The termination of Turbo's mandate in 135 appears to be presupposed by Pflaum's calculation of his age in Carrières, 205; and the tenure 119–35 is stated in HAC 1968/69 (1970), 196.

102 L. Domitius L. f. Quir. Rogatus (ILS 1450). The cognomen suggests an African origin.

103 L. Verus (his son) had a prefect with him in the Parthian War, viz. Furius Victorinus (ILS 9002), who received the same military decorations as a consular legate.

104 ILS 2182.

105 His successor, Avidius Heliodorus, was there by September.

106 HA, Pius 8. 7. The colleague faded out: when, it is not clear. On Gavius followed Tattius Maximus, praefectus vigilum in 154 (ILS 2161), replaced on his early decease by the pair Furius Victorinus and Cornelius Repentinus.

107 Fronto, , Ad Antoninum Pium 3; 7; 4 = Haines 1, 254 ff.

108 Pliny, Epp. IX. 1. 1. However, ‘a doubtful assumption’. Thus Sherwin-White, ad loc.

109 CIL xvi. 173; 176. For the former, with the consulate of L. Aurelius Gallus and a Priscus in the month of August, the year 131 is conjectured by Alföldy, G., Kaisertum und Senatorenstand unter den Antoninen (1977), 87. For fresh information about the career of Gavius (from AE 1971, 65: Ostia) see W. Eck, RE Supp. xv, 109 f.

From an unpublished inscription a procuratorship of Asia was adduced (PIR 2, G 104, cf. Pflaum, , Carrières, 249). The inscription is stated to come from Hierapolis Castabala (in Cilicia).

110 As suggested byBirley, E., quoted in Carrières, 228. Gavius is generally catalogued anterior to Censorius in Tingitana. Thus in Carrières, 1108; Thomasson, B. E., Die Statthalter der r. Provinzen Nordafrikas II (1960), 296. It might not be so.

111 Pliny, Epp. II. 9.

112 CIL III 5174; 5181 (Celeia). No close dating possible. But subsequent to Tingitana: not previous, as Alföldy, G., Noricum (1974), 244.

113 Thus, with no doubt, Passerini, op. cit. (n. 6), 300.

114 A. Stein, Die Präfekten 17a; G. Alföldy, op. cit. 156; 324.

115 Thus Hadr. 8. 4: ‘tertio consules, cum ipse terfuisset, plurimos fecit, infinites autem secundi consulates honore cumulavit’.

116 Suetonius, Cl. 24. I: ‘etiam procuratoribus ducenariis’. Not stated in censure. But observe other ornamenta for imperial freedmen (ibid. 28). For lists of all recipients see now B. Rémy, Rev. ét. anc. LXXVIII/IX (1976/1977), 160 ff.

117 With Cornelius Repentinus, cf. PIR 2, c 1428.

118 ILS 1323; 8999.

119 ILS 1324; ILAfr. 421. Hadrian styled ‘pater patriae’ on the former document should date it to 128 or later.

120 ILS 1321 (Burrus); 1325 (Gavius). If the ornamenta were normal under Hadrian, the biographer would not have needed to emphasize the practice followed by his successor (Pius 10. 6). But that is not a strong argument.

121 Birley, E., Roman Britain and the Roman Army (1053), 24. For legates of praetorian rank, observe Lollius Urbicus (ILS 1065) and the Ignotus from Pisaurum (CIL xi. 6339).

122 A. Stein, Der r. Ritterstand (1927), 255 f. For an ample discussion, Chastagnol, A., Recherches sur l'Histoire Auguste (1970), 39 ff; also in HAC 1975/6 (1978), 125 ff.

123 The feminine form ‘laticlavia’ appears unique, cf. TLL. For ‘laticlavium’, Gaius in Dig. xxiv. I. 42; Schol. Iuv. I. 106; Orosius v. 18. 17 (in the plural).

124 Thus A. Chastagnol, op. cit., 62.

125 That is presupposed by the translation of D. Magie (Loeb, 1930). Likewise Birley, A.: ‘he made Attianus a senator with honorary consular rank’ (Penguin Classics, 1976).

126 Not all references to Maximus are above suspicion. This reference implies that many prefects in the period 96–222 did not acquire ‘dignitas senatoria’ until they retired.

127 Dig. I. 9. I praef.

128 For comparison or contrasts with Egypt, observe the searching and often salutary remarks of Brunt, P. A., JRS LXV (1975), 124 ff. He discusses the need for previous experience, earlier posts, legal or administrative competence.

129 Dio LXVII. 3. 1; 4. 2.

130 Dio LXIX. 19. 1.

131 CIL III. 143492, cf. E. Ritterling, RE XII, 1445. The inscription is republished as AE 1933, 31; 1948, 202.

132 HA, Hadr. 2. 2, cf. ILS 312.

133 AE 1955, 225 (Cyrrhus). See now Dobson, B., Die Primipilares (1978), 226 ff.

134 ILS 2161; 9002. Perhaps to be inserted is T. Statilius Optatus (ILS 9061). Recourse to the original publication (Not. Scav. 1893, 197) permits ‘p[raef. vig.]’ at the end of 1. 2.

135 For the list (six names), H. Pavis d'Escurac, op. cit. (n. 41), 131 ff. Valerius Eudaemon is conjectural, and Baienus Blassianus must now be moved to the early years of Marcus. His prefecture of Egypt belongs in 167, cf. P. Berol. inv. 16036. Duly noted by Bastiniani, op. cit. (n. 7), 297; Brunt, op. cit. (n. 7), 145.

136 For example, Ofonius Tigellinus—or Tattius Maximus.

137 viz. Tettius Africanus (CIL xi. 5382), Prefect of Egypt early in the reign of Domitian. For conjectures about Vibius Maximus, above, p. 00.

138 Campbell, B., JRS LXV (1975), 11 ff. That study embraces the years 70–235. Variations can, however, be established within certain periods, cf. below n. 142.

139 As emphasized in JRS LII (1962), 93 f. = Roman Papers (1979), 552 f.

140 Martial IX. 84.

141 Varius Clemens, after governing Caesariensis and Raetia, where he is attested in 157 (CIL xvi. 183), held the financial procuratorship in Belgica and die two Germanies, to end as ab epistulis to Marcus and Verus (ILS 1362).

Observe also Baienus Blassianus (Inscr. It. x. 4. 37; AE 1966, 161). After Tingitana, Raetia, the Ravenna fleet, he becomes procurator in Lugdunensis and Aquitania, then either secretary a rationibus or praefectus vigilum, to reach Egypt in 167 after the annona. Further, the career of his successor in Egypt, Bassaeus Rufus ((ILS 1326).

142 The senatorial career exhibits a parallel phenomenon, from the middle of Hadrian's reign for about forty years. A number of consular legates had been praefecti aeraryti Saturni before their consulship, and curatores operum publicorum immediately after. For statistics, see Historia xiv (1965), 358 = Danubian Papers (1971), 241 f.

143 The earliest is under Trajan, viz. Vibius Lentulus (AE 1913, 143). Pompeius Homullus (ILS 1385) is also put there by Pflaum, Carrières, 189. Perhaps too early.

144 ILS 1341 (Valerius Proculus); 1340 (Petronius Honoratus). For the former, the post a rationibus is dubious, being put in a lacuna of the text, it must be conceded (Pflaum, , Carrières, 279).

145 ILS 1339 (Statius Macedo); 1343 (Junius Flavianus). A third procurator is Pompeius Homullus, who died after becoming a rationibus (ILS 1385).

146 Millar, F., The Emperor in the Roman World, 90.

147 For some doubts, PIR 2, J 453. For a firm rejection, ‘Three Jurists’, HAC 1968/69 (1970), 309 ff. = Roman Papers (1979), 790 ff.

148 HA, Carac. 8. 2: ‘ut aliqui loquuntur’. Phrase and context raise a strong doubt.

149 CIL XII. 4641 (Narbo).

150 CIL vi. 29688.

151 Tacitus, Hist. I. 65. There is a fair chance, be it added, that Julius Ursus was likewise a Narbonensian.

152 TAM II. I. 184, cf. PIR 2, C 912.

153 AE 1924, 15 (Rome).

154 CIL xvi. 55; XII. 671 (Arelate).

155 Dio LXIX. 1. 2.

156 CIL viii. 24587. The second line shows him ‘flamen P[’. Presumably Pomonalis or Palatualis. The third has ‘bello Ra[’, where the editor suggests ‘Raetico’. To conjecture ‘Pa[rthico’ would be tempting and useful.

157 Schulze, LE 229 is not informative. Nor are the data from the Italian volumes of CIL, viz. v (five), IX (six), x (one), XI (one).

158 Val. Max. vii. 7. 4. She tried to defraud her sons by marrying an old man called Publicius. A Q. Septicius, senator in the time of Tiberius, can be deduced from CIL vi. 31765, cf. PIR 2, c 149; 152. Add now T. Manlius Sura Septicianus, quaestor of Crete and Cyrene, cf. W. Eck, RE, Supp. xv, 130.

159 And previously perhaps C. Galerius the Prefect of Egypt (PIR 2, G 25), who avows no cognomen.

160 ILS 1348 (near Verona).

161 See remarks in CP LXXIV (1979), 13 f. No reasons can be adduced for denying that ‘patria’ to Suetonius (AE 1953, 73).

162 Since πολιτικῶς καὶ σωφρόνως ζῶντες (Strabo xiv, p. 664). It may be Galba, not Nero, who restored their ‘libertas’. For that notion, Klio xxx (1937), 231 = Roman Papers (1979), 45.

163 ILS 8821. For Groag's conjecture, based on TAM II. 361, see PIR 2, c 753.

164 AE 1972, 572 (Ephesus). On whom, cf. Chr. Habicht, ZPE 13 (1974), 1 ff.

165 PIR 2, J 162.

166 AE 1911, 108 (Rapidum); 1946, 113 (Caesarea.) For a time confused with the Guard Prefect, cf. above, n. 55.

168 IGR I. 662 (Tomis). If he is a son by birth of Turbo (as assumed by Pflaum, Carrières, 211), it is remarkable that he began in equestrian service. Hence reinforcing a doubt whether Turbo had acquired ‘dignitas senatoria’ through ornamenta consularia.

169 For this pair, and for the other Marcii Turbones, see remarks (inconclusive) in JRS LII (1962), 95 f. = Roman Papers (1979), 553 ff.

170 Harvard Studies LXXXIII (1979), 291 f., cf. above, n. 93.

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