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Roman Malta

  • Thomas Ashby

The Maltese islands, Malta, the ancient Melite, Gozo, the ancient Gaulus, and three lesser islets, lie in the centre of the Mediterranean in a significant position. They command the highway of sea-borne traffic between east and west, and they form a link between north and south, between Sicily and Tunis. They are small, indeed; their whole area is about four-fifths that of the Isle of Wight, but they are in their own fashion very fertile, their seas are rich in fish, and their coasts have many harbours. Naturally they have long been inhabited; they have a real and, for certain centuries, a stirring history. Their closest geographical kinship is with Sicily, which is less than sixty miles north of Gozo, and can easily be seen in clear weather from the higher parts of the islands. Hence, perhaps, it was that during seven centuries of the Roman period, just as during five centuries of the middle ages, they were connected especially with Sicily; but their relations with the more distant African coast and with the eastern and western waters of the Mediterranean are too strong to allow them to be called purely Sicilian or even purely European, and they have often owned other allegiance.

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page 23 note 1 In later Latin, Gaudus or Gaudisium; Arabic, Guds, from which Gozo.

page 23 note 2 For Comino, see p. 52. Cominotto, which is close to Comino, and Filfola, to the south of Malta, are even smaller, almost mere rocks.

page 23 note 3 These monuments have lately been explored, with the help of the government of Malta, by the British School at Rome: see a full account, by the present writer, Bradley, R., Peet, T. E., and Tagliaferro, N., in the Papers of the British School at Rome, vi, 1126.

page 24 note 1 Albert Mayr, Aus den phönizischen Nekropolen von Malta (Sitzungsber. der k. b. Akad. zu München, 1905, 467 foll.) and Die Insel Malta, 1909, 65, 129; Annual Reports of the Curator of the Valetta Museum (1906, and foll.).

page 24 note 2 Naevius in Bährens, Fragm. poet. Rom. p. 48; Orosius, iv, 8.

page 24 note 3 Livy, xxi, 51.

page 24 note 4 I.G. xiv, 952, 953.

page 24 note 5 Cicero, Verr. ii, 2, 123.

page 25 note 1 Mayr, , Antike Münzen der Inseln Malta, Gozo, und Pantellaria (München, 1895). He now attributes to the Punic period the bronze coins bearing the head of the bearded Melkarth-Hercules.

page 25 note 2 I.G. xiv, 600.

page 25 note 3 Cic. Verr. ii, 4, 103.

page 25 note 4 Verr. ii, 4, 39; for the class of cup, see Brunn, , Gesch. der griech. Künstler, ii, 276; Welcker, , Kleine Schriften, iii, 499.

page 25 note 5 Strabo, vi, 277; Athenaeus, xii, 518; vase of about 500 B.C. (with the name ‘Melitaean’) in Ann. del Ist. 1852, pl. 1; Keller, Otto, Antike Tierwelt, i 93, fig. 34.

page 26 note 1 Mionnet, i, 343, 26; Mommsen, Münzwesen, 374, note.

page 26 note 2 C.I.L. x, 7494; compare Mommsen's note on 6785. The text (not in I.G.) runs as follows :

In line 1 between the second and third words there is a garland supported by two dolphins. The provenance of the inscription is quite uncertain, and the interpretation of the last line as Σμρίων δήμoυ υ(ἱος) adopted by Garrucci and Caruana is doubtful.

page 26 note 3 For the Quirine tribe at Gaulus, see C.I.L. x, 7501, 7508, etc. The only inscription which bears on Melite, a Greek inscription mentioned in the text, is, as Mommsen observes, not conclusive. It only names the tribus Quirina.

page 26 note 4 I.G. xiv, 601; compare Mommsen's remark, C.I.L. x, p. 773. The Quirine tribe seems to have been used for Greeks who obtained the Roman franchise individually, and this may have been the case with Castricius, or perhaps he may have sprung from Gaulus. No certainty can therefore be deduced from its mention.

page 26 note 5 Acts, xxviii, 7.

page 27 note 1 For Melite see C.I.L. x, 7495, 8318; Mayr's idea that ‘primus omnium’ in 7495 is a title is pretty plainly wrong. For Gaulus, see C.I.L. x, 7502, foll. It might be argued from 7501 that the ‘municipium’ of Gaulus dated from before A.D. 29, but the argument would depend again on the occurrence of the tribe-name ‘Quirina.’

page 27 note 2 C.I.L. x, 7507.

page 27 note 3 Garrucci, Civiltà cattolica, 17th Sept. 1881 (ser. iii, vol. vii, p. 731); compare Caruana, Frammento Critico, p. 297. The stone was in the Bonavita collection.

page 27 note 4 I should perhaps here insert a warning that there is no standard orthography of local Maltese names. I have done the best I could to spell them with the help of Maltese friends and of the government map.

page 28 note 1 Quintinus, Descr. insulae Melite, col. 2, cited by Mayr. Three reliefs in the Valetta museum which have been called ancient and assigned to this temple, really date from the renaissance (Caruana, Report, 114; Zammit, Valletta Museum, 41).

page 28 note 2 Ciantar, Malta Illustrata, i, 3, 8, p. 153, and plate xx; Barbaro, , Degli avanzi d'alcuni antichissimi edificii scoperti in Malta l'anno 1768 (Malta 1794), compare Mayr, p. 133, who misplaces the site. My plan (fig. 1) is taken from Barbaro's plate i.

page 29 note 1 ii, 185.

page 29 note 2 Abela, Malta Illustrata, i, 1, p. 16 (Ciantar, 48, p. 79). Abela mentions at the same place a marble fragment with a mutilated inscription (… IN STATIONE: … MILLE …. QVINCENT. PASS …); not even Mommsen could guess what this really means (C.I.L. x, 7496).

page 29 note 3 Barbaro, pl. 6, reproduced by Caruana, Report, 122; a similar (or identical) gem is in the possession of Mr. L. Camilleri.

page 29 note 4 Caruana, Report, 90, 113; Zammit, Valletta Museum, 113.

page 29 note 5 Unpublished MS. in the Malta Public Library: see Caruana, Report, 92. This is the discovery referred to by Ciantar (i, 3, 7, p. 150): cf. Barbaro, op. cit. 9 f; 48, n. 4. Caruana is wrong in referring it to another building. Ciantar mentions that another round bath with mosaics had been found not long before his time.

page 29 note 6 Becker, , Malta Sotterranea (Strassburg, 1913), 62, foll.

page 29 note 7 C.I.L. x, 8319; Becker, 132.

page 30 note 1 The highest ground in the island is about a mile to the ssw. near the village of Dingli (845 feet).

page 30 note 2 Abela, i, 2, p. 30; Ciantar, i, p. 127; Caruana, Ancient Tombs, p. 85 and pl. XXI; Mayr, Insel Malta, 142. Caruana states, without details, that the foundations of one of the gates were found in 1890, and that part of the natural rock bridge of the other still remained. He also asserts the existence of a third gate, at the south-west angle of the site, but I am not inclined to agree with him. The carriage-road which enters the town on the east is of comparatively recent origin.

page 30 note 3 At the bottom of a cistern in this monastery was found, according to Abela, the inscription I.G. xiv, 602, now lost.

page 30 note 4 C.I.L. x, 7495. A fragment of the inscription was seen by Dessau in St. Paul's Square; the whole is now preserved in the Roman villa museum (Zammit, Guide, p. 21). Prof. Zammit has kindly sent me a squeeze of it, from which it appears that Ciantar gave the text correctly. Dr. Hülsen dates the stone to the second century, as he kindly tells me.

page 31 note 1 Ciantar, i, 130 and pl. vii (which shows, however, not a capital, but a cornice—perhaps one which is now in the Roman villa museum): cf. Caruana, Report, 89, who attributes to it three capitals in the Sant Fournier collection, in the Villa Sant at Casal Lia.

page 31 note 2 Now preserved in the Roman villa museum (no. 29).

page 31 note 3 C.I.L. x, 8318. Prof. Hülsen reads the text from a squeeze as follows:

The stone is broken to the right and below: at the end the line over the numeral denoting the sum is still visible. There is no sign of any line having been lost before line 1. Prof. Hülsen dates the inscription to the end of the first or the beginning of the second century. The stone is now in the possession of Dean Vassallo at Notabile.

page 33 note 1 He reproduces the statue on p. 126, fig. 31, and two of the statuettes, together with another in the Valetta museum (the provenance of which seems to be uncertain) on pp. 78–79, figs. 27–29. The earliest illustration of the large statue (Abela, p. 32, fig. 1 = Ciantar, pl. ii, fig. 1) shows it as already headless, and Houel, , Voyage des isles de Sicile, Lipari, et Malte, iv, pl. 26, 1, gives it with a restored head.

page 33 note 2 Now in the Roman villa museum, no. 26, six feet high, including base; forearms and head missing. The work is very shallow, the back being practically unworked. The figure wears pointed shoes. The left hand, which comes out below the drapery, across the body, held some object, signs of which still remain on the left thigh, with a small hole beneath, with traces of a metal fastening.

page 33 note 3 p. 32 = Ciantar, tab. xiv.

page 33 note 4 Voyage, etc. iv, pl. 261, d, etc. The seated figure to the right of n in a shell-niche, was, however, seen by him at the Grand Harbour.

page 33 note 5 p. 31; Ciantar, i, 128.

page 33 note 6 p. 33; Ciantar, i, 145.

page 33 note 7 i, 135, 150; for two small gems, cf. i, 666, pl. 11, XII.

page 33 note 8 Recent discoveries at Notabile, 13; Report, p. 91, Ancient Pottery, 57, in 1747 (not in Ciantar); between 1830 and 1858 at Rabato and at Mtarfa; in 1860, 1863, and 1867 (floors in monochrome tessellation, generally red, under the foundations of houses at Bir-il-liun, in Rabato, and of the hospital of S. Spirito); cf. Report, p. 116, for a statuette found in 1880, which has now disappeared.

page 34 note 1 T. Zammit in Annual Report, 1909–10, p. 13; 1910–11, p. 10. I was told by Col. MacKean, C.M.G. that a wall of large blocks of stone had been found several years before under the Casa d'Amico Inguanez, running due north, towards the northwest corner of the cathedral square, where a similar wall (possibly its continuation) had been found more recently in drainage works, close to the house of Baron Gourgion. He also showed me a fluted column of hard stone, 14¼ inches in diameter, which was said to belong to the ancient theatre.

page 35 note 1 Caruana, , Recent discoveries at Notabile (Malta 1881), a somewhat inadequate account. Copies extra-illustrated with photographs from drawings (some of which are reproduced in our test) are to be met with secondhand: cf. also Zammit, , Guide to the Roman Villa Museum at Rabat (Malta, 1908).

page 35 note 2 N.H. xxxvi, 184.

page 35 note 3 Another argument, as Caruana points out, is the fact that the mosaic in the peristyle does not face the porch, but looks north-west.

page 36 note 1 See note on the subject of this mosaic by Mr. G. McN. Rushforth, printed on p. 79.

page 36 note 2 [In the Biblical narrative, however, Delilah shore Samson's head, not his beard, and did it while he was asleep, not by binding his hands (Judges, xvi). We should perhaps seek a non-biblical explanation (see p. 79).—F. H.]

page 37 note 1 Insel Malta, p. 145.

page 37 note 2 77, fol: cf. taf. xxv, 2; xxvi.

page 38 note 1 Caruana, p. 6; Zammit, p. 12.

page 39 note 1 [Judging from a photograph in Caruana, Report, a characteristic portrait of the emperor Claudius may be the companion-portrait of Agrippina. —G. McN. Rushforth.]

page 41 note 1 The first fragment is alluded to by Caruana, Frammento Critico, 297. We may also note the amphora stamp SOPAT·F·N on the side of an amphora below the handle.

page 41 note 2 Insel Malta, p. 55, fig. 22 c.

page 41 note 3 Mayr, ‘Aus den phönikischen Nekropolen von Malta,’ in Münchener Sitzungsberichte, 1905, p. 493, fig. 7; Peet, in J.H.S. xxxii (1912), p. 97, fig. 3.

page 43 note 1 Annual Report, 15.

page 43 note 2 C.I.L. x, 7494.

page 43 note 3 Abela, p. 209, 220 = Ciantar, pl. xiv (also pl. vii, 1 (?). Caruana (Report, p. 88) attributes to the temple some architectural fragments used in the Auberge d'Italie and in the Castellania at Valetta, and some fragments in the Sant Fournier collection; also three Corinthian capitals, two of which are in the Roman villa museum, the other at Mtarfa barracks (Frammento Critico, 281, 282). In his visit to the site before the construction of the barracks, he (Report, pp. 88, 94) noticed nothing but some holes hewn in the rock like those at Birzebbugia (P.B.S.R. vi, p. 7, n. 1), though his statements are somewhat inconsistent with one another.

page 43 note 4 Mayr, op. cit. 103, 147: cf. his special article on the Phoenician cemeteries of Malta, already cited, and Annual Report, 1907–8, p. 2; 1908–9, p. 5; 1910–11, p. 5; 1912–13, p. 9.

page 44 note 1 Annual Report, 1906–7, p. 2; 1907–8, p. 7; 1910–11, p. 6.

page 44 note 2 Annual Report, 1910–11, p. 5, fol. and plates.

page 44 note 3 Peet, T. E. in J.H.S. xxxii (1912), 96.

page 44 note 4 Mon. Ant. xiv, 157, 171.

page 45 note 1 Annual Report, 1908–9, p. 2; 1911-12, sec. 5; 1912–13, p. 6.

page 45 note 2 i, 135.

page 45 note 3 cf. also E.E. viii, p. 221, no. 906; supra, p. 29, n. 3.

page 45 note 4 See above, note 1 on this page.

page 45 note 5 Annual Report, 1907–8, p. 7.

page 45 note 6 Becker's Malta Sotterranea; Annual Report, 1912–13, p. 6.

page 46 note 1 op. cit. 9, fol; 70, fol.

page 46 note 2 Becker, op. cit. 52, and pl. v, 1.

page 46 note 3 Prof. Zammit remarks that ‘on the stuccoed walls red linear ornaments are common. Near the basilica in the catacomb of St. Paul red designs of flower-baskets and birds can still be seen.

page 46 note 4 Annual Report, 1912–13, p. 6.

page 46 note 5 Becker, 130, fol.

page 47 note 1 The name means ‘St. Paul welcomed.’

page 47 note 2 The Bengemma catacombs are, I think, clearly Christian. I have elsewhere dealt with the question as to whether any prehistoric graves should be recognised there (P.B.S.R. vi, 8, n. 2), and have little hesitation in answering in the negative. Becker's scepticism as to the Christian character of the whole necropolis (p. 58) is, I think, quite misplaced.

page 48 note 3 Becker, 59, fol.

page 48 note 1 Annual Report, 1906–7, p. 7.

page 48 note 2 Annual Report, 1909–10, p. 14. Caruana, Frammento Critico, 28, alludes vaguely to discoveries in 1892.

page 48 note 3 Annual Report, 1911–12, p. 15.

page 48 note 4 The pedestal with the triquetra figured by Abela, p. 210 = Ciantar, i, 572, pl. xiii, was found in St. Paul's bay; it is now in the Valetta museum (Caruana, Report, p. 115).

page 48 note 5 Zammit, Guide, p. 40. One of the stone oil-troughs is now in the Valetta museum.

page 48 note 6 Mizzi, M. A. M., L'Abitazione di Campagna di S. Publio (from the Voce della Verita), Rome, 1879; Caruana, Report, p. 90; A.J.A. v, 453; Ancient Pottery, 49; Mayr, Insel Malta, 135, 138.

page 49 note 1 Zammit, Annual Report, 1910–11, p. 10: Becker, op. cit. 46.

page 49 note 2 Some cave-dwellings near it belong to the Byzantine period (Mayr, op. cit. 139).

page 49 note 3 p. 36 = Ciantar, i, 149.

page 49 note 4 Caruana, Report, p. 92.

page 49 note 5 Houel, iv, 97, pl. 259; Mayr, 89, 90, fig. 30. The antiquity of the other rooms which do not lie symmetrically with the tower seems doubtful.

page 49 note 6 Houel, iv, 98; Mayr, 136.

page 49 note 7 Some of the blocks are as much as 8½ feet long, and vary in height from 1 foot 3 inches to 1 foot 6½ inches.

page 50 note 1 Caruana, , Remains of an ancient Greek building, etc. (Malta, 1888) = A.J.A. iv (1888), 450.

page 50 note 2 P.B.S.R. vi, 123. Roman remains were noted by Houel (iv, 93) some 300 yards west of the tower of Tal-Gauhar, the northernmost of the group, lying a mile south of the village of Gudia, near the church of S. Anton, including the foundation-walls of a building 59 feet by 33 feet, and a cistern about 9 feet wide and 23 feet deep, roofed with slabs and carried on three flat arches. Houel also notices the discovery of a hoard of Roman coins then in the Barbaro collection. Mayr (op. cit. 135) saw here a fragment of a cornice of Graeco-Roman work, and noticed old foundations and an inhumation necropolis 250 paces south-east. Further north, at Tal-Liebru, are similar tombs.

page 50 note 3 Still Ciantar, i, p. 461, saw pavements here, one made of slabs of hard Malta stone, the other of concrete with fragments of brick in it; he also saw fragments of columns. These, of course, belonged to some later building; they were seen again in 1881: cf. Mayr, prehistoric Malta, 65.

A marble statuette of Heracles with the club, formerly in the Abela collection and now in the Valetta museum, is said to have been discovered here, but it is probably renaissance work (Abela, p. 156; Ciantar, pl. ix; Caruana, Report, 112).

page 50 note 4 Insel Malta, 130.

page 50 note 5 iv, 92 and pl. 255: cf. Caruana, Report, p. 18.

page 50 note 6 Similar fragments were apparently seen at Borg-en-Nadur by John Peter Gandy (afterwards Deering); in a letter of 30th Dec. 1811, to Joseph Gandy, he mentions ‘two fragments of a frieze and architecture, very small, the triglyphs only 8 inches wide, but somewhat peculiar…. Mr. Bedford in his drawing of it differed very much from me, but as he well knew the correctness of mine, he has sent mine to England…. You must know that the fragments were found in a wall with an Indian fig growing before them.’ The letter was kindly shown me by Mr. Walter Spiers, curator of the Soane museum.

page 51 note 1 p. 90. If it still exists, it is enclosed within the modern fortifications.

page 51 note 2 The site was orginally occupied by a megalithic sanctuary of the neolithic period, which was excavated in December, 1914 and in May, 1915.

page 51 note 3 Becker, pp. 8, n. and 62.

page 52 note 1 Annual Report, 1911–12, p. 13.

page 52 note 2 This plan is the work of Prof. R. V. Galea, to whom I am much indebted.

page 52 note 3 I do not believe that this building really formed part of the villa, though I have no idea where it was situated, nor does the drawing give any indication.

page 54 note 1 Where remains of this flooring are present, they are marked T on the plan.

page 54 note 2 The flat flutes are 3 inches wide, and the rounded ones 2½ inches, so that the girth must have diminished rapidly.

page 54 note 3 The first block from the south angle going north-west has the two diameters intersecting at right angles scratched upon it, by which the circle for the bottom of the column was set out.

page 56 note 1 5 feet 6 inches long by 2 feet high, by 1 foot 8 inches thick.

page 56 note 2 13½ inches in internal diameter, 2¼ inches thick; the flutes are each 1¾ inches wide.

page 57 note 1 These may be the remains of an earlier structure, but I very much doubt it.

page 58 note 1 9 feet 4½ inches deep, 6 feet long, and 1 foot 6 inches wide.

page 58 note 2 To the north-west again, is the sill leading to room 11 with its ‘torba’ floor.

page 58 note 3 The purpose of the rough foundations in this room, and in room 3, is quite uncertain.

page 58 note 4 This wall is very rough and rests on a layer 1 foot 5 inches thick, containing burnt wood and snail-shells in great abundance (7 to 10 inches down), also a few pottery fragments above (10 to 13 inches). The fact that the steps do not come through under it seems to prove it ancient.

page 60 note 1 See above, p. 53.

page 61 note 1 The upper of these areas (I), sloping up gently, is well preserved; it measures 6 feet 6 inches in length, and 3 feet 5 inches in width; a step 8 inches or more in height led up from it, and the beginning of the return of the cement may be seen upon its vertical face. There is also plaster ¾ inch thick on the side walls on which no colour is visible. The floor of the lower landing (J) has perished. In a hole here four diamond-shaped paving tiles were found.

page 61 note 2 A stone trough, 16 by 18 inches over all, 11 by 10 inches inside, 8½ inches deep, was also found in this passage.

page 61 note 3 It still extends for some distance to the south-east of rooms 33 and 34, but there had been so much devastation that it did not seem worth while to remove more of it.

page 61 note 4 Dimensions 4¼ inches internal measurement (walls ⅜ inch) and diamond tiles ⅞ inch thick, 3¼ inch side.

page 61 note 5 8⅜ inch long with 1 inch blade and 1 inch square.

page 62 note 1 It is 1 foot 8 inches wide for the first 4 feet, where it is 2 feet 6 inches deep, and narrows to 9 inches for the rest, becoming 2 feet 6 inches deep.

page 62 note 2 One (N) was 2 feet 6 inches by 1 foot 6 inches over all, the other 1 foot 11 inches by 1 foot 4 inches (M).

page 62 note 3 The side measurements of the diamonds being 2¼ inches and 3¼ inches, and the thickness ½ inch and 3¼ inches respectively.

page 62 note 4 ⅜ inch thick, the internal width being 1¾ inch, 2¾ inches, and 3¾ inches.

page 64 note 1 Insel Malta, 17.

page 64 note 2 cf. Mayr, Insel Malta, 17; Zammit in Annual Report, 1913, 14, p. 3, and above, p. 50. An exact parallel is to be found in the Cisternale di Vitagliano, which has wrongly been regarded as prehistoric (Maggiulli, in Apulia, i, 1910, p. 251).

page 65 note 1 8 inches long below, 7½ inches above, 3½ inches wide, 2¾ inches thick. There are other bricks also up to 3½ inches in thickness.

page 66 note 1 C.I.L. xi, 519, e. (L. Rasini Pisani) certainly of the first century, as copies of the stamp have been found at Pompeii.

page 66 note 2 cf. p. 58 supra.

page 66 note 3 [Similar imitations of decorated Samian with the decoration stamped in, presumably by hand, instead of being in relief and cast in a mould, have been found at Holt near Chester (see my Roman Britain in 1914, figs. 1, 10, 11), and as Prof. Jullian and Mr. D. Atkinson tell me, in Austria, as, for example, at Laibach, and perhaps also elsewhere. They seem distinct in date and in character from the stamped Samian with simple geometrical patterns used in the latest empire in Gaul, Britain, etc. (Déchelette, Vases ornés, ii, 327–334.—F. Haverfield.]

page 66 note 4 Three bowls with flat boottoms and curved sides measured about a foot in diameter, the sides bein about 3 inches high and ⅜ inch thick.

page 66 note 5 Called Ghaudex in the vernacular.

page 67 note 1 Diodorus' praise of it, as λιμέσιν εὐκαίροις κεκοσμένη (v, 12) might with more truth have been applied to Malta: see Weiss in Pauly-Wissowa, vii, 875.

page 67 note 2 Mayr, p. 17, fig. 2, gives a plan, and Caruana, Report, p. 22, a photograph from a drawing. Mayr cites parallels from Syracuse and Roman Africa.

page 67 note 3 Caruana, Frammento Critico, 273, states that the foundations of the walls of the lower city were seen about 1800 and again in 1882, and also fixes the sites of three gates.

page 70 note 1 See above, p. 27.

page 70 note 2 Tradition records that the cathedral occupies the site of a temple of Iuno. Agius, ii, ch. 2, states that remains of Doric columns and blocks of marble were discovered in rebuilding, and were lying in the streets; and that no less than 22 other shafts were lying about: cf. Ciantar, i, 365; Houel, iv, 77. Six of these shafts found their way down to the wharf at Mgiarro, and were removed, five to the Valetta museum and one to that of Gozo, in 1905–6 (Annual Report, 14). Houel figures (pl. 248) a headless draped female statue, and notes that a head, crowned with leaves like laurel leaves, but much damaged, which was shown him in Gozo, might, from its size, have belonged to this statue. The statue is now in the Valetta museum (fig. 26), but the head has disappeared. The statue belongs to the first century of our era: cf. Caruana, Report, p. 113. A well-tomb of the ordinary Punic type was found in the Strada Vairingia, Rabato, Gozo, which appears to have been used in Roman times, inasmuch as, besides late Carthaginian and Maltese coins, Roman coins from A.D. 138 ro 254 were discovered in it (Annual Report, 1909–10, 5).

page 70 note 3 p. 152.

page 70 note 4 In the Valetta museum are some fine fragments of fresco and coloured marbles from Haggaria, Rabat, presented by Father Magri in 1905.

page 70 note 5 Caruana, Report, p. 112: probably also a renaissance work. It is reported that on the hill of Ghelmus, near Zebbug, there was found in 1722–36 (under grand master Manoel) a golden heifer on a golden stand, surrounded by small round disks (like loaves): the eyes were carbuncles, and there was a larger carbuncle on the forehead. It was, however, sold, and no trace of it could be recovered. Near Garbo, in 1759, there was found a small terracotta figure of a dog seated on a base with a Phoenician inscription (Ciantar, i, 367, and pl. xii). A statuette of Hercules, similar to that in the Valetta museum, is said also to have been found in Gozo (Agius MS. ap. Caruana, Report, p. 113). A sepulchral cippus from Gozo, with the bust of a woman and (apparently) a pair of handcuffs or fetters below, is figured by Houel, iv, pl. 261, n; and a statue, which in Abela's time was in the castle, but has now disappeared, is given by Abela, p. 217 = Ciantar, pl. ii, fig. 2.

page 70 note 6 Annual Report, 1910–11, p. 11. An account of the building, with some photographs and an unauthorised reproduction of the plan, has appeared in the Bulletin of the Archaeological Institute of America, iii (1912), 178–180, and pls. xv-xvii. The plans and sections are the work of Mr. N. Said, assistant surveyor, to whom I desire to express my acknowledgments. Drawings of the wall-decoration by Mr. Busuttil are preserved in the Valetta museum as a record.

page 72 note 1 One measured 5 feet 3 inches by 1 foot 7 inches by 1 foot 2½. inches.

page 72 note 1 It can be traced for some 26 feet; it is built of solid blocks of stone (13 inches wide, 10 inches high), in which is cut a gutter 4½ inches wide by 5 inches deep.

page 72 note 2 The front of the seat has a simple moulding. It runs for 2 feet 11½ inches along one side of the room, and 3 feet 10 inches along the other. It is 1 foot 4 inches wide, 4½ inches thick, and stands on profiled supports 1 foot high.

page 73 note 1 A few only are preserved in situ; each side is 2 inches in length. There is a little painted plaster of the usual kind in situ above the seat.

page 73 note 2 One is 1 foot by 9 inches by 11½ inches; another 12½ by 14 by 12 inches, with an oval depression in the upper surface, and the third and fourth 9 by 10 by 12½ inches and 9 by 11 by 12½ inches; of these last two, one half is split off diagonally.

page 73 note 3 The one preserved gives a rise of 2½ inches only.

page 73 note 4 Size 4 by 6 by 3½ inches.

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