Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-55597f9d44-qcsxw Total loading time: 0.453 Render date: 2022-08-08T10:12:41.293Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

Goal Management Training of Executive Functions in Patients with Spina Bifida: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  11 April 2013

Jan Stubberud*
Affiliation:
Sunnaas Rehabilitation Hospital, Nesoddtangen, Norway
Donna Langenbahn
Affiliation:
Rusk Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York
Brian Levine
Affiliation:
Rotman Research Institute, Baycrest Centre, Toronto, Canada Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
Johan Stanghelle
Affiliation:
Sunnaas Rehabilitation Hospital, Nesoddtangen, Norway Department of Medicine, Oslo University, Oslo, Norway
Anne-Kristine Schanke
Affiliation:
Sunnaas Rehabilitation Hospital, Nesoddtangen, Norway Department of Psychology, Oslo University, Oslo, Norway
*
Correspondence and reprint requests to: Jan Stubberud, Sunnaas Rehabilitation Hospital, Bjørnemyrveien 11, 1450 Nesoddtangen, Norway. E-mail: jan.stubberud@sunnaas.no

Abstract

Executive dysfunction causes significant real-life disability for patients with spina bifida (SB). However, no previous research has been directed toward the amelioration of executive functioning deficits amongst persons with SB. Goal Management Training (GMT) is a compensatory cognitive rehabilitation approach, addressing underlying deficits in sustained attention to improve executive function. GMT has received empirical support in studies of other patient groups. The purpose of the present study was to determine the efficacy of GMT in treating subjects with SB, using inpatient intervention periods. We hypothesized post-intervention changes in scores on neuropsychological measures to reflect improved attentional control, including sustained attention and inhibitory control. Thirty-eight adult subjects with SB were included in this randomized controlled trial. Inclusion was based upon the presence of executive functioning complaints. Experimental subjects (n = 24) received 21 hr of GMT, with efficacy of GMT being compared to results of subjects in a wait-list condition (n = 14). All subjects were assessed at baseline, post-intervention, and at 6-month follow-up. Findings indicated superior effects of GMT on domain-specific neuropsychological measures and on a functional “real-life” measure, all lasting at least 6 months post-treatment. These results show that deficits in executive functioning can be ameliorated in patients with congenital brain dysfunction. (JINS, 2013, 19, 1–14)

Type
Research Articles
Copyright
Copyright © The International Neuropsychological Society 2013 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Alfonso, J.P., Caracuel, A., Delgado-Pastor, L.C., Verdejo-Garcia, A. (2011). Combined goal management training and mindfulness meditation improve executive functions and decision-making performance in abstinent polysubstance abusers. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 117, 7881. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2010.12.025CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Andres, P. (2003). Frontal cortex as the central executive of working memory: Time to revise our view. Cortex, 39, 871895.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Aron, A.R. (2007). The neural basis of inhibition in cognitive control. The Neuroscientist, 13, 214228. doi:10.1177/1073858407299288CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Barkovich, A.J. (2000). Paediatric neuroimaging (3rd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
Benedict, R.H.B. (1997). Brief visuospatial memory test–revised: Professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.Google Scholar
Blake, D.T., Heiser, M.A., Caywood, M., Merzenich, M.M. (2006). Experience-dependent adult cortical plasticity requires cognitive association between sensation and reward. Neuron, 52, 371381. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2006.08.009CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Boelen, D.H., Spikman, J.M., Fasotti, L. (2011). Rehabilitation of executive disorders after brain injury: Are interventions effective? Journal of Neuropsychology, 5, 73113. doi:10.1348/174866410X516434CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Burgess, P.W., Alderman, N., Evans, J., Emslie, H., Wilson, B.A. (1998). The ecological validity of tests of executive function. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 4, 547558.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Burgess, P.W., Alderman, N., Forbes, C., Costello, A., Coates, L.M., Dawson, D.R., Channon, S. (2006). The case for the development and use of “ecologically valid” measures of executive function in experimental and clinical neuropsychology. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 12, 194209. doi:10.1017/S1355617706060310CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Burgess, P.W., Veitch, E., de Lacy Costello, A., Shallice, T. (2000). The cognitive and neuroanatomical correlates of multitasking. Neuropsychologia, 38, 848863.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Burmeister, R., Hannay, H.J., Copeland, K., Fletcher, J.M., Boudousquie, A., Dennis, M. (2005). Attention problems and executive functions in children with spina bifida and hydrocephalus. Child Neuropsychology, 11, 265283. doi:10.1080/092970490911324CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Charney, E. (1992). Neural tube defects: Spina bifida and myelomeningocele. In Y.P.M. Batshaw (Ed.), Children with disabilities: A medical primer (3rd ed., pp. 471488). Baltimore: Brookes Publishing Co.Google Scholar
Chen, A.J., Novakovic-Agopian, T., Nycum, T.J., Song, S., Turner, G.R., Hills, N.K., D'Esposito, M. (2011). Training of goal-directed attention regulation enhances control over neural processing for individuals with brain injury. Brain, 134, 15411554. doi:10.1093/brain/awr067CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cicerone, K., Levin, H., Malec, J., Stuss, D., Whyte, J. (2006). Cognitive rehabilitation interventions for executive function: Moving from bench to bedside in patients with traumatic brain injury. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 18, 12121222. doi:10.1162/jocn.2006.18.7.1212CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cicerone, K.D., Dahlberg, C., Kalmar, K., Langenbahn, D.M., Malec, J.F., Bergquist, T.F., Morse, P.A. (2000). Evidence-based cognitive rehabilitation: Recommendations for clinical practice. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 81, 15961615. doi:10.1053/apmr.2000.19240CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cicerone, K.D., Dahlberg, C., Malec, J.F., Langenbahn, D.M., Felicetti, T., Kneipp, S., Catanese, J. (2005). Evidence-based cognitive rehabilitation: Updated review of the literature from 1998 through 2002. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 86, 16811692. doi:10.1016/j.apmr.2005.03.024CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cicerone, K.D., Langenbahn, D.M., Braden, C., Malec, J.F., Kalmar, K., Fraas, M., Ashman, T. (2011). Evidence-based cognitive rehabilitation: Updated review of the literature from 2003 through 2008. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 92, 519530. doi:10.1016/j.apmr.2010.11.015CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: L. Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
Conners, C.K. (2000). Conners’ CPT II continuous performance test II. North Tonawanda, NY: Multi Health Systems.Google Scholar
Coull, J.T. (1995). Monoaminergic modulation of human attentional and executive function. Unpublished PhD thesis. Cambridge University.Google Scholar
D'Zurilla, T.J., Goldfried, M.R. (1971). Problem solving and behavior modification. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 78, 107126.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Delis, D., Kaplan, E., Kramer, J.H., Ober, B. (2000). California Verbal Learning Test–II. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
Delis, D.C., Kaplan, E., Kramer, J.H. (2001). Delis-Kaplan Executive Functioning System (D-KEFS). San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
Dennis, M., Barnes, M.A. (2010). The cognitive phenotype of spina bifida meningomyelocele. Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 16, 3139. doi:10.1002/ddrr.89CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dennis, M., Landry, S.H., Barnes, M., Fletcher, J.M. (2006). A model of neurocognitive function in spina bifida over the life span. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 12, 285296. doi:10.1017/S1355617706060371CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dumville, J.C., Hahn, S., Miles, J.N., Torgerson, D.J. (2006). The use of unequal randomisation ratios in clinical trials: A review. Contemporary Clinical Trials, 27, 112. doi:10.1016/j.cct.2005.08.003CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Duncan, J., Emslie, H., Williams, P., Johnson, R., Freer, C. (1996). Intelligence and the frontal lobe: The organization of goal-directed behavior. Cognitive Psychology, 30, 257303. doi:10.1006/cogp.1996.0008CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Evans, J. (2005). Can executive impairments be effectively treated? In P.W. Halligan & D.T. Wade (Eds.), The effectiveness of rehabilitation for cognitive deficits (pp. 247256). New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fish, J., Evans, J.J., Nimmo, M., Martin, E., Kersel, D., Bateman, A., Manly, T. (2007). Rehabilitation of executive dysfunction following brain injury: “Content-free” cueing improves everyday prospective memory performance. Neuropsychologia, 45, 13181330. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2006.09.015CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fletcher, J.M., Brookshire, B.L., Landry, S.H., Bohan, T.P., Davidson, K.C., Francis, D.J., Morris, R.D. (1996). Attentional skills and executive functions in children with early hydrocephalus. Developmental Neuropsychology, 12, 5376. doi:10.1080/87565649609540640CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fletcher, J.M., Copeland, K., Frederick, J.A., Blaser, S.E., Kramer, L.A., Northrup, H., Dennis, M. (2005). Spinal lesion level in spina bifida: A source of neural and cognitive heterogeneity. Journal of Neurosurgery, 102, 268279. doi:10.3171/ped.2005.102.3.0268Google ScholarPubMed
Gioia, G.A., Isquith, P.K., Guy, S.C., Kenworthy, L. (2000). Behavior rating inventory of executive function: Professional manual. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.Google Scholar
Gleichgerrcht, E., Torralva, T., Roca, M., Manes, F. (2010). Utility of an abbreviated version of the executive and social cognition battery in the detection of executive deficits in early behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia patients. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 16, 687694. doi:10.1017/S1355617710000482CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Grant, M., Ponsford, J., Bennett, P.C. (2012). The application of goal management training to aspects of financial management in individuals with traumatic brain injury. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 22, 852873. doi:10.1080/09602011.2012.693455CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Greene, C.M., Bellgrove, M.A., Gill, M., Robertson, I.H. (2009). Noradrenergic genotype predicts lapses in sustained attention. Neuropsychologia, 47, 591594. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2008.10.003CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hampton, L.E., Fletcher, J.M., Cirino, P.T., Blaser, S., Kramer, L.A., Drake, J., Dennis, M. (2011). Hydrocephalus status in spina bifida: An evaluation of variations in neuropsychological outcomes. Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics, 8, 289298. doi:10.3171/2011.6.PEDS10584CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jackson, J., Ely, E.W., Morey, M.C., Anderson, V.M., Siebert, C.S., Denne, L.B., Hoenig, H. (2011). Cognitive and physical rehabilitation of intensive care unit survivors: Results of the RETURN randomized controlled pilot investigation. Critical Care Medicine. doi:10.1097/CCM.0b013e3182373115Google Scholar
Kabat-Zinn, J. (1990). Full catastrophe living. New York: Dell Publishing.Google Scholar
Kelly, N.C., Ammerman, R.T., Rausch, J.R., Ris, M.D., Yeates, K.O., Oppenheimer, S.G., Enrile, B.G. (2011). Executive functioning and psychological adjustment in children and youth with spina bifida. Child Neuropsychology. doi:10.1080/09297049.2011.613814Google ScholarPubMed
Levaux, M.N., Laroi, F., Malmedier, M., Offerlin-Meyer, I., Danion, J.M., Van der Linden, M. (2012). Rehabilitation of executive functions in a real-life setting: Goal management training applied to a person with schizophrenia. Case Reports in Psychiatry, 2012, 503023. doi:10.1155/2012/503023CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Levine, B., Robertson, I.H., Clare, L., Carter, G., Hong, J., Wilson, B.A., Stuss, D.T. (2000). Rehabilitation of executive functioning: An experimental-clinical validation of goal management training. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 6, 299312.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Levine, B., Schweizer, T.A., O'Connor, C., Turner, G., Gillingham, S., Stuss, D.T., Robertson, I.H. (2011). Rehabilitation of executive functioning in patients with frontal lobe brain damage with goal management training. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 5, 9. doi:10.3389/fnhum.2011.00009CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Levine, B., Stuss, D.T., Winocur, G., Binns, M.A., Fahy, L., Mandic, M., Robertson, I.H. (2007). Cognitive rehabilitation in the elderly: Effects on strategic behavior in relation to goal management. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 13, 143152. doi:10.1017/S1355617707070178CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Levine, B., Turner, G.R., Stuss, D.T. (2008). Rehabilitation of frontal lobe functions. In D.T. Stuss, G. Winocur, & I.H. Robertson (Eds.), Cognitive neurorehabilitation, evidence and applications (pp. 464486). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Logan, G.D., Cowan, W.B., Davis, K.A. (1984). On the ability to inhibit simple and choice reaction time responses: A model and a method. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 10, 276291.Google ScholarPubMed
Mahone, E.M., Zabel, T.A., Levey, E., Verda, M., Kinsman, S. (2002). Parent and self-report ratings of executive function in adolescents with myelomeningocele and hydrocephalus. Child Neuropsychology, 8, 258270. doi:10.1076/chin.8.4.258.13510CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Manchester, D., Priestley, N., Jackson, H. (2004). The assessment of executive functions: Coming out of the office. Brain Injury, 18, 10671081. doi:10.1080/02699050410001672387CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Manly, T., Hawkins, K., Evans, J., Woldt, K., Robertson, I.H. (2002). Rehabilitation of executive function: Facilitation of effective goal management on complex tasks using periodic auditory alerts. Neuropsychologia, 40, 271281.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Manly, T., Robertson, I.H., Galloway, M., Hawkins, K. (1999). The absent mind: Further investigations of sustained attention to response. Neuropsychologia, 37, 661670.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McDonnell, G.V., McCann, J.P. (2000). Issues of medical management in adults with spina bifida. Child's Nervous System, 16, 222227.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McPherson, K.M., Kayes, N., Weatherall, M. (2009). A pilot study of self-regulation informed goal setting in people with traumatic brain injury. Clinical Rehabilitation, 23, 296309. doi:10.1177/0269215509102980CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Metzler-Baddeley, C., Jones, R.W. (2010). Brief communication: Cognitive rehabilitation of executive functioning in a case of craniopharyngioma. Applied Neuropsychology, 17, 299304. doi:10.1080/09084282.2010.523394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Miotto, E.C., Evans, J.J., de Lucia, M.C., Scaff, M. (2009). Rehabilitation of executive dysfunction: A controlled trial of an attention and problem solving treatment group. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 19, 517540. doi:10.1080/09602010802332108CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Miyake, A., Emerson, M.J., Friedman, N.P. (2000). Assessment of executive functions in clinical settings: Problems and recommendations. Seminars in Speech and Language, 21, 169183.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Miyake, A., Friedman, N.P., Emerson, M.J., Witzki, A.H., Howerter, A., Wager, T.D. (2000). The unity and diversity of executive functions and their contributions to complex “Frontal Lobe” tasks: A latent variable analysis. Cognitive Psychology, 41, 49100. doi:10.1006/cogp.1999.0734CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Neary, D., Snowden, J.S., Gustafson, L., Passant, U., Stuss, D., Black, S., Benson, D.F. (1998). Frontotemporal lobar degeneration: A consensus on clinical diagnostic criteria. Neurology, 51, 15461554.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Norman, D.A., Shallice, T. (1986). Attention to action: Willed and automatic control of behavior. In D. Shapiro & G.E. Schwartz (Eds.), Consciousness and self-regulation: Advances in research and theory. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
Novakovic-Agopian, T., Chen, A.J., Rome, S., Abrams, G., Castelli, H., Rossi, A., D'Esposito, M. (2011). Rehabilitation of executive functioning with training in attention regulation applied to individually defined goals: A pilot study bridging theory, assessment, and treatment. The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 26, 325338. doi:10.1097/HTR.0b013e3181f1ead2CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
O'Connell, R.G., Dockree, P.M., Bellgrove, M.A., Turin, A., Ward, S., Foxe, J.J., Robertson, I.H. (2009). Two types of action error: Electrophysiological evidence for separable inhibitory and sustained attention neural mechanisms producing error on go/no-go tasks. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 21, 93104. doi:10.1162/jocn.2009.21008CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
O'Connor, C., Robertson, I.H., Levine, B. (2011). The prosthetics of vigilant attention: Random cuing cuts processing demands. Neuropsychology, 25, 535543. doi:10.1037/a0022767CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Petersen, S.E., Posner, M.I. (2012). The attention system of the human brain: 20 years after. Annual Review of Neuroscience. doi:10.1146/annurev-neuro-062111-150525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rath, J.F., Simon, D., Langenbahn, D.M., Sherr, R.L., Diller, L. (2003). Group treatment of problem-solving deficits in outpatients with traumatic brain injury: A randomised outcome study. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 13, 461488. doi:10.1080/09602010343000039CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Raz, A., Buhle, J. (2006). Typologies of attentional networks. Nature Reviews. Neuroscience, 7, 367379. doi:10.1038/nrn1903CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Raz, N. (2009). Decline and compensation in aging brain and cognition: Promises and constraints. Preface. Neuropsychology Review, 19, 411414. doi:10.1007/s11065-009-9122-1CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Reason, J.T. (1990). Human error. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Recanzone, G.H., Schreiner, C.E., Merzenich, M.M. (1993). Plasticity in the frequency representation of primary auditory cortex following discrimination training in adult owl monkeys. The Journal of Neuroscience, 13, 87103.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Robertson, I.H. (1996). Goal management training: A clinical manual. Cambridge, UK: PsyConsult.Google Scholar
Robertson, I.H., Garavan, H. (2004). Vigilant attention. In M.S. Gazzaniga (Ed.), The cognitive neurosciences (pp. 631640). Cambridge MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
Robertson, I.H., Manly, T., Andrade, J., Baddeley, B.T., Yiend, J. (1997). ‘Oops!’: Performance correlates of everyday attentional failures in traumatic brain injured and normal subjects. Neuropsychologia, 35, 747758.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Robertson, I.H., Mattingley, J.B., Rorden, C., Driver, J. (1998). Phasic alerting of neglect patients overcomes their spatial deficit in visual awareness. Nature, 395, 169172. doi:10.1038/25993CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Robertson, I.H., Murre, J.M. (1999). Rehabilitation of brain damage: Brain plasticity and principles of guided recovery. Psychological Bulletin, 125, 544575.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Robertson, I.H., Tegner, R., Tham, K., Lo, A., Nimmo-Smith, I. (1995). Sustained attention training for unilateral neglect: Theoretical and rehabilitation implications. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 17, 416430. doi:10.1080/01688639508405133CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Roca, M., Parr, A., Thompson, R., Woolgar, A., Torralva, T., Antoun, N., Duncan, J. (2010). Executive function and fluid intelligence after frontal lobe lesions. Brain, 133, 234247. doi:10.1093/brain/awp269CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Roca, M., Torralva, T., Meli, F., Fiol, M., Calcagno, M., Carpintiero, S., Correale, J. (2008). Cognitive deficits in multiple sclerosis correlate with changes in fronto-subcortical tracts. Multiple Sclerosis, 14, 364369. doi:10.1177/1352458507084270CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rohling, M.L., Faust, M.E., Beverly, B., Demakis, G (2009). Effectiveness of cognitive rehabilitation following acquired brain injury: A meta-analytic re-examination of Cicerone et al.'s (2000, 2005) systematic reviews. Neuropsychology, 23, 2039. doi:10.1037/a0013659CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rose, B.M., Holmbeck, G.N. (2007). Attention and executive functions in adolescents with spina bifida. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 32, 983994. doi:10.1093/jpepsy/jsm042CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schulz, K.F., Altman, D.G., Moher, D. (2010). CONSORT 2010 statement: Updated guidelines for reporting parallel group randomised trials. British Medical Journal, 340, c332. doi:10.1136/bmj.c332CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schweizer, T.A., Levine, B., Rewilak, D., O'Connor, C., Turner, G., Alexander, M.P., Stuss, D.T. (2008). Rehabilitation of executive functioning after focal damage to the cerebellum. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, 22, 7277. doi:10.1177/1545968307305303CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shallice, T., Burgess, P.W. (1991). Deficits in strategy application following frontal lobe damage in man. Brain, 114, 727741.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Smith, A., Nutt, D. (1996). Noradrenaline and attention lapses. Nature, 380, 291. doi:10.1038/380291a0CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Spikman, J.M., Boelen, D.H., Lamberts, K.F., Brouwer, W.H., Fasotti, L. (2010). Effects of a multifaceted treatment program for executive dysfunction after acquired brain injury on indications of executive functioning in daily life. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 16, 118129. doi:10.1017/S1355617709991020CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stubberud, J., Riemer, G. (2012). Problematic psychosocial adaptation and executive dysfunction in women and men with myelomeningocele. Disability and Rehabilitation, 34, 740746. doi:10.3109/09638288.2011.619617CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stuss, D.T. (2011). Traumatic brain injury: Relation to executive dysfunction and the frontal lobes. Current Opinion in Neurology, 24, 584589. doi:10.1097/WCO.0b013e32834c7eb9CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stuss, D.T., Alexander, M.P. (2007). Is there a dysexecutive syndrome? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 362, 901915. doi:10.1098/rstb.2007.2096CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stuss, D.T., Levine, B. (2002). Adult clinical neuropsychology: Lessons from studies of the frontal lobes. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 401433. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.53.100901.135220CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stuss, D.T., Robertson, I.H., Craik, F.I., Levine, B., Alexander, M.P., Black, S., Winocur, G. (2007). Cognitive rehabilitation in the elderly: A randomized trial to evaluate a new protocol. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 13, 120131. doi:10.1017/S1355617707070154CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Torralva, T., Gleichgerrcht, E., Lischinsky, A., Roca, M., Manes, F. (2012). “Ecological” and highly demanding executive tasks detect real-life deficits in high-functioning adult ADHD patients. Journal of Attention Disorders. doi:10.1177/1087054710389988Google ScholarPubMed
Tuminello, E.R., Holmbeck, G.N., Olson, R. (2011). Executive functions in adolescents with spina bifida: Relations with autonomy development and parental intrusiveness. Child Neuropsychology. doi:10.1080/09297049.2011.590470Google ScholarPubMed
van Hooren, S.A., Valentijn, S.A., Bosma, H., Ponds, R.W., van Boxtel, M.P., Levine, B., Jolles, J. (2007). Effect of a structured course involving goal management training in older adults: A randomised controlled trial. Patient Education and Counseling, 65, 205213. doi:10.1016/j.pec.2006.07.010CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
von Cramon, D.Y., Matthes-von Cramon, G., Mai, N. (1991). Problem-solving deficits in brain-injured patients: A therapeutic approach. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 1, 4564. doi:10.1080/09602019108401379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wechsler, D. (1997). Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale III. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
Wechsler, D. (1999). Manual for the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
Wilson, B., Gracey, F., Evans, J.J., Bateman, A. (2009). Neuropsychological rehabilitation, theory, models, therapy and outcome. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wilson, B.A. (2008). Neuropsychological rehabilitation. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 4, 141162. doi:10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.4.022007.141212CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zald, D.H., Andreotti, C. (2010). Neuropsychological assessment of the orbital and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Neuropsychologia, 48, 33773391. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2010.08.012CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
32
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Goal Management Training of Executive Functions in Patients with Spina Bifida: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Goal Management Training of Executive Functions in Patients with Spina Bifida: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Goal Management Training of Executive Functions in Patients with Spina Bifida: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *