Skip to main content
×
Home

THE PERIODICITY OF CRISES. A SURVEY OF THE LITERATURE BEFORE 1850

Abstract

This article examines the literature on the periodical recurrence of economic crises up to the 1840s, illustrating how awareness of this phenomenon was far more widespread than the few existing histories of business cycle theories indicate, that observations of this phenomenon began much earlier than previously documented, and also that early writers were more interested in emphasizing the intermittent return of crises rather than their precise timing.

Copyright
References
Hide All
Alison Archibald. 1849. “Free trade at its zenith.” Blackwood’s Magazine, December 1849. Cited from the reprint in Essays, political, historical, and miscellaneous, vol. 1, Edinburgh: W. Blackwood, 1850.
Anderson Adam. 1789. An historical and chronological deduction of the origin of commerce: from the earliest accounts. Containing an history of the great commercial interests of the British Empire. To which is prefixed an introduction, exhibiting a view of the ancient and modern state of Europe; of the importance of our colonies; and of the commerce, shipping, manufactures, fisheries, &c., of Great-Britain and Ireland; and their influence on the landed interest. With an appendix, containing the modern politico-commercial geography of the several countries of Europe, vol. IV. London: J. Walter (revised edition).
[Anderson William]. 1797. The iniquity of banking: or, bank notes proved to be injurious to the public, and the real cause of the present exorbitant price of provisions. London: J. S. Jordan.
[Anderson William]. 1821. Notices on political economy; or, An inquiry concerning the effects of debts and taxes, of the state of the currency and exchange, and of the balance of trade, as they operate on the community considered as a whole. London: Richardson.
[Anderson William]. 1826. The iniquity of the landholders, the mistakes of the farmers, and the folly and mischievous consequences of the unaccountable apathy manifested by all the other classes of the community, in regard to the corn laws, clearly demonstrated by a simple statement of indisputable facts, or intuitive inferences. London: Wilson.
Anonymous. 1814. “Corn Laws” [Report of the debates in the House of Commons]. The Agricultural Magazine, or Farmers’ Monthly Journal of Husbandry and Rural Affairs 3: XVI, May, pp. 313–29.
Anonymous. 1816. “Distress of the country.” Edinburgh Review XXVI: LII, June, pp. 255–81.
Anonymous. 1816a. “Commercial distress of the country.” Edinburgh Review XXVII, December, pp. 373–90.
Anonymous. 1819. “Commercial Fluctuations and Embarrassments.” Orleans Gazette, and Commercial Advertiser (New Orleans, LA), 27 July.
Anonymous. 1820. Letters addressed to the Right Honourable the Earl of Liverpool, and the Right Hon. Nicholas Vansittart. London: A.J. Valpy.
Anonymous. 1826. Commerce in consternation: or, The banking bubble burst! Being a sketch of the rise, progress, and decline, of the late paper panic. London: Cock.
Anonymous. 1829. [Untitled leader]. The Associate 1, 1 January, pp. 1–3.
Anonymous (H.B. & Co). 1832. “[To our subscribers].” Bankers’ Circular and Monetary Times13 July, n. 208, pp. 401–403.
Anonymous. 1836. “The money market.” Connecticut Courant LXXII, issue 3743, 15 October, p. 2 (indicating: “From the Glasgow Courier”).
Anonymous. 1836. Strictures on the report of the Secret Committee on joint stock banks: with an appendix containing some valuable tables compiled from the evidence. London: Thomas.
Anonymous. 1837. “A specie currency.” The New-Yorker 3: 14, June, p. 217.
Anonymous (H.B. & Co). 1837. “[To our subscribers].” Bankers’ Circular and Monetary Times 3 March.
Anonymous. 1837. “The commercial crisis.” Richmond Enquirer XXXIII, issue 114, 18 April, p. 4.
Anonymous. 1838. Minutes of the proceedings of a convention of merchants and others held in Augusta, Georgia, October 16, 1837: with an address to the people of the south and south-western states, relative to the establishment of a direct export and import trade with foreign countries. Augusta: B. Brantly.
Anonymous. 1839. “The specie clause.” The United States Magazine, and Democratic Review 5: 14, February, pp. 223–37.
Anonymous. 1840. A Few short observations on the currency. By an old merchant. London: P. Richardson.
Anonymous (F. C.). 1841. An Essay on free trade: its absolute value in theory, its relative value in practice, error and consequences of its application to the corn-laws. London: Ridgway.
Anonymous. 1842. “Hard times.” Philanthropist (Cincinnati) 6: 29, 19 January.
Anonymous. 1844. “Over-production and general distress.” The Phalanx: Organ of the Doctrine of Association 1: 10, 18 May, pp. 139–44.
Anonymous. 1845a. “Commercial delusions. Speculation.” The American Review: a Whig Journal of Politics, Literature, Art and Science 2: 4, October, pp. 341–57.
Anonymous. 1845b. “Commerce.” Harbinger, Devoted to Social and Political Progress I: 2, 21 June, pp. 31–2.
Anonymous. 1847. “The financial pressure.” The Albion 6: 33, 14 August, pp. 393–4 (extract from the latest issue of the Quarterly Journal).
Anonymous. 1847. “Direct trade of Southern States with Europe. Foreign commerce. Our southern cities. Reviving enterprise and prosperity;…The Commercial Review of the South and West; a Monthly Journal of Trade, Commerce, Commercial Polity, Agriculture, Manufactures, Internal Improvements and General Literature IV: 2, October, pp. 208–25.
Anonymous. 1847. “Ralahine.” The Herald of Co-operation and organ of the Redemption Society 6, June, pp. 41–42.
Anonymous. 1848. “Public credit.” The Bankers’ Magazine and State Financial Register 2: 12, June, pp. 754–9 (originally published in The Economist, 8 April 1848).
Anonymous. 1848. [Untitled article]. Mississippi Free Trader and Natchez Gazette (Natchez, MS) 30 November 1848, p. 2 col. B.
Anonymous. 1849. “The crowing of the column, and the crushing of the pedestal.” Edinburgh Magazine 66, July, pp. 108–32.
Anonymous. 1849. “Marriages and abundance.” The Economist 7: 300, 26 May, pp. 573–4.
Anonymous. 1849. “The Morning Chronicle.” The Morning Chronicle 26 December, issue 25018.
Anonymous (Pactolus). 1849a. “The great question for discussion.” Liverpool Mercury 16, January, issue 2057.
Anonymous (Pactolus). 1849b. “Jones Loyd’s cycle again.” Liverpool Mercury 18 December, issue 2151.
Anonymous. 1850. “Parliamentary reform.” Caledonian Mercury (Edinburgh) 10 January, issue 19953.
Anonymous (Boston Cashier). 1850. “The causes of commercial crises. Causes of commercial embarrassments; Speculations; California trade; Money market, &c.” Bankers’ Magazine and Statistical Register 5: 1, July, pp. 1–4.
Ashburton Lord (Alexander Baring). 1847. The financial and commercial crisis considered. London: Murray (reprinted London: King, 1867).
Attwood Matthias. 1817. Observations concerning the distress of the country. January 1816 and 1817. London: Thomas Wilson.
[Balfour D. M.]. 1848. “The present commercial crisis.” Hunt’s Merchants’ Magazine and Commercial Review 18: 5, May, pp. 477–88.
Beecher Lyman. 1820. “[Means of national prosperity] A sermon delivered at Litchfield, on the day of the Anniversary thanksgiving, December 2, 1819.” In Addresses of the Philadelphia Society for the Promotion of National Industry. 5th edition. Philadelphia: J. Maxwell, pp. 261–94.
Begbie Matthew Baillie. 1848. Partnership ‘en commandite’, or, Partnership with limited liabilities (according to the commercial practice of the continent of Europe, and the United States of America) for the employment of capital, the circulation of wages, and the revival of our home and colonial trade. London: Wilson.
Bell Gavin Mason. 1850. “History of English Panics.” Hunt’s Merchant Magazine XXIII: VI, December, pp. 604–10.
Bell Robert. 1840. A letter to James William Gilbart, Esq., General Manager of the London and Westminster Bank, on the regulation of the currency by the foreign exchanges and on the appointment of the Bank of England to be the sole bank of issue throughout Great Britain. London: Richardson.
Benner Samuel. 1884. Benner’s Prophecies of Future Ups and Downs in Prices. Chicago: Chase and Hall (14th ed. 1904).
von Bergmann Eugen. 1895. Die Wirtschaftskrisen: Geschichte der nationalökonomischen Krisentheorien. Stuttgart: W. Kohlhammer.
Besomi Daniele. 2006. “Tendency to equilibrium, the possibility of crisis, and the history of business cycle theories.” History of Economic Ideas XIV: 2, pp. 53–104.
Besomi Daniele. 2006a. “Formal modelling vs. insight in Kalecki’s theory of the business cycle.” Research in the History of Economic Thought and Methodology 24A, pp. 1–48.
Besomi Daniele. 2008. “John Wade’s early endogenous dynamic model: ‘Commercial cycle’ and theories of crises.” European Journal of the History of Economic Thought 15: 4, December, pp. 611–39.
Besomi Daniele. 2010. “‘Periodic crises’: Clément Juglar between theories of crises and theories of business cycles.” Forthcoming in Research in the History of Economic Thought and Methodology, vol. 28A.
Besomi Daniele. Forthcoming. “Crises as a disease of the body politick. A metaphor in the history of nineteenth century economics.” Journal of the History of Economic Thought.
Bianchi D. A. 1840. “Delle classi pericolose della popolazione nelle grandi città, e dei mezzi di farle migliori. Opera premiata nel 1838 dall’Instituto di Francia (Accademia delle Scienze morali e politiche); di H.A. Frégier.” Annali universali di economia pubblica, storia, viaggi e commercio 65, July–September, pp. 9–28.
Bishop Daniel. 1848. A letter to the Right Hon. Sir Robert Peel on the currency question. London: Hall.
Blanqui Adolphe. 1836. “Crise commerciale.” Encyclopédie des gents du monde. Paris: Librairie de Treuttel et Würtz, vol. VII, pp. 257–9.
Blanqui Adolphe. 1849. “Sulla situazione delle classi operaje in Francia nel 1848,” part 2. Annali universali di economia pubblica, storia, viaggi e commercio 19 (series 2), January–March, pp. 125–154 (Italian translation of Les classes ouvrières en France, 1848).
Boccardo Girolamo. 1879. Trattato teoretico-pratico di Economia Politica. Torino: Roux e Favale (6th ed.).
Boccardo Girolamo. 1879a. “Le leggi di periodicità delle crisi. Perturbazioni economiche e macchie solari.” Archivio di statistica III: 3, pp. 385–412.
Bonnefoux L. 1848. “Principles of banking. Investigation of the true principles that paper money ought to be based upon.” The Bankers’ Magazine and State Financial Register 3: 2, August, pp. 103–10.
Bonnet Victor. 1859. Questions économiques et financières à propos des crises. Paris: Guillaumin.
Bowen Francis. 1856. The principles of political economy applied to the condition, the resources, and the institutions of the American people. Boston: Little, Brown (2nd ed. 1859).
Bray Charles. 1844. An essay upon the union of agriculture and manufactures and upon the organization of industry. London: Longman, Brown, Green and Longmans.
[Bray John Francis]. 1836. “Association of all classes of all nations, Sunday, February 21.” New Moral World 27 February, pp. 137–8.
Briaune Jean-Edmond. 1840. Des crises commerciales, de leurs causes et de leurs remèdes. Paris: Bouchard-Huzard.
Briaune Jean-Edmond. 1857. Du prix des grains, du libre échange et des réserves. Paris: Didot.
Buret Eugène. 1840. De la misère des classes laborieuses en Angleterre et en France: de la nature de la misère, de son existence, de ses effets, de ses causes, et de l’insuffisance des remèdes qu’on lui a opposés jusqu’ici: avec l’indication des moyens propres à en affranchir les sociétés (2 vol.). Paris: Paulin.
Burke Edmund. 1800. Thoughts and details on scarcity: originally presented to the Right Hon. William Pitt, in the month of November, 1795. By the late… Edmund Burke. London: F. and C. Rivington; and J. Hatchard.
Carey Henry Charles. 1848. The past, the present, and the future. Philadelphia: Carey & Hart.
Carey Matthew. 1823. The Crisis: A solemn appeal to the president, the Senate and House of Representatives, and the citizens of the United States, on the destructive effects of the present policy of this country, on its agriculture, manufactures, commerce, and finances. With a comparison between the extraordinary prosperity of Great Britain, and the general depression in the United States…. Philadelphia: Carey and Lea.
Cargill William. 1845. The currency, showing how a fixed gold standard places England in permanent disadvantage and produces periodical domestic convulsion. London: Olliver.
Chalmers George. 1794. An estimate of the comparative strength of Great-Britain, during the present and four preceding reigns; and of the losses of her trade from every war since the Revolution. A new edition, corrected and improved; with a dedication to Dr. James Currie, the reputed author of ‘Jasper Wilson’s Letter’. London: J. Stockdale.
Chitti Luigi. 1839. Des crises financières et de la réforme du système monétaire. Bruxelles: Meline.
Clarke Hyde. 1847. “Physical economy—A preliminary inquiry into the physical laws governing the periods of famine and panic.” Railway Register (reprinted in F. Louçã and J. Reijnders, eds., The foundations of long wave theory: Models and methodology, Volume 1. Cheltenham: Elgar, 1999).
Clément Ambroise. 1857. “Des crises commerciales.” Journal des Économistes XVII, February, pp. 161–91.
[Cockburn Robert]. 1840. Remarks suggested by the present state of trade and credit. London: King (second edition: Remarks on trade and credit: originally published in January, 1840, now reprinted with additions and corrections. London: Wilson, 1842).
Coquelin Charles. 1848. “Les Crises Commerciales et la Liberté des Banques.” Revue des Deux Mondes XXVI, 1 November, pp. 445–70. Translated and abridged as Coquelin 1850.
Coquelin Charles. 1850. “Restrictions on banking the cause of commercial crises.” Bankers’ Magazine X, pp. 219–27 and 308–13.
Coquelin Charles. 1852. “Crises Commerciales.” In Coquelin Ch. and Guillaumin , eds., Dictionnaire de l’Économie Politique. Paris: Guillaumin.
Corbet Thomas. 1841. An inquiry into the causes and modes of the wealth of individuals: or, The principles of trade and speculation explained. London: Smith, Elder & Co.
Cory Isaac Preston. 1842. Competition: its abuse one of the chief causes of the present distress among the trading, manufacturing, and commercial classes: with suggestions for remedying it. London: Painter.
Coste Jacques. 1841. Considérations sur la commandite par crédit, ou, De l’escompte considéré sous son véritable point de vue économique: pour servir d’exposé des motifs à l’établissement du comptoir commercial. Paris: Firmin Didot.
Courcelle-Seneuil Jean-Gustave. 1858. Traité théorique et pratique d’économie politique. Paris: Amyot.
Craster Theophilus. 1840. A view of manufactures, money and corn laws, adverse to every theory of the economists: with observations upon the national worth of machinery. London: Hatchard & Son.
Crawford John. 1837. The philosophy of wealth: with an examination of the cause of the present distress, Second ed.Paisley: Murray.
[Currie James]. 1793. A letter, commercial and political, addressed to the Rt. Hon. William Pitt: in which the real interests of Britain in the present crisis are considered and some observations are offered on the general state of Europe. by Wilson Jasper (pseudonym). Dublin: P. Byrne and J. Moore.
Dalbiac James Charles. 1841. A few words on the corn laws: wherein are brought under consideration certain of the statements which are to be found in the 3d ed. of Mr. McCulloch’s pamphlet upon the same subject. London: J. Ollivier.
Danson John Towne. 1848. “A Contribution towards an Investigation of the changes which have taken place in the condition of the people of the United Kingdom during the eight years extending from the harvest of 1889 to the harvest of 1847; and An Attempt to develope the connexion (if any), between the changes observed and the variations occurring during the same period in the prices of the most necessary articles of food.” Journal of the Statistical Society of London 11: 2, May, pp. 101–40.
Daru Napoléon. 1843. Des chemins de fer et de l’application de la loi du 11 juin 1842. Paris: Librairie scientifique-industrielle.
Duchâtel Tanneguy. 1829. De la charité dans ses rapports avec l’état moral et le bien-être des classes inférieures de la société. Paris: A. Mesnier.
Duncan Jonathan. 1849. The principles of money demonstrated and bullionist fallacies refuted. London: R. Groombridge.
[Duncan W. B.] 1842. Mercantile embarrassments, and the present state of the banking system. Edinburgh: John Johnstone.
Dupont de Nemours Pierre Samuel. 1806. Sur la Banque de France, les causes de la crise qu’elle a éprouvé… avec une théorie des banques: Rapport fait à la Chambre de commerce par une commission spéciale, à Paris, en 1806. Paris: Delance, 1806 (cited from the reprint London: J. Hatchard, 1811).
Duryle Lefebvre. 1835. “Parallelo tra l’attuale industria francese ed inglese tratto dall’esame del sig. Lefebvre Duryle, con note di G. D. Romagnosi.” Annali Universali di Statistica (Translated from the Moniteur, 19 November 1834 and annotated by Romagnosi).
Dussard Hyppolite. 1842. De l’état financier de l’Angleterre et des mesures proposées par les Whigs et les Tories. Paris: Au bureau du Journal des Economistes (offprint from the Journal des Economistes April 1842).
[Economist, The]. 1879. “The periodicity of panics.” The Economist 11 January, pp. 32–33.
Elmore J. R. 1828. Letters to the Right Hon. the Earl of Darnley on the state of Ireland, in advocacy of free trade and other measures of practical improvement more especially calculated to supersede the necessity of emigration. London: Ridgway.
Enderby Charles. 1843. The Distress of the Nation, Its Causes and Remedies. London: Clarke.
Enderby Charles. 1847. Our money laws: the cause of the national distress. London: P. Richardson.
Engels Friedrich. 1844. “Outlines of a critique of political economy.” Originally published in German in Deutsch-Französische Jahrbücher; English translation in K. Marx and F. Engels, Collected works, Vol. 3. London: Lawrence & Wishart, 1988, pp. 418–43.
Evans David Morier. 1848. The commercial crisis 1847–48; being facts and figures illustrative of the events of that important period, considered in relation to the three epochs of the railway mania, the food and money panic, and the French revolution. London: Letts (2nd edition 1849).
Evans David Morier. 1859. The history of commercial crises, 1857–58 and the stock exchange panic of 1859. London: Groombridge (New York: Kelly, 1969).
Fazy Jean-Jacob. 1830. Principes d’organisation industrielle pour le développement des richesses en France. Explication du malaise de la classe productive et des moyens d’y porter remède. Paris, Mahler et compagnie.
Fernley John Dyson. [1841]. A letter to F. A. Philips, Esq. on his remarks on the corn laws: with some observations on the comparative merits of a moderate fixed duty and the present fluctuating scale. Stockport: H. Leigh.
Ferrara Francesco. 1864. “Delle crisi economiche,” Preface to vol. IV of Biblioteca dell’Economista (second series); as reprinted in Esame storico-critico di economisti e dottrine economiche del secolo XVIIIe prima metà del XIX. Raccolta delle prefazioni dettate dal Professore Francesco Ferrara, vol. 2. Torino: UTET, 1890.
Francis John. [1847]. History of the Bank of England, its times and traditions. London: Willoughby.
[Francis John]. 1853. “Commercial excitements and crises.” The Eclectic Magazine of Foreign Literature 28: 4, April, pp. 471–7.
Fullarton John. 1844. On the regulation of currencies, being an examination of the principles, on which it is proposed to restrict, within certain fixed limits, the future issues on credit of the Bank of England, and of the other banking establishments throughout the country. London: Murray.
Garnier Joseph. 1845. Elements de l’économie politique. Exposé des notions fondamentales de cette science et de l’organisation économique de la société. Paris: Garnier/Guillaumin.
Garnier Joseph. 1859. “Crises commerciales.” In Dictionnaire universel théorique et pratique du commerce et de la navigation. Paris: Guillaumin.
Gautier Jean-Elie. 1839. “Des Banques, et des Instittions de crédit en Amerique et en Europe.” Offprint from vol. 2 of Encyclopédie du droit: ou, Répertoire raisonné de législation et de jurisprudence: des banques et des institutions de crédit en Amérique et en Europe. Paris: Coulon.
Gérando Joseph-Marie. 1839. De la bienfaisance publique, vol. 1. Paris: J. Renouard et cie.
Gilbart James William. 1841. Currency and banking: a review of some of the principles and plans that have recently engaged public attention, with reference to the administration of the currency. London: Hooper.
Great Britain, Parliament, House of Commons. 1793. Jordan’s Parliamentary Journal for the year MDCCXCIII being an accurate and impartial history of the debates and proceedings of both Houses of Parliament, from the opening of the Session on the Thirteenth day of December, 1792, vol. III. London: J. S. Jordan.
Hart Arthur W. 1849. A letter to the Right Hon. Lord John Russell on the assumption of railways by government. London: J. & C. Mozley.
House of Commons Secret Committee on Commercial Distress. 1848. First Report from the Secret Committee on Commercial Distress, with the minutes of evidence. London: House of Commons, 8 June 1848.
Huskisson William. 1810. The question concerning the depreciation of our currency stated and examined. London: John Murray (citations from the 4th edition, 1810).
Huskisson William. 1826. “Free trade: speech of the Right Hon. W. Huskisson in the House of Commons, Thursday, the 23d of February, 1826, on Mr. Ellice’s motion for a select committee to inquire into and examine the statements contained in the various petitions from persons engaged in the silk manufacture.” Hansard, The Parliamentary debates, New Series XIV, 2 February–17 March 1826, pp. 763–809 (reprinted as a pamphlet: London: J. Hatchard, 1826).
Huskisson William. 1830. State of the country. Speech of the Right Hon. W. Huskisson in the House of Commons, Thursday, the 18th of March, 1830; on Mr E.D. Davenport’s motion “That the petitions complaining of the distress of various classes of the community be referred to a Committee of the whole House, with a view to inquire into the causes of their grievances, and the remedy thereof. ” London: John Murray.
[Huskisson William]. 1830a. Essays in political economy: in which are illustrated the principal causes of the present national distress; with appropriate remedies. London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, & Green (reprinted in Canberra: Department of Economic History, Faculty of Economics, The Australian National University, 1976).
Hutchison Terence William. 1953. A Review of Economic Doctrines 1870–1929. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Jackson Samuel. 1839. Commercial distress temporary; arising from natural and periodical causes, and not from the effects of the Corn Laws. Letter 1, addressed to Earl Fitzwilliam. London.
Jerdan William. 1827. National polity and finance: plan for establishing a sterling currency and relieving the burdens of the people: extracted from the Literary Gazette by the editor. London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown and Green.
Jevons William Stanley. 1863. A serious fall in the value of gold ascertained, and its social effects set forth. London: E. Stanford. Reprinted in W. S. Jevons, Investigations in currency and finance (H. S. Foxwell, (ed.)). London: Macmillan, 1884, pp. 13–118.
Jevons William Stanley. 1878. “Commercial crises and sun-spots,” Pt. 1. Nature, XIX, 14 November, pp. 33–37. Reprinted in W. S. Jevons, Investigations in currency and finance (H. S. Foxwell, (ed.)). London: Macmillan, 1884, pp. 221–35.
Joplin Thomas. 1841. The cause and cure of our commercial embarrassments. London: James Ridgway.
Joplin William. 1854. A letter on fluctuations in the money market chiefly with the view of explaining the nature of those violent pressures termed panics, addressed to the Bank of England. London: Hamilton, Adams & Co(2nd ed.)
Juglar Clément. 1857. “Des crises commerciales et monétaires de 1800 à 1857.” Journal des Économistes XIV, April and May, pp. 35–60 and 255–67.
Juglar Clément. 1857a. “Situation comparée de la Banque de France et de la Banque d’Angleterre d’après les compte-rendus officiels pendant les crises commerciales depuis 1799.” Journal des Economistes XVI, December, pp. 262–5.
Juglar Clément. 1862. Des Crises Commerciales et de leur retour périodique en France, an Angleterre et aux États-Unis. Paris: Guillaumin.
Juglar Clément. 1889. Des Crises Commerciales et de leur retour périodique en France, en Angleterre et aux États-Unis, 2nd edition. Paris: Alcan (Reprinted New York: Kelly, 1967).
Kay Joseph. 1850. The social condition and education of the people in England and Europe: shewing the results of the primary schools, and of the division of landed property, in foreign countries. London: Longman, Brown, Green and Longmans.
Keynes John Maynard. 1936. “William Stanley Jevons.” Journal of the Royal Statistical Society XCIX: III, pp. 516–48 (in The Collected Writings of J. M. Keynes, vol. X. London: Macmillan, 1972, pp. 109–60).
Killy W. (1827). Allgemeine deutsche Real-Encyklopädie für die gebildeten Stände (Conversations-Lexikon). Leipzig: F.A. Brockhaus (reprinted 1829–31).
King William. 1840. Four letters on the workings of money capital, showing its present inefficient and limited agency for commercial and social purposes: with a proposed remedy for the evils resulting therefrom. London: Lee.
Kinnear John Gardiner. 1847. The crisis and currency: with a comparison between the English and Scottish systems of banking. London: Murray (2nd edition).
Langton William. 1857. “Observations on a table shewing the balance of accounts between the mercantile public and the Bank of England.” Transactions of the Manchester Statistical Society, Session 1857–58, pp. 9–22.
Laveleye Emile de. 1865. Le marché monetaire et ses crises depuis cinquante ans. Paris: Guillaumin.
Lavington Frederick. 1922. The trade cycle. An account of the causes producing rythmical changes in the activity of business. London: King.
Lawson James Anthony. 1848. On commercial panics: a paper read before the Dublin Statistical Society. Dublin: Dublin Statistical Society.
Lawson James Anthony. 1848a. “The Cause of Commercial Panics.” Bankers’ Magazine (London) VIII, pp. 415–20.
Le Gall Philippe. 2006. “L’ astronomie sociale de Jean-Edmond Briaune.“ In Simonin J. P., ed., Jean Edmond Briaune (1798–1885). Cultivateur, agronome, économiste. Angers: Presses Universitaires d’Angers, pp. 261–82.
Ledru-Rollin Alexandre Auguste. 1850. The decline of England. London: Churton (2d ed.).
Leggett William. 1834. “The monopoly banking system.” The Evening Post December, 1834. (Reprinted in A collection of the political writings of William Leggett: selected and arranged with a preface by Theodore Sedgwick. New-York: Taylor & Dodd, 1840).
Leggett William. 1836. “Causes of financial distress.” Evening Post, 24 October 1836. Cited as reprinted in Theodore Sedgwick, ed., A collection of the political writings of William Leggett: selected and arranged with a preface, Vol. 2. New York: Taylor and Dott, 1840, pp. 96–106.
[Leslie Cliffe]. 1864. “Alleged commercial decades or cycles.” By ‘A Political Economist.’ The Economist 19 November and 24 December, pp. 1428–9 and 1577–8.
Lestiboudois Thémistocle. 1847. Economie pratique des nations, ou, Système économique applicable aux différentes contrées, et spécialement à la France. Paris: Colas.
[Lieber Francis]. 1838. “Credit.” In Lieber F., ed., Encyclopædia Americana; a popular dictionary of arts, sciences, literature, history, politics, and biography, brought down to the present time…. Philadelphia: Thomas, Cowperthwait, & Co, vol. IV, pp. 8–9.
Longfield S. Mountifort. 1840. “Banking and currency.” Dublin University Magazine 15, pp. 1–15, 218–33; 16, pp. 371–89, 611–20.
Loyd Samuel Jones. 1837. Reflections suggested by a perusal of Mr. J. Horsley Palmer’s pamphlet on the causes and consequences of the pressure on the money-market. London: P. Richardson.
Loyd Samuel Jones. 1837a. “Mr. Samuel Jones Loyd’s reflections on the causes and consequences of the pressure on the money market.” The Manchester Times and Gazette 11 March, issue 436.
Loyd Samuel Jones. 1837b. “Reflections suggested by a perusal of Mr. J. Horsley Palmer’s pamphlet on the causes and consequences of the pressure on the money market.” The Financial Register of the United States; Devoted Chiefly to Finance and Currency and to Banking and Commercial Statistics 1: 8, 11 October.
Loyd Samuel Jones. 1837c. “Mr. Samuel Jones Loyd’s reflections on the causes and consequences of the pressure on the money market.” The Morning Chronicle 3 March, issue 21002.
Mallinson Joah. 1840. A letter to merchants, manufacturers, and operatives, suggested by the enquiries, more frequently made than answered, what is the cause of our present distress? and what will become of our commerce, our manufactures, and our workpeople? London: Pickard.
Malthus Thomas Robert. 1798. An Essay on the Principle of Population, as it affects the future improvement of society, with remarks on the speculations of Mr. Godwin, M. Condorcet, and other writers. London, J. Johnson.
Malthus Thomas Robert. 1800. An investigation of the cause of the present high price of provisions. London: J. Johnson.
Malthus Thomas Robert. 1814. Observations on the effects of the Corn laws and of a rise or fall in the price of corn on the agriculture and general wealth of the country. London: J. Johnson and Co.
Marx Karl, and Engels Friedrich. 1848. Manifest der kommunistischen Partei. London: Burghard, 1848 (English translation: Manifesto of the Communist Party. In Marx and Engels, Selected Works, Vol. 1. Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1969, pp. 98–137).
Mason John. 1847. An inquiry into the economy, exchange, & distribution of wealth. London: Strange.
[McCulloch John Ramsey]. 1822. “Agricultural Distress: Causes-Remedies.” Edinburgh Review February, pp. 452–82.
[McCulloch John Ramsey]. 1826. “Thoughts on banking. Fluctuations in the supply and value of money, Banking system of England.” Edinburgh Review XLIII, February, pp. 263–298.
[McCulloch John Ramsey]. 1826a. “Commercial revulsions” [review of “The late crisis in the money market impartially considered.” London, 1826], Edinburgh Review XLIV, June, pp. 70–93.
McCulloch John Ramsey. [1838]. “Paper-money, banks,” [s.l.: s.n.], [1838?] [Offprint from Encyclopedia Britannica, 7th ed.]
McCulloch John Ramsey. 1840. “Banks (English private and provincial).” In A dictionary, practical, theoretical and historical, of commerce and commercial navigation (cited from the Philadelphia: Wardle edition, edited by H. Vethake, Volume 1).
Members of the New York Press. 1857. A Brief Popular Account of All Financial Panics and Commercial Revulsions in the United States from 1690 to 1857. New York: Haney.
Michel . 1839. “Crise Commerciale.”In Guillaumin G. U., ed., Dictionnaire du Commerce et des marchandises, vol. 1. Paris: Guillaumin, pp. 757–8.
Mill John Stuart. 1844. Essays on some unsettled questions of political economy. London: J.W. Parker.
Mill John Stuart. 1848. Principles of political economy with some of their applications to social philosophy. London. In St. Mill J., Collected Works. vols. II and III. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, and London: Routledge, 1965.
Miller Harry Edward. 1927. Banking theories in the United States before 1860. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Millot Louis. 1837. Études sur les principales causes des crises commerciales et périodiques. Paris, E. Legrand et Descauriet.
Mills John. 1868. “On credit cycles and the origin of commercial panics.” Transactions of the Manchester Statistical Society Session 1867–68, pp. 5–40.
Mitchell Wesley Clair. 1913. Business Cycles. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Mitchell Wesley Clair. 1927. Business cycles. The problem and its settings. New York: NBER.
[Moncreiff James]. 1845. “[Review of] Sir Robert Peel’s financial statement, and explanations of the new tariff, delivered in the House of Commons, Friday, February 14, 1845, etc.” North British Review 3: 5, May, pp. 212–55.
Monitor Abel. 1841. Corn laws: second letter: facts and fallacies exhibiting aggressions in the Bank of England which makes its trade in bullion a source of oppressions on the people: addressed to the Right Honourable the Chancellor of the Exchequer. London: Ollivier.
National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER). 1947. “Stepping Stones towards the Future.” In Twenty-seventh Annual Report of the National Bureau of Economic Research (March), pp. 3–27.
Ott Auguste. 1851. Traité d’économie Sociale ou l’économie politique coordonnée au point de vue du progrès. Paris: Renou.
[Ott Auguste]. 1854. “Crise.” In Ott A., ed., Dictionnaire des sciences politiques et sociales comprenant la politique, la diplomatie, le droit naturel, le droit ds gens, les rapports de l’Eglise et de l’Etat, l’administration, les finances, la police, la force armée, l’économie politique et la statistique: avec le texte ou le résumé des traités les plus importants, des constitutions et lois fondamentales des peuples anciens et modernes, et l’analyse des principaux ouvrages sur la politique et les autres sciences sociales…. Paris: Migne, pp. 1387–92.
Owen Robert. 1836. “Address to the Imperial Parliament of Great Britain.” New Moral World 27 February, pp. 138–39.
Palmer John Horsley. 1837. The causes and consequences of the pressure upon the money-market: with a statement of the action of the Bank of England from 1st October, 1833, to the 27th December, 1836. London: P. Richardson.
Palmerston Henry John Temple. 1842. Speech of the Right Honourable Viscount Palmerston in the House of Commons on… the 16th of February, 1842, on Lord John Russell’s motion against a sliding scale of duties on the importation of foreign corn (second ed.). London: Ridgway.
Parnell Henry. 1827. Observations on paper money, banking, and overtrading; including those parts of the evidence taken before the Committee of the House of Commons, which explains the Scotch system of banking. London: James Ridgway/Effingham Wilson.
Pennsylvania Convention, Minority Committee. 1837. “Reports on the currency, &c. in the Pennsylvania Convention. Tuesday, May 23, Majority Report. Minority Report.” Niles’ Weekly Register 2: 14, 3 June, pp. 215–18.
Petty William. 1662. Treatise of taxes & contributions. London. In Hull C. H., The economic writings of Sir William Petty. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1899.
Playfair William. 1821. A letter on our agricultural distresses, their causes and remedies: accompanied with tables and copper-plate charts, shewing and comparing the prices of wheat, bread, and labour, from 1565 to 1821. Addressed to the Lords and Commons. London: W. Sams.
Pownall George Henry. 1894. “Crisis, periodicity of.” In Palgrave R. H. I., ed., Dictionary of political economy. London: Macmillan, vol. 1, pp. 466–7 (second edition 1910, 3rd ed., edited by H. Higgs, 1925).
Radnor William Pleydell-Bouverie. 1842. Speech of the Earl of Radnor on the corn laws in the House of Lords, August 4, 1842, on moving the second reading of a bill to repeal the Corn Importation Act: also a protest against the rejection of the bill: with an appendix containing a protest against the income tax, &c. &c. London: Hooper.
[Raguet Condy]. 1829. [Untitled report from “Philadelphia, May 9, 1829”] The Free Trade Advocate and Journal of Political Economy 1: 9, 9 May, pp. 303–4.
Raithby John. 1811. The law and principle of money considered, in a letter to W. Huskisson, Esq., M.P. London: T. Cadell and W. Davies.
Rantoul Robert. 1836. [Speech in Massachusetts House of Representatives, March 12, 1836] (cited by Miller 1926, p. 192n).
Rantoul Robert. 1837. An oration delivered before the democratic citizens of the County of Worcester, July 4, 1837. Worcester: Mirick & Bartlett.
Rational Tract Society. [1843]. National evils and national remedies. [London: Rational Tract Society]
[Renny James H.]. 1840. A letter to the Right Honourable Lord Viscount Melbourne upon the state of banking in England during the last fifty years, particularly with reference to the position and proceedings of the Bank of England and their effects of the trade, manufactures, and agriculture of the country, and on the condition of the working classes. By a merchant. London: Smith, Elder, and co.
Rodbertus-Jagetzow Carl. 1842. Zur Erkenntnis unserer staatswirthschaftlichen Zustände. Neubrandenburg: Barnewitz.
Romagnosi G. D. 1834. “Del sistema proibitivo. Esame sul progetto di legge sulle dogane francesi, proposto tanto dal Ministero quanto dalla Commissione della Camera dei Deputati (Articolo II. Questioni diverse).” Annali universali di statistica economia pubblica, storia, viaggi e commercio 42: 124–124, November, pp. 17–52.
Rooke John. 1824. An inquiry into the principles of national wealth: illustrated by the political economy of the British Empire. Edinburgh: A. Balfour and co.
Salomons David. 1837. A Defence of Joint-stock banks; An examination of the causes of the present monetary difficulties, and hints for the future management of the circulation. London: Richardson.
Schäffle Albert. 1858. “Zur Lehre von den Handelskrisen.” Zeitschrift für das gesamte Staatswissenschaft 2: 3, pp. 402–70.
Schumpeter Joseph Alois. 1954. History of Economic Analysis. London: Allen & Unwin.
Sharp Joseph Budworth. 1844. The Anti-Corn-Law League and the cotton trade: a letter to a noble lord. London: Phoenix.
Simonin Jean-Pascal. 2006. “La théorie des crises commerciales de Briaune et sa place dans la théorie française des crises en France au XIXe siècle.” In Simonin J. P., ed., Jean Edmond Briaune (1798–1885). Cultivateur, agronome, économiste. Angers: Presses Universitaires d’Angers.
Sinclair John. 1810. Observations on the Report of the Bullion Committee, London: T. Cadell and W. Davies; J. Stockdale; and J. M. Richardson.
Sismondi Jean-Charles Léonard Simonde de. 1839–40. Studi intorno all’economia politica. Capolago: Tipografia e libreria elvetica (Italian translation of Etudes sur l’économie politique. Paris: Treuttel et Würtz, 1837).
Stansfeld Hamer. 1849. A Remedy for Monetary Panics and free trade in Currency, suggested in a brief view of the Currency Questions. Bonn: Charles Georgi.
Stansfeld Hamer. 1854. The Currency Act of 1844, the cause of the panic of October 1847, and the generator of monetary panics periodically. London.
Swiney William. 1855. Notes on monetary panics and convulsions, and the effects of the Currency Acts of 1819 and 1844, etc. London: Richardson Brothers.
Taylor John. 1836. Catechisms of the currency and exchanges. London: Taylor and Walton.
Taylor John. 1843. The monetary policy of England and America. London: Clarke.
[Thompson Thomas Perronet]. 1826. An exposition of fallacies on rent, tithes, &c. containing an examination of Mr. Ricardo’s theory of rent and of the arguments brought against the conclusion that tithes and taxes on the land are paid by landlords, the doctrine of the impossibility of a general glut, and other propositions of the modern school: with an inquiry into the comparative consequences of taxes on agricultural and manufactured produced: being in the form of a review of the 3d. ed. of Mr. Mill’s Elements of political economy. By a member of the University of Cambridge. London: Hatchard.
Thompson William. 1827. Labor rewarded: The claims of labor and capital conciliated; or, How to secure to labor the whole products of its exertions. London: Hunt and Clarke (reprinted New York: Burt Franklin, 1971)
Thornton Henry. 1802. An enquiry into the nature and effects of the paper credit of Great Britain. London: J. Hatchard… F. and C. Rivington (reprinted: London: Allen & Unwin, 1939, introduced by Hayek).
Tooke Thomas. 1829. Second letter to Lord Grenville by Thomas Tooke. On the currency in connexion with the corn trade and on the corn laws: to which is added, a postscript on the present commercial stagnation. London: J. Murray.
Tooke Thomas, and William Newmarch. 1838–54. A history of prices and of the state of the circulation from 1792 to 1856. London: Longman.
Torrens Robert. 1816. A letter to the Right Honourable The Earl of Liverpool, on the State of the Agriculture of the United Kingdom, and on the means of relieving the present distress of the farmer, and of securing him against the recurrence of similar embarrassment. London: J. Hatchard.
Torrens Robert. 1833. Letters on commercial policy. London: Longmans.
Torrens R. 1840. A letter to Thomas Tooke, Esq. in reply to his objections against the separation of the business of the Bank into a department of issue and a department of deposit and discount: with a plan of bank reform. London: Longman, Hurst, Orme, and Brown.
[Torrens Robert.] 1841. The budget: a series of letters on financial, commercial, and colonial policy. By a member of the Political Economy Club. London: Smith, Elder.
Torrens Robert. 1844. An inquiry into the practical working of the proposed arrangements for the renewal of the charter of the Bank of England, and the regulation of the currency: with a refutation of the fallacies advanced by Mr. Tooke: to which is added, a reply to the objections of the Westminster Review to the government plan for the regulation of currency. London: Smith, Elder.
Turner J. B. 1844. “Banking.” New Englander 2: 5, January, pp. 48–58.
Vidal François. 1848. Vivre en travaillant! Projets, voies et moyens de réformes sociales. Paris: Capelle.
Vidal François. [1849]. “Les anciennes corporations des métiers, ou l’organisation du travail, depuis le moyen-age jusqu’en 1789.” Le Travail Affranchi 7, 18 February, pp. 1–2.
[Wade John]. 1826. Digest of facts and principles, on banking and commerce: with a plan for preventing future re-actions. London: Thomas Ward.
Wade John. 1833. History of the middle and working classes; with a popular exposition of the economical and political principles which have influenced the past and present condition of the industrious orders. Also an Appendix of prices, rates of wages, population, poor-rates, mortality, marriages, crimes, schools, education, occupations, and other statistical information, illustrative of the former and present state of society and of the agricultural, commercial, and manufacturing classes. London: Effingham Wilson. Second ed. 1834 (reprinted: New York: Kelley, 1966), 3rd edition 1835.
Walker Amasa. 1857. Nature and use of money and mixed currency. Boston: Crosby, Nichols & Coon.
Walker J. K. 1831. On the late population returns of the manufacturing districts. s.l.: s.n.
Watson William. 1848. New system of currency by which panic is rendered impossible. London: A. Hall.
West Edward. 1826. Price of Corn and Wages of Labour, with observations upon Dr. Smith’s, Mr. Ricardo’s, and Mr. Malthus’s doctrines upon those subjects and an attempt at an exposition of the fluctuation of the price of corn during the last thirty years. London: John Hatchard and Son [Reprinted London: Routledge/Thoemmes Press, 1993].
Western Charles Callis. 1826. A Letter to the Earl of Liverpool on the Cause of our Present Embarrassment and Distress, and the Remedy. London: James Ridgway; Budd & Calki (cited from the reprint in The Pamphleteer XXVII, 1826, pp. 219–38).
Western Charles Callis. 1841. Letter from Lord Western to Lord John Russell, on his proposed alteration of the corn laws, and on the causes of commercial distress. London: Ridgway and Smith, Elder & Co.
Wheatley John. 1819. A report on the reports of the bank committees. Shrewsbury: W. Eddowes.
[Whitelaw Alexandre]. 1841. “Credit.” In Whitelaw Alexander, ed., The popular encyclopaedia: or, “Conversations lexicon”: being a general dictionary of arts, sciences, literature, biography, history, ethics, and political economy, etc. Glasgow: Blackie and Son.
Whytock Richard. 1842. An inquiry into the cause of the present depression of trade: and a remedy proposed in a measure calculated at the same time to obviate the necessity of an income tax. Edinburgh: Maclachlan, Stewart.
Williams T. H. 1858. “Observations on Money, Credit, and Panics.” Transactions of the Manchester Statistical Society Session 1857–58, pp. 49–66.
Wilson James. 1840. Fluctuations of currency, commerce, and manufactures; referable to the Corn Laws. London: Longman, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longmans.
Wirth Max. 1858. Geschichte der Handelskrisen. Frankfurt a.m.: Sauerländer.
Woodbury Levi. 1840. “Report of the Secretary of the Treasury. On the finances. Public debt and treasury notes. Exports and imports within the commercial year 1839. Estimate of the receipts and expenditure for 1840. Explanations of the estimates as to the expenditures and of some further reductions in them. On some permanent safeguard under fluctuations in receipts and expenditures. The manner of keeping the public money, with the proper guards against losses. Condition of banking institutions generally, and the kind of money receivable for public dues. Miscellaneous.” Niles’ Weekly Register 7: 19, 4 January, pp. 293–8.
Wright Ichabord Charles. 1848. The evils of the currency: no. 2. London: Longman.
Yates John Ashton. 1827. Essays on currency and circulation and on the influence of our paper system on the industry, trade, and revenue of Great Britain. Liverpool: Harris.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of the History of Economic Thought
  • ISSN: 1053-8372
  • EISSN: 1469-9656
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-the-history-of-economic-thought
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 4
Total number of PDF views: 25 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 127 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 25th November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.