Alloway, T.P., & Alloway, R.G. (2010). Investigating the predictive roles of working memory and IQ in academic attainment. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 106, 20–29.
Alves, C.R., Tessaro, V.H., Teixeira, L.A., Murakava, K., Roschel, H., Gualano, B., & Takito, M.Y. (2014). Influence of acute high-intensity aerobic interval exercise bout on selective attention and short-term memory tasks. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 118, 63–72.
Basso, J.C., & Morrell, J.I. (2015). The medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens mediate the motivation for voluntary wheel running in the rat. Behavioral Neuroscience, 129, 457–472.
Benton, A.L., & Hamsher, K. (1989). Multilingual Aphasia Examination. Iowa City: AJA Associates.
Boecker, H., Hillman, C.H., Scheef, L., & Struder, H.K. (Eds) (2012). Functional neuroimaging in exercise and sport sciences. New York: Springer.
Brandt, J., & Benedict, R.H.B. (2001). Hopkins Verbal Learning Test—Revised. Professional manual. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.
Brickman, A.M., Stern, Y., & Small, S.A. (2011). Hippocampal subregions differentially associate with standardized memory tests. Hippocampus, 21, 923–928.
Brisswalter, J., Collardeau, M., & Rene, A. (2002). Effects of acute physical exercise characteristics on cognitive performance. Sports Medicine, 32, 555–566.
Centofani, C.C. (1975). Selected somatosensory and cognitive test performances as a function of age and education in normal and neurologically impaired adults. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan.
Chaddock, L., Erickson, K.I., Prakash, R.S., Kim, J.S., Voss, M.W., Vanpatter, M., & Kramer, A.F. (2010). A neuroimaging investigation of the association between aerobic fitness, hippocampal volume, and memory performance in preadolescent children. Brain Research, 1358, 172–183.
Chaddock, L., Erickson, K.I., Prakash, R.S., VanPatter, M., Voss, M.W., Pontifex, M.B., & Kramer, A.F. (2010). Basal ganglia volume is associated with aerobic fitness in preadolescent children. Developmental Neuroscience, 32, 249–256.
Chang, Y.K., Labban, J.D., Gapin, J.I., & Etnier, J.L. (2012). The effects of acute exercise on cognitive performance: A meta-analysis. Brain Research, 1453, 87–101.
Chaouloff, F. (1989). Physical exercise and brain monoamines: a review. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 137, 1–13.
Chen, H.I., Lin, L.C., Yu, L., Liu, Y.F., Kuo, Y.M., Huang, A.M., & Jen, C.J. (2008). Treadmill exercise enhances passive avoidance learning in rats: The role of down-regulated serotonin system in the limbic system. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 89, 489–496.
Colcombe, S.J., Erickson, K.I., Scalf, P.E., Kim, J.S., Prakash, R., McAuley, E., & Kramer, A.F. (2006). Aerobic exercise training increases brain volume in aging humans. The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 61, 1166–1170.
Coles, K., & Tomporowski, P.D. (2008). Effects of acute exercise on executive processing, short-term and long-term memory. Journal of Sports Sciences, 26, 333–344.
Creer, D.J., Romberg, C., Saksida, L.M., van Praag, H., & Bussey, T.J. (2010). Running enhances spatial pattern separation in mice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 107, 2367–2372.
Cutter, G.R., Baier, M.L., Rudick, R.A., Cookfair, D.L., Fischer, J.S., Petkau, J., & Willoughby, E. (1999). Development of a multiple sclerosis functional composite as a clinical trial outcome measure. Brain, 122(Pt 5), 871–882.
de Jonge, P., & de Jong, P.F. (1996). Working memory, intelligence and reading ability in children. Personality and Inidividual Differences, 21, 1007–1020.
Dery, N., Pilgrim, M., Gibala, M., Gillen, J., Wojtowicz, J.M., Macqueen, G., & Becker, S. (2013). Adult hippocampal neurogenesis reduces memory interference in humans: Opposing effects of aerobic exercise and depression. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 7, 66.
Diamond, A. (2013). Executive functions. Annual Review of Psychology, 64, 135–168.
Duncan, G.J., Dowsett, C.J., Claessens, A., Magnuson, K., Huston, A.C., Klebanov, P., & Japel, C. (2007). School readiness and later achievement. Developmental Psychology, 43, 1428–1446.
Ellemberg, D., & St-Louis-Deschenes, M. (2010). The effect of acute physical exercise on cognitive function during development. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 11, 122–126.
Emery, C.F., Honn, V.J., Frid, D.J., Lebowitz, K.R., & Diaz, P.T. (2001). Acute effects of exercise on cognition in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 164, 1624–1627.
Erickson, K.I., Voss, M.W., Prakash, R.S., Basak, C., Szabo, A., Chaddock, L., & Kramer, A.F. (2011). Exercise training increases size of hippocampus and improves memory. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108, 3017–3022.
Etnier, J.L., Salazar, W., Landers, D.M., Petruzzello, S.J., Han, M., & Nowell, P. (1997). The influence of physical fitness and exercise upon cognitive functioning: A meta-analysis. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 19, 249–277.
Falls, W.A., Fox, J.H., & MacAulay, C.M. (2010). Voluntary exercise improves both learning and consolidation of cued conditioned fear in C57 mice. Behavioural Brain Research, 207, 321–331.
Fordyce, D.E., & Farrar, R.P. (1991). Enhancement of spatial learning in F344 rats by physical activity and related learning-associated alterations in hippocampal and cortical cholinergic functioning. Behavioural Brain Research, 46, 123–133.
Gabbard, C., & Barton, J. (1979). Effects of physical activity on mathematical computation among young children. The Journal of Psychology, 103, 287–288.
Gathercole, S.E., Alloway, T.P., Willis, C., & Adams, A.M. (2006). Working memory in children with reading disabilities. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 93, 265–281.
Golden, C.J. (1975). A group version of the Stroop Color and Word Test. Journal of Personality Assessment, 39, 386–388.
Golden, C.J. (1978). Stroop color and word test. Illinois: Stoelting Company.
Greenwood, B.N., & Fleshner, M. (2011). Exercise, stress resistance, and central serotonergic systems. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 39, 140–149.
Guiney, H., & Machado, L. (2013). Benefits of regular aerobic exercise for executive functioning in healthy populations. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 20, 73–86.
Hall, P.A., & Fong, G.T. (2015). Temporal self-regulation theory: A neurobiologically informed model for physical activity behavior. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 9, 117.
Hillman, C.H., Kamijo, K., & Scudder, M. (2011). A review of chronic and acute physical activity participation on neuroelectric measures of brain health and cognition during childhood. Preventive Medicine, 52(Suppl 1), S21–S28.
Hofmann, W., Schmeichel, B.J., & Baddeley, A.D. (2012). Executive functions and self-regulation. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 16, 174–180.
Hopkins, M.E., Davis, F.C., Vantieghem, M.R., Whalen, P.J., & Bucci, D.J. (2012). Differential effects of acute and regular physical exercise on cognition and affect. Neuroscience, 215, 59–68.
Howie, E.K., Schatz, J., & Pate, R.R. (2015). Acute effects of classroom exercise breaks on executive function and math performance: A dose-response study. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 86, 217–224.
Hsu, N.S., Novick, J.M., & Jaeggi, S.M. (2014). The development and malleability of executive control abilities. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 8, 221.
Kronenberg, G., Bick-Sander, A., Bunk, E., Wolf, C., Ehninger, D., & Kempermann, G. (2006). Physical exercise prevents age-related decline in precursor cell activity in the mouse dentate gyrus. Neurobiology of Aging, 27, 1505–1513.
Lambourne, K., & Tomporowski, P. (2010). The effect of exercise-induced arousal on cognitive task performance: A meta-regression analysis. Brain Research, 1341, 12–24.
Lillard, A.S., & Peterson, J. (2011). The immediate impact of different types of television on young children’s executive function. Pediatrics, 128, 644–649.
Loprinzi, P.D., Herod, S.M., Cardinal, B.J., & Noakes, T.D. (2013). Physical activity and the brain: A review of this dynamic, bi-directional relationship. Brain Research, 1539, 95–104.
Loprinzi, P.D., & Kane, C.J. (2015). Exercise and cognitive function: A randomized controlled trial examining acute exercise and free-living physical activity and sedentary effects. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 90, 450–460.
McMorris, T.G., & Graydon, J. (2000). The effect of incremental exercise on cognitive performance. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 31, 66–81.
McNaughten, D., & Gabbard, C. (1993). Physical exertion and immediate mental performance of sixth-grade children. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 77, 1155–1159.
Meeusen, R. (2005). Exercise and the brain: Insight in new therapeutic modalities. Annals of transplantation, 10, 49–51.
Meeusen, R., Piacentini, M.F., & De Meirleir, K. (2001). Brain microdialysis in exercise research. Sports Medicine, 31, 965–983.
Mello, P.B., Benetti, F., Cammarota, M., & Izquierdo, I. (2009). Physical exercise can reverse the deficit in fear memory induced by maternal deprivation. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 92, 364–369.
Nanda, B., Balde, J., & Manjunatha, S. (2013). The acute effects of a single bout of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise on cognitive functions in healthy adult males. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, 7, 1883–1885.
Netz, Y., Tomer, R., Axelrad, S., Argov, E., & Inbar, O. (2007). The effect of a single aerobic training session on cognitive flexibility in late middle-aged adults. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 28, 82–87.
Novick, J.M., Trueswell, J.C., & Thompson-Schill, S.L. (2005). Cognitive control and parsing: Reexamining the role of Broca’s area in sentence comprehension. Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience, 5, 263–281.
O’Callaghan, R.M., Ohle, R., & Kelly, A.M. (2007). The effects of forced exercise on hippocampal plasticity in the rat: A comparison of LTP, spatial- and non-spatial learning. Behavioural Brain Research, 176, 362–366.
Passolunghi, M.C., & Siegel, L.S. (2001). Short-term memory, working memory, and inhibitory control in children with difficulties in arithmetic problem solving. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 80, 44–57.
Pennington, B.F., Moon, J., Edgin, J., Stedron, J., & Nadel, L. (2003). The neuropsychology of Down syndrome: Evidence for hippocampal dysfunction. Child Development, 74, 75–93.
Rasmussen, P., Brassard, P., Adser, H., Pedersen, M.V., Leick, L., Hart, E., & Pilegaard, H. (2009). Evidence for a release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor from the brain during exercise. Experimental Physiology, 94, 1062–1069.
Roig, M., Nordbrandt, S., Geertsen, S.S., & Nielsen, J.B. (2013). The effects of cardiovascular exercise on human memory: A review with meta-analysis. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 37, 1645–1666.
Ruff, R.M., Light, R.H., Parker, S.B., & Levin, H.S. (1996). Benton Controlled Oral Word Association Test: Reliability and updated norms. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 11, 329–338.
Shah, P., & Miyake, A. (1999). Toward unified theories of working memory: Emerging general consensus, unresolved theoretical issues, and future research directions. In A. Miyake, & P. Shah (Eds.), Models of working memory: Mechanisms of active maintenance and executive control (pp. 442–482). New York: Oxford University Press.
Smith, A. (1991). Symbol Digit Modalities Test. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services.
Tombaugh, T.N. (2004). Trail Making Test A and B: Normative data stratified by age and education. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 19, 203–214.
Tombaugh, T.N., Kozak, J., & Rees, L. (1999). Normative data stratified by age and education for two measures of verbal fluency: FAS and animal naming. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 14, 167–177.
Tomporowski, P.D. (2003). Effects of acute bouts of exercise on cognition. Acta Psychologica, 112, 297–324.
Tomporowski, P.D., & Ellis, N.M. (1986). Effects of exercise on cognitive processes: A review. Psychological Bulletin, 99, 338–346.
van Praag, H. (2008). Neurogenesis and exercise: Past and future directions. Neuromolecular Medicine, 10, 128–140.
Verstynen, T.D., Lynch, B., Miller, D.L., Voss, M.W., Prakash, R.S., Chaddock, L., & Erickson, K.I. (2012). Caudate Nucleus Volume Mediates the Link between Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Cognitive Flexibility in Older Adults. Journal of Aging Research, 2012, 939285.
Vivar, C., Potter, M.C., & van Praag, H. (2013). All about running: Synaptic plasticity, growth factors and adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences, 15, 189–210.
Voss, M.W., Vivar, C., Kramer, A.F., & van Praag, H. (2013). Bridging animal and human models of exercise-induced brain plasticity. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 17, 525–544.
Wang, C.C., Shih, C.H., Pesce, C., Song, T.F., Hung, T.M., & Chang, Y.K. (2015). Failure to identify an acute exercise effect on executive function assessed by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Journal of Sport and Health Sciecne, 4, 64–72.
Wechsler, D. (1981). WAIS-R manual: Wechsler adult intelligence scale-revised. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.
Wechsler, D. (2008). Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.
Yeudall, L.T., Reddon, J.R., Gill, D.M., & Stefanyk, W.O. (1987). Normative data for the Halstead-Reitan neuropsychological tests stratified by age and sex. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 43, 346–367.