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AMERICANS IN WORLD WAR I – WORLD WAR I IN AMERICA

  • Manfred Berg and Axel Jansen
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We would like to thank Martin Hamre for his research support in preparing the introduction. We also thank the two anonymous reviewers for their valuable suggestions for improving this special issue.

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NOTES

2 Keene, Jennifer D., “Remembering the ‘Forgotten War’: American Historiography on World War 1,” The Historian 78:3 (2016): 439–68, 439, and 467. For variations of the “forgotten war” theme, see Rubin, Richard, The Last of the Doughboys: The Forgotten Generation and their Forgotten World War (Boston: Houghton, Mifflin and Harcourt 2013), 6; Snell, Mark A., ed., Unknown Soldiers: The American Expeditionary Forces in Memory and Remembrance (Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, 2008), XV; Cooper, John Milton Jr., “The World War and American Memory,” Diplomatic History 38:4 (2014): 727–36.

3 See, e.g., Jones, Heather, “As the Centenary Approaches: The Regeneration of First World War Historiography” in The Historical Journal 56:3 (2013): 857–78; Keene, Jennifer, “The United States” in A Companion to World War I, ed. Horne, John (Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012), 508–23; Kennedy, David M., Over Here: The First World War and American Society, 2nd ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2004); Keene, Jennifer D., The United States and the First World War (Edinburgh: Longman, 2000); Zieger, Robert H., America's Great War: World War I and the American Experience (Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2000); Neiberg, Michael S., The Path to War: How the First World War Created Modern America (New York: Oxford University Press, 2016).

4 Legacies of World War I: Commemorative Issue” in Diplomatic History 38:4 (2014): 695893; for a revised book edition, see Zeiler, Thomas W., Ekbladh, David K., and Montoya, Benjamin C., eds, Beyond 1917: The United States and the Global Legacies of the Great War (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017); Interchange: World War I” in Journal of American History 102:2 (2015): 463–99.

5 Keene, “Remembering the ‘Forgotten War,’” 447–54; For a recent defense of American opposition to entering the war, see Kazin, Michael, War against War: The American Fight for Peace, 1914–1918 (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2017)

6 See, e.g., Doenecke, Justus D., Nothing Less than War: A New History of America's Entry into World War I (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2011); Floyd, M. Ryan, Abandoning American Neutrality: Woodrow Wilson and the Beginning of the Great War, August 1914–December 1915 (New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2013); Tucker, Robert W., Woodrow Wilson and the Great War: Reconsidering America's Neutrality, 1914–1917 (Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2007); Hannigan, Robert E., The Great War and American Foreign Policy, 1914–24 (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2017). For an excellent introduction to the scholarship on Wilson and Wilsonianism, see Kennedy, Ross A., ed., A Companion to Woodrow Wilson (Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2013); Cooper, John Milton Jr., ed., Reconsidering Woodrow Wilson. Progressivism, Internationalism, War, and Peace (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008); Ambrosius, Lloyd E., Woodrow Wilson and American Internationalism (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2017); Ikenberry, John G., ed., The Crisis of American Foreign Policy: Wilsonianism in the Twenty-first Century (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2009); Smith, Tony, Why Wilson Matters: The Origin of American Liberal Internationalism and Its Crisis Today (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2017).

7 On the role of Americans during the neutrality period, see Keene, Jennifer D., “Americans Respond: Perspectives on the Global War, 1914–1917,” Geschichte und Gesellschaft 40:2 (2014): 266–86; Rose, Kenneth D., The Great War and Americans in Europe, 1914–1917 (New York: Routledge, 2017); Jansen, Axel, Individuelle Bewährung im Krieg: Amerikaner in Europa, 1914–1917 (Frankfurt and New York: Campus, 2003); Bruce, Robert B., A Fraternity of Arms: America and France in the Great War (Lawrence: Kansas University Press, 2003); Dubbs, Chris, American Journalists in the Great War: Rewriting the Rules of Reporting (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2017); Neiberg, Michael, “Blinking Eyes Began to Open: Legacies from America's Road to the Great War, 1914–1917,” Diplomatic History 38:4 (2014): 801–22.

8 Irwin, Julia F., Making the World Safe: The American Red Cross and a Nation's Humanitarian Awakening (New York: Oxford University Press, 2013) and id., Taming Total War: Great War-Era American Humanitarianism and Its Legacies,” Diplomatic History 38:4 (2014): 763–75, quotation p. 765. Concerning efforts at reperiodization, also see Beyond 1917: The United States and the Global Legacies of the Great War, eds. Zeiler, Thomas, Ekbladh, David, and Montoya, Benjamin (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017).

9 Cabanes, Bruno, The Great War and the Origins of Humanitarianism, 1918–1924 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014).

10 Nash, George H., The Life of Herbert Hoover, Vol. 2: The Humanitarian, 1914–1917 (New York: W. W. Norton, 1988).

11 Price, Alan, The End of the Age of Innocence: Edith Wharton and the First World War (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1998).

12 Irwin, “Taming Total War,” 770–73, quotation p. 770.

13 Adam Tooze has highlighted the important structural limitations of the U.S. federal government during the period of World War I in The Deluge: The Great War and the Remaking of the Global Order (New York: Penguin Books, 2015).

14 Gerstle, Gary, Liberty and Coercion: The Paradox of American Government (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2015), 89147; on the development of the federal state generally, see Balogh, Brian, A Government Out of Sight: The Mystery of National Authority in Nineteenth-Century America (Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, 2009) and his sequel The Associational State: American Governance in the Twentieth Century (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2015).

15 David M. Kennedy, Over Here: The First World War and American Society, 143, Chambers, John Whiteclay, To Raise an Army: The Draft Comes to Modern America (New York: Free Press, 1989), “Interchange: World War I,” 495–96.

16 On American progressives, see Dawley, Alan, Changing the World. American Progressives in War and Revolution (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2003).

17 Randolph Bourne, “The State” (1918), in Bourne, Randolph, The Radical Will: Selected Writings, 1911–1918, ed. Hansen, Olaf (New York: Urizen Books, 1977), 382. Also see Livingston, James, “War and the Intellectuals: Bourne, Dewey, and the Fate of Pragmatism,” Journal of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era 2:4 (Oct. 2003): 431–59.

18 Wiebe, Robert H., The Search for Order, 1877–1920 (New York: Hill and Wang, 1967), 293; for a similar critique; see McGerr, Michael A., Fierce Discontent: The Rise and Fall of the Progressive Movement in America (New York: Free Press, 2003).

19 The conversation with Cobb is quoted in Link, Campaigns for Progressivism and Peace (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1965), 398400.

20 See Creel, George C., How We Advertised America (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1920); Axelrod, Alan, Selling the Great War: The Making of American Propaganda (New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2009).

21 Capozzola, Christopher, Uncle Sam Wants You. World War I and the Making of the Modern American Citizen (Oxford: Oxford University Press 2008).

22 French historians were pioneers in work on childhood during World War I. See Audoin-Rouzeau, Stéphane, La guerre des enfants (1914–918). Essai d'histoire culturelle (Paris: Armand Colin, 1993).

23 For a general overview of how wars have impacted participation rights, see Berg, Manfred, “Soldiers and Citizens: War and Voting Rights in American History” in Reflections on American Exceptionalism, eds. Adams, David K. and van Minnen, Cornelis A. (Keele: Keele University Press, 1994), 188225.

24 Capozzola, Uncle Sam Wants You, esp. 8–15; for a good historiographical overview, see Kennedy, Kathleen, “Civil Liberties” in A Companion to Woodrow Wilson, ed. Kennedy, Ross A. (Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2013), 323–42.

25 Bristow, Nancy K., Making Men Moral: Social Engineering During the Great War (New York: New York University Press, 1996); Reilly, Kimberly A., “‘A Perilous Venture for Democracy’: Soldiers, Sexual Purity, and American Citizenship in the First World War” in The Journal of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era 13:2 (2014), 223–55; McGirr, Lisa, The War on Alcohol: Prohibition and the Rise of the American State (New York: W. W. Norton, 2016), esp. XVI–XXII, 3137.

26 Sterba, Christopher M., Good Americans: Italian and Jewish Immigrants during the First World War (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003), 6.

27 Wüstenbecker, Katja, Deutsch-Amerikaner im Ersten Weltkrieg: US-Politik und Nationale Identitäten im Mittleren Westen (Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 2007). Also see Nagler, Jörg, Nationale Minoritäten im Krieg: “Feindliche Ausländer” und die amerikanische Heimatfront während des Ersten Weltkriegs (Hamburg: Hamburger Edition, 2000).

28 See Steinson, Barbara J., “Wilson and Woman Suffrage” in A Companion to Woodrow Wilson, ed. Kennedy, Ross A. (Malden, MA: Wiley & Sons, 2013), 343–63; Brown, Victoria Bissell, “Did Woodrow Wilson's Gender Politics Matter?” in Reconsidering Woodrow Wilson. Progressivism, Internationalism, War, and Peace, ed. Cooper, John M. (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008), 125–62. See Capozzola, Christopher, “Legacies for Citizenship: Pinpointing Americans During and after World War I” in Diplomatic History 38:4 (2014), 713–26, 714.

29 Lentz-Smith, Freedom Struggles; Mjagkij, Nina, Loyalty in the Time of Trial: The African American Experience in World War I (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2011); Chad Louis Williams, Torchbearers of Democracy: African American Soldiers in World War I Era; Krugler, David F., 1919, The Year of Racial Violence: How African Americans Fought Back (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2015).

30 Johnson, Benjamin Heber, Revolution in Texas: How a Forgotten Rebellion and Its Bloody Suppression Turned Mexicans into Americans (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2003); de la Luz Sáenz, José, Zamora, Emilio, and Maya, Ben, The World War I Diary of José de La Luz Sáenz (College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 2014); Ramírez, José A., To the Line of Fire! Mexican Texans and World War I (College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 2009).

31 Rosier, Paul C., Serving Their Country: American Indian Politics and Patriotism in the Twentieth Century (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2009); Hoxie, Frederick E., A Final Promise: The Campaign to Assimilate the Indians, 1880–1920 (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2001).

32 Johnson, Revolution in Texas; Romo, David Dorado, Ringside Seat to a Revolution: An Underground Cultural History of El Paso and Juárez, 1893–1923 (El Paso, TX: Cinco Puntos Press, 2005); Benton-Cohen, Katherine, Borderline Americans: Racial Division and Labor War in the Arizona Borderlands (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2009); Levario, Miguel Antonio, Militarizing the Border: When Mexicans Became the Enemy (College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 2012).

33 Lentz-Smith, Adrienne, Freedom Struggles: African Americans and World War I (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2009); and Williams, Chad, Torchbearers of Democracy: African American Soldiers in the World War I Era (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2010), and Jensen, Kimberly, Mobilizing Minerva: American Women in the First World War (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2008).

34 Doerries, Reinhard R., Imperial Challenge: Ambassador Count Bernstorff and German-American Relations, 1908–1917 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1989); Schwabe, Klaus, Woodrow Wilson, Revolutionary Germany, and Peacemaking, 1918–1919: Missionary Diplomacy and the Realities of Power (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1985); Nagler, Nationale Minoritäten im Krieg, Wüstenbecker, Deutsch-Amerikaner im Ersten Weltkrieg, Jansen, Individuelle Bewährung im Krieg, Berg, Manfred, Woodrow Wilson. Amerika und die Neuordnung der Welt. Eine Biografie (Munich: C. H. Beck, 2017).

35 See Schröder, Hans-Jürgen, ed., Confrontation and Cooperation: Germany and the United States in the Era of World War I 1900–1924 (New York: Berg, 1993); Chickering, Roger, Förster, Stig, eds., Great War, Total War: Combat and Mobilization on the Western Front, 1914–1918 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000); Boemeke, Manfred F., Feldman, Gerald, and Glaser, Elisabeth, eds., The Versailles Treaty: A Reassessment after 75 Years (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998). The American Historical Association and the German Historical Association in March 2018 together supported a conference at the German Historical Institute Washington DC on “Settlement and Unsettlement: The Ends of World War I and their Legacies.”

We would like to thank Martin Hamre for his research support in preparing the introduction. We also thank the two anonymous reviewers for their valuable suggestions for improving this special issue.

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