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This article examines the literature on the periodical recurrence of economic crises up to the 1840s, illustrating how awareness of this phenomenon was far more widespread than the few existing histories of business cycle theories indicate, that observations of this phenomenon began much earlier than previously documented, and also that early writers were more interested in emphasizing the intermittent return of crises rather than their precise timing.

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Alison Archibald. 1849. “Free trade at its zenith.” Blackwood’s Magazine, December 1849. Cited from the reprint in Essays, political, historical, and miscellaneous, vol. 1, Edinburgh: W. Blackwood, 1850.
Anderson Adam. 1789. An historical and chronological deduction of the origin of commerce: from the earliest accounts. Containing an history of the great commercial interests of the British Empire. To which is prefixed an introduction, exhibiting a view of the ancient and modern state of Europe; of the importance of our colonies; and of the commerce, shipping, manufactures, fisheries, &c., of Great-Britain and Ireland; and their influence on the landed interest. With an appendix, containing the modern politico-commercial geography of the several countries of Europe, vol. IV. London: J. Walter (revised edition).
[Anderson William]. 1797. The iniquity of banking: or, bank notes proved to be injurious to the public, and the real cause of the present exorbitant price of provisions. London: J. S. Jordan.
[Anderson William]. 1821. Notices on political economy; or, An inquiry concerning the effects of debts and taxes, of the state of the currency and exchange, and of the balance of trade, as they operate on the community considered as a whole. London: Richardson.
[Anderson William]. 1826. The iniquity of the landholders, the mistakes of the farmers, and the folly and mischievous consequences of the unaccountable apathy manifested by all the other classes of the community, in regard to the corn laws, clearly demonstrated by a simple statement of indisputable facts, or intuitive inferences. London: Wilson.
Anonymous. 1814. “Corn Laws” [Report of the debates in the House of Commons]. The Agricultural Magazine, or Farmers’ Monthly Journal of Husbandry and Rural Affairs 3: XVI, May, pp. 313–29.
Anonymous. 1816. “Distress of the country.” Edinburgh Review XXVI: LII, June, pp. 255–81.
Anonymous. 1816a. “Commercial distress of the country.” Edinburgh Review XXVII, December, pp. 373–90.
Anonymous. 1819. “Commercial Fluctuations and Embarrassments.” Orleans Gazette, and Commercial Advertiser (New Orleans, LA), 27 July.
Anonymous. 1820. Letters addressed to the Right Honourable the Earl of Liverpool, and the Right Hon. Nicholas Vansittart. London: A.J. Valpy.
Anonymous. 1826. Commerce in consternation: or, The banking bubble burst! Being a sketch of the rise, progress, and decline, of the late paper panic. London: Cock.
Anonymous. 1829. [Untitled leader]. The Associate 1, 1 January, pp. 1–3.
Anonymous (H.B. & Co). 1832. “[To our subscribers].” Bankers’ Circular and Monetary Times13 July, n. 208, pp. 401–403.
Anonymous. 1836. “The money market.” Connecticut Courant LXXII, issue 3743, 15 October, p. 2 (indicating: “From the Glasgow Courier”).
Anonymous. 1836. Strictures on the report of the Secret Committee on joint stock banks: with an appendix containing some valuable tables compiled from the evidence. London: Thomas.
Anonymous. 1837. “A specie currency.” The New-Yorker 3: 14, June, p. 217.
Anonymous (H.B. & Co). 1837. “[To our subscribers].” Bankers’ Circular and Monetary Times 3 March.
Anonymous. 1837. “The commercial crisis.” Richmond Enquirer XXXIII, issue 114, 18 April, p. 4.
Anonymous. 1838. Minutes of the proceedings of a convention of merchants and others held in Augusta, Georgia, October 16, 1837: with an address to the people of the south and south-western states, relative to the establishment of a direct export and import trade with foreign countries. Augusta: B. Brantly.
Anonymous. 1839. “The specie clause.” The United States Magazine, and Democratic Review 5: 14, February, pp. 223–37.
Anonymous. 1840. A Few short observations on the currency. By an old merchant. London: P. Richardson.
Anonymous (F. C.). 1841. An Essay on free trade: its absolute value in theory, its relative value in practice, error and consequences of its application to the corn-laws. London: Ridgway.
Anonymous. 1842. “Hard times.” Philanthropist (Cincinnati) 6: 29, 19 January.
Anonymous. 1844. “Over-production and general distress.” The Phalanx: Organ of the Doctrine of Association 1: 10, 18 May, pp. 139–44.
Anonymous. 1845a. “Commercial delusions. Speculation.” The American Review: a Whig Journal of Politics, Literature, Art and Science 2: 4, October, pp. 341–57.
Anonymous. 1845b. “Commerce.” Harbinger, Devoted to Social and Political Progress I: 2, 21 June, pp. 31–2.
Anonymous. 1847. “The financial pressure.” The Albion 6: 33, 14 August, pp. 393–4 (extract from the latest issue of the Quarterly Journal).
Anonymous. 1847. “Direct trade of Southern States with Europe. Foreign commerce. Our southern cities. Reviving enterprise and prosperity;…The Commercial Review of the South and West; a Monthly Journal of Trade, Commerce, Commercial Polity, Agriculture, Manufactures, Internal Improvements and General Literature IV: 2, October, pp. 208–25.
Anonymous. 1847. “Ralahine.” The Herald of Co-operation and organ of the Redemption Society 6, June, pp. 41–42.
Anonymous. 1848. “Public credit.” The Bankers’ Magazine and State Financial Register 2: 12, June, pp. 754–9 (originally published in The Economist, 8 April 1848).
Anonymous. 1848. [Untitled article]. Mississippi Free Trader and Natchez Gazette (Natchez, MS) 30 November 1848, p. 2 col. B.
Anonymous. 1849. “The crowing of the column, and the crushing of the pedestal.” Edinburgh Magazine 66, July, pp. 108–32.
Anonymous. 1849. “Marriages and abundance.” The Economist 7: 300, 26 May, pp. 573–4.
Anonymous. 1849. “The Morning Chronicle.” The Morning Chronicle 26 December, issue 25018.
Anonymous (Pactolus). 1849a. “The great question for discussion.” Liverpool Mercury 16, January, issue 2057.
Anonymous (Pactolus). 1849b. “Jones Loyd’s cycle again.” Liverpool Mercury 18 December, issue 2151.
Anonymous. 1850. “Parliamentary reform.” Caledonian Mercury (Edinburgh) 10 January, issue 19953.
Anonymous (Boston Cashier). 1850. “The causes of commercial crises. Causes of commercial embarrassments; Speculations; California trade; Money market, &c.” Bankers’ Magazine and Statistical Register 5: 1, July, pp. 1–4.
Ashburton Lord (Alexander Baring). 1847. The financial and commercial crisis considered. London: Murray (reprinted London: King, 1867).
Attwood Matthias. 1817. Observations concerning the distress of the country. January 1816 and 1817. London: Thomas Wilson.
[Balfour D. M.]. 1848. “The present commercial crisis.” Hunt’s Merchants’ Magazine and Commercial Review 18: 5, May, pp. 477–88.
Beecher Lyman. 1820. “[Means of national prosperity] A sermon delivered at Litchfield, on the day of the Anniversary thanksgiving, December 2, 1819.” In Addresses of the Philadelphia Society for the Promotion of National Industry. 5th edition. Philadelphia: J. Maxwell, pp. 261–94.
Begbie Matthew Baillie. 1848. Partnership ‘en commandite’, or, Partnership with limited liabilities (according to the commercial practice of the continent of Europe, and the United States of America) for the employment of capital, the circulation of wages, and the revival of our home and colonial trade. London: Wilson.
Bell Gavin Mason. 1850. “History of English Panics.” Hunt’s Merchant Magazine XXIII: VI, December, pp. 604–10.
Bell Robert. 1840. A letter to James William Gilbart, Esq., General Manager of the London and Westminster Bank, on the regulation of the currency by the foreign exchanges and on the appointment of the Bank of England to be the sole bank of issue throughout Great Britain. London: Richardson.
Benner Samuel. 1884. Benner’s Prophecies of Future Ups and Downs in Prices. Chicago: Chase and Hall (14th ed. 1904).
von Bergmann Eugen. 1895. Die Wirtschaftskrisen: Geschichte der nationalökonomischen Krisentheorien. Stuttgart: W. Kohlhammer.
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Bianchi D. A. 1840. “Delle classi pericolose della popolazione nelle grandi città, e dei mezzi di farle migliori. Opera premiata nel 1838 dall’Instituto di Francia (Accademia delle Scienze morali e politiche); di H.A. Frégier.” Annali universali di economia pubblica, storia, viaggi e commercio 65, July–September, pp. 9–28.
Bishop Daniel. 1848. A letter to the Right Hon. Sir Robert Peel on the currency question. London: Hall.
Blanqui Adolphe. 1836. “Crise commerciale.” Encyclopédie des gents du monde. Paris: Librairie de Treuttel et Würtz, vol. VII, pp. 257–9.
Blanqui Adolphe. 1849. “Sulla situazione delle classi operaje in Francia nel 1848,” part 2. Annali universali di economia pubblica, storia, viaggi e commercio 19 (series 2), January–March, pp. 125–154 (Italian translation of Les classes ouvrières en France, 1848).
Boccardo Girolamo. 1879. Trattato teoretico-pratico di Economia Politica. Torino: Roux e Favale (6th ed.).
Boccardo Girolamo. 1879a. “Le leggi di periodicità delle crisi. Perturbazioni economiche e macchie solari.” Archivio di statistica III: 3, pp. 385–412.
Bonnefoux L. 1848. “Principles of banking. Investigation of the true principles that paper money ought to be based upon.” The Bankers’ Magazine and State Financial Register 3: 2, August, pp. 103–10.
Bonnet Victor. 1859. Questions économiques et financières à propos des crises. Paris: Guillaumin.
Bowen Francis. 1856. The principles of political economy applied to the condition, the resources, and the institutions of the American people. Boston: Little, Brown (2nd ed. 1859).
Bray Charles. 1844. An essay upon the union of agriculture and manufactures and upon the organization of industry. London: Longman, Brown, Green and Longmans.
[Bray John Francis]. 1836. “Association of all classes of all nations, Sunday, February 21.” New Moral World 27 February, pp. 137–8.
Briaune Jean-Edmond. 1840. Des crises commerciales, de leurs causes et de leurs remèdes. Paris: Bouchard-Huzard.
Briaune Jean-Edmond. 1857. Du prix des grains, du libre échange et des réserves. Paris: Didot.
Buret Eugène. 1840. De la misère des classes laborieuses en Angleterre et en France: de la nature de la misère, de son existence, de ses effets, de ses causes, et de l’insuffisance des remèdes qu’on lui a opposés jusqu’ici: avec l’indication des moyens propres à en affranchir les sociétés (2 vol.). Paris: Paulin.
Burke Edmund. 1800. Thoughts and details on scarcity: originally presented to the Right Hon. William Pitt, in the month of November, 1795. By the late… Edmund Burke. London: F. and C. Rivington; and J. Hatchard.
Carey Henry Charles. 1848. The past, the present, and the future. Philadelphia: Carey & Hart.
Carey Matthew. 1823. The Crisis: A solemn appeal to the president, the Senate and House of Representatives, and the citizens of the United States, on the destructive effects of the present policy of this country, on its agriculture, manufactures, commerce, and finances. With a comparison between the extraordinary prosperity of Great Britain, and the general depression in the United States…. Philadelphia: Carey and Lea.
Cargill William. 1845. The currency, showing how a fixed gold standard places England in permanent disadvantage and produces periodical domestic convulsion. London: Olliver.
Chalmers George. 1794. An estimate of the comparative strength of Great-Britain, during the present and four preceding reigns; and of the losses of her trade from every war since the Revolution. A new edition, corrected and improved; with a dedication to Dr. James Currie, the reputed author of ‘Jasper Wilson’s Letter’. London: J. Stockdale.
Chitti Luigi. 1839. Des crises financières et de la réforme du système monétaire. Bruxelles: Meline.
Clarke Hyde. 1847. “Physical economy—A preliminary inquiry into the physical laws governing the periods of famine and panic.” Railway Register (reprinted in F. Louçã and J. Reijnders, eds., The foundations of long wave theory: Models and methodology, Volume 1. Cheltenham: Elgar, 1999).
Clément Ambroise. 1857. “Des crises commerciales.” Journal des Économistes XVII, February, pp. 161–91.
[Cockburn Robert]. 1840. Remarks suggested by the present state of trade and credit. London: King (second edition: Remarks on trade and credit: originally published in January, 1840, now reprinted with additions and corrections. London: Wilson, 1842).
Coquelin Charles. 1848. “Les Crises Commerciales et la Liberté des Banques.” Revue des Deux Mondes XXVI, 1 November, pp. 445–70. Translated and abridged as Coquelin 1850.
Coquelin Charles. 1850. “Restrictions on banking the cause of commercial crises.” Bankers’ Magazine X, pp. 219–27 and 308–13.
Coquelin Charles. 1852. “Crises Commerciales.” In Coquelin Ch. and Guillaumin , eds., Dictionnaire de l’Économie Politique. Paris: Guillaumin.
Corbet Thomas. 1841. An inquiry into the causes and modes of the wealth of individuals: or, The principles of trade and speculation explained. London: Smith, Elder & Co.
Cory Isaac Preston. 1842. Competition: its abuse one of the chief causes of the present distress among the trading, manufacturing, and commercial classes: with suggestions for remedying it. London: Painter.
Coste Jacques. 1841. Considérations sur la commandite par crédit, ou, De l’escompte considéré sous son véritable point de vue économique: pour servir d’exposé des motifs à l’établissement du comptoir commercial. Paris: Firmin Didot.
Courcelle-Seneuil Jean-Gustave. 1858. Traité théorique et pratique d’économie politique. Paris: Amyot.
Craster Theophilus. 1840. A view of manufactures, money and corn laws, adverse to every theory of the economists: with observations upon the national worth of machinery. London: Hatchard & Son.
Crawford John. 1837. The philosophy of wealth: with an examination of the cause of the present distress, Second ed.Paisley: Murray.
[Currie James]. 1793. A letter, commercial and political, addressed to the Rt. Hon. William Pitt: in which the real interests of Britain in the present crisis are considered and some observations are offered on the general state of Europe. by Wilson Jasper (pseudonym). Dublin: P. Byrne and J. Moore.
Dalbiac James Charles. 1841. A few words on the corn laws: wherein are brought under consideration certain of the statements which are to be found in the 3d ed. of Mr. McCulloch’s pamphlet upon the same subject. London: J. Ollivier.
Danson John Towne. 1848. “A Contribution towards an Investigation of the changes which have taken place in the condition of the people of the United Kingdom during the eight years extending from the harvest of 1889 to the harvest of 1847; and An Attempt to develope the connexion (if any), between the changes observed and the variations occurring during the same period in the prices of the most necessary articles of food.” Journal of the Statistical Society of London 11: 2, May, pp. 101–40.
Daru Napoléon. 1843. Des chemins de fer et de l’application de la loi du 11 juin 1842. Paris: Librairie scientifique-industrielle.
Duchâtel Tanneguy. 1829. De la charité dans ses rapports avec l’état moral et le bien-être des classes inférieures de la société. Paris: A. Mesnier.
Duncan Jonathan. 1849. The principles of money demonstrated and bullionist fallacies refuted. London: R. Groombridge.
[Duncan W. B.] 1842. Mercantile embarrassments, and the present state of the banking system. Edinburgh: John Johnstone.
Dupont de Nemours Pierre Samuel. 1806. Sur la Banque de France, les causes de la crise qu’elle a éprouvé… avec une théorie des banques: Rapport fait à la Chambre de commerce par une commission spéciale, à Paris, en 1806. Paris: Delance, 1806 (cited from the reprint London: J. Hatchard, 1811).
Duryle Lefebvre. 1835. “Parallelo tra l’attuale industria francese ed inglese tratto dall’esame del sig. Lefebvre Duryle, con note di G. D. Romagnosi.” Annali Universali di Statistica (Translated from the Moniteur, 19 November 1834 and annotated by Romagnosi).
Dussard Hyppolite. 1842. De l’état financier de l’Angleterre et des mesures proposées par les Whigs et les Tories. Paris: Au bureau du Journal des Economistes (offprint from the Journal des Economistes April 1842).
[Economist, The]. 1879. “The periodicity of panics.” The Economist 11 January, pp. 32–33.
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Evans David Morier. 1848. The commercial crisis 1847–48; being facts and figures illustrative of the events of that important period, considered in relation to the three epochs of the railway mania, the food and money panic, and the French revolution. London: Letts (2nd edition 1849).
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Fazy Jean-Jacob. 1830. Principes d’organisation industrielle pour le développement des richesses en France. Explication du malaise de la classe productive et des moyens d’y porter remède. Paris, Mahler et compagnie.
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Juglar Clément. 1857. “Des crises commerciales et monétaires de 1800 à 1857.” Journal des Économistes XIV, April and May, pp. 35–60 and 255–67.
Juglar Clément. 1857a. “Situation comparée de la Banque de France et de la Banque d’Angleterre d’après les compte-rendus officiels pendant les crises commerciales depuis 1799.” Journal des Economistes XVI, December, pp. 262–5.
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Kay Joseph. 1850. The social condition and education of the people in England and Europe: shewing the results of the primary schools, and of the division of landed property, in foreign countries. London: Longman, Brown, Green and Longmans.
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King William. 1840. Four letters on the workings of money capital, showing its present inefficient and limited agency for commercial and social purposes: with a proposed remedy for the evils resulting therefrom. London: Lee.
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Leggett William. 1834. “The monopoly banking system.” The Evening Post December, 1834. (Reprinted in A collection of the political writings of William Leggett: selected and arranged with a preface by Theodore Sedgwick. New-York: Taylor & Dodd, 1840).
Leggett William. 1836. “Causes of financial distress.” Evening Post, 24 October 1836. Cited as reprinted in Theodore Sedgwick, ed., A collection of the political writings of William Leggett: selected and arranged with a preface, Vol. 2. New York: Taylor and Dott, 1840, pp. 96–106.
[Leslie Cliffe]. 1864. “Alleged commercial decades or cycles.” By ‘A Political Economist.’ The Economist 19 November and 24 December, pp. 1428–9 and 1577–8.
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[Lieber Francis]. 1838. “Credit.” In Lieber F., ed., Encyclopædia Americana; a popular dictionary of arts, sciences, literature, history, politics, and biography, brought down to the present time…. Philadelphia: Thomas, Cowperthwait, & Co, vol. IV, pp. 8–9.
Longfield S. Mountifort. 1840. “Banking and currency.” Dublin University Magazine 15, pp. 1–15, 218–33; 16, pp. 371–89, 611–20.
Loyd Samuel Jones. 1837. Reflections suggested by a perusal of Mr. J. Horsley Palmer’s pamphlet on the causes and consequences of the pressure on the money-market. London: P. Richardson.
Loyd Samuel Jones. 1837a. “Mr. Samuel Jones Loyd’s reflections on the causes and consequences of the pressure on the money market.” The Manchester Times and Gazette 11 March, issue 436.
Loyd Samuel Jones. 1837b. “Reflections suggested by a perusal of Mr. J. Horsley Palmer’s pamphlet on the causes and consequences of the pressure on the money market.” The Financial Register of the United States; Devoted Chiefly to Finance and Currency and to Banking and Commercial Statistics 1: 8, 11 October.
Loyd Samuel Jones. 1837c. “Mr. Samuel Jones Loyd’s reflections on the causes and consequences of the pressure on the money market.” The Morning Chronicle 3 March, issue 21002.
Mallinson Joah. 1840. A letter to merchants, manufacturers, and operatives, suggested by the enquiries, more frequently made than answered, what is the cause of our present distress? and what will become of our commerce, our manufactures, and our workpeople? London: Pickard.
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Marx Karl, and Engels Friedrich. 1848. Manifest der kommunistischen Partei. London: Burghard, 1848 (English translation: Manifesto of the Communist Party. In Marx and Engels, Selected Works, Vol. 1. Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1969, pp. 98–137).
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