Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function Adult Version in Patients with Neurological and Neuropsychiatric Conditions: Symptom Levels and Relationship to Emotional Distress

  • M. Løvstad (a1) (a2), S. Sigurdardottir (a1) (a3), S. Andersson (a2) (a4), V.A. Grane (a2) (a5), T. Moberget (a6) (a7), J. Stubberud (a1) and A.K. Solbakk (a2) (a5) (a8)...

Abstract

Objectives: The present study explored the level of self-and informant reported executive functioning in daily living using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A) in a large sample comprising healthy adults and patient cohorts with neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. The relationship to neuropsychological test performance and self-reported emotional distress was explored, as well as the applicability of U.S. normative data. Methods: Scores on the self- and informant reported BRIEF-A are presented, along with scores on standardized cognitive tests, and on rating scales of self-reported emotional distress in a Norwegian healthy comparison group (n=115), patients with severe traumatic brain injury (n=125), focal frontal lobe damage (n=29), focal cerebellar lesion (n=24), Parkinson’s disease (n=42), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (n=34), type II bipolar disorder (n=21), and borderline personality disorder (n=18). Results: Strong associations were observed between the BRIEF-A and emotional distress in both the healthy group and in neurological groups, while no or weak relationships with IQ and performance-based tests of executive function were seen. The relationship between BRIEF-A and emotional distress was weaker in the neuropsychiatric patient groups, despite high symptom load in both domains. Healthy participants tended to have BRIEF-A scores 1/2–3/4 SD below the U.S. normative mean of T score=50. Conclusions: The study demonstrates the need to interpret BRIEF-A results within a broad differential diagnostic context, where measures of psychological distress are included in addition to neuropsychological tests. Uncertainty about the appropriateness of U.S. normative data in non-U.S. countries adds to the need for interpretive caution. (JINS, 2016, 22, 682–694)

Copyright

Corresponding author

Correspondence and reprint requests to: Marianne Løvstad, Sunnaas Rehabilitation Hospital, Bjørnemyrvn. 11, 1450 Nesoddtangen, Norway. E-mail: marianne.lovstad@sunnaas.no

References

Hide All
Anderson, M.I., Parmenter, T.R., & Mok, M. (2002). The relationship between neurobehavioural problems of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), family functioning and the psychological well-being of the spouse/caregiver: Path model analysis. Brain Injury, 16(9), 743757. doi:10.1080/02699050210128906
Anderson, V.A., Anderson, P., Northam, E., Jacobs, R., & Mikiewicz, O. (2002). Relationships between cognitive and behavioral measures of executive function in children with brain disease. Child Neuropsychology, 8(4), 231240. doi:10.1076/chin.8.4.231.13509
Bøen, E., Hummelen, B., Elvsåshagen, T., Boye, B., Andersson, S., Karterud, S., &Malt, U.F. (2015). Different impulsivity profiles in borderline personality disorder and bipolar II disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders, 170, 104111. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2014.08.033
Bonelli, R.M., & Cummings, J.L. (2007). Frontal-subcortical circuitry and behavior. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 9(2), 141151.
Burgess, P.W., Alderman, N., Forbes, C., Costello, A., Coates, L.M., Dawson, D.R., & Channon, S. (2006). The case for the development and use of “ecologically valid” measures of executive function in experimental and clinical neuropsychology. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 12(2), 194209. doi:10.1017/S1355617706060310
Carpenter, W.T., Bustillo, J.R., Thaker, G.K., van Os, J., Krueger, R.F., & Green, M.J. (2009). The psychoses: Cluster 3 of the proposed meta-structure for DSM-V and ICD-11. Psychological Medicine, 39(12), 20252042. doi:S0033291709990286
Chaytor, N., & Schmitter-Edgecombe, M. (2003). The ecological validity of neuropsychological tests: A review of the literature on everyday cognitive skills. Neuropsychology Review, 13(4), 181197. doi:10.1023/B:NERV.0000009483.91468.fb
Cohen, J. (1992). A power primer. Psychological Bulletin, 112(1), 155159.
Delis, D., Kaplan, E., & Kramer, J.H. (2001). Examiner’s manual of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Functioning System. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.
Derogatis, L.R. (1994). Symptom Checklist-90-R: Administrative scoring and procedures manual (3rd ed.), Minneapolis, MN: National Computer Systems Inc.
Donders, J., Oh, Y.I., & Gable, J. (2015). Self- and informant ratings of executive functioning after mild traumatic brain injury. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 30(6), E30E39. doi:10.1097/HTR.0000000000000120
Donders, J., & Strong, C.A. (2016). Latent structure of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult version (BRIEF–A) after mild traumatic brain injury. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 31, 2936. doi:10.1093/arclin/acv048
Finnanger, T.G., Olsen, A., Skandsen, T., Lydersen, S., Vik, A., Evensen, K.A., & Indredavik, M.S. (2015). Life after adolescent and adult moderate and severe traumatic brain injury: Self-reported executive, emotional, and behavioural function 2-5 years after injury. Behavioural Neurology, 2015, 329241. doi:10.1155/2015/329241
Garcia-Molina, A., Tormos, J.M., Bernabeu, M., Junque, C., & Roig-Rovira, T. (2012). Do traditional executive measures tell us anything about daily-life functioning after traumatic brain injury in Spanish-speaking individuals? Brain Injury, 26(6), 864874. doi:10.3109/02699052.2012.655362
Garlinghouse, M.A., Roth, R.M., Isquith, P.K., Flashman, L.A., & Saykin, A.J. (2010). Subjective rating of working memory is associated with frontal lobe volume in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 120(1–3), 7175. doi:S0920-9964(10)01162-X
Gioia, G.A., Espy, K.A., & Isquith, P.K. (2002). Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Preschool version (BRIEF-P). Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
Gioia, G.A., & Isquith, P.K. (2004). Ecological assessment of executive function in traumatic brain injury. Developmental Neuropsychology, 25(1–2), 135158. doi:10.1207/s15326942dn2501&2_8
Gioia, G.A., Isquith, P.K., Guy, S.C., & Kenworthy, L. (2000). Behavior rating inventory of executive function. Child Neuropsychology, 6(3), 235238. doi:10.1076/chin.6.3.235.3152
Gioia, G.A., Isquith, P.K., Kenworthy, L., & Barton, R.M. (2002). Profiles of everyday executive function in acquired and developmental disorders. Child Neuropsychology, 8(2), 121137. doi:10.1076/chin.8.2.121.8727
Gioia, G.A., Kenworthy, L., & Isquith, P.K. (2010). Executive function in the real world: BRIEF lessons from Mark Ylvisaker. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 25(6), 433439. doi:10.1097/HTR.0b013e3181fbc272
Goldberg, D.P., Andrews, G., & Hobbs, M.J. (2009). Where should bipolar disorder appear in the meta-structure? Psychological Medicine, 39(12), 20712081. doi:S0033291709990304
Grane, V.A., Endestad, T., Pinto, A.F., & Solbakk, A.K. (2014). Attentional control and subjective executive function in treatment-naive adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. PloS One, 9(12), e115227. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0115227
Hadjiefthyvoulou, F., Fisk, J.E., Montgomery, C., & Bridges, N. (2012). Self-reports of executive dysfunction in current ecstasy/polydrug users. Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology, 25(3), 128138. doi:10.1097/WNN.0b013e318261459c
Hanssen, K.T., Beiske, A.G., Landro, N.I., & Hessen, E. (2014). Predictors of executive complaints and executive deficits in multiple sclerosis. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 129(4), 234242. doi:10.1111/ane.12177
Hervey, A.S., Epstein, J.N., & Curry, J.F. (2004). Neuropsychology of adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A meta-analytic review. Neuropsychology, 18(3), 485503. doi:10.1037/0894-4105.18.3.485
Hovik, K.T., Egeland, J., Isquith, P.K., Gioia, G., Skogli, E.W., Andersen, P.N., & Oie, M. (2014). Distinct patterns of everyday executive function problems distinguish children with Tourette syndrome from children with ADHD or autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Attention Disorders ([Epub ahead of print]. doi:10.1177/1087054714550336
Isquith, P.K., Roth, R.M., Kenworthy, L., & Gioia, G. (2014). Contribution of rating scales to intervention for executive dysfunction. Applied Neuropsychology: Child, 3(3), 197204. doi:10.1080/21622965.2013.870014
Knight, R.T., & Stuss, D. (2002). Prefrontal cortex: The present and the future. In D. Stuss & R.T. Knight (Eds.), Principles of frontal lobe function (pp. 573597). New York: Oxford University Press.
Koenigs, M., & Tranel, D. (2006). Pseudopsychopathy: A perspective from cognitive neuroscience. In D.H. Zald & S.L. Rauch (Eds.), The orbitofrontal cortex (pp. 597619). New York: Oxford University Press.
Levine, B., Katz, D., Dade, L., & Black, S.E. (2002). Novel approaches to the assessment of frontal damage and executive deficits in traumatic brain injury. In D. Stuss & R.T. Knight (Eds.), Principles of frontal lobe function (pp. 448465). New York: Oxford University Press.
Lieb, K., Zanarini, M.C., Schmahl, C., Linehan, M.M., & Bohus, M. (2004). Borderline personality disorder. Lancet, 364(9432), 453461. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(04)16770-6
Løvstad, M., Funderud, I., Endestad, T., Due-Tonnessen, P., Meling, T.R., Lindgren, M., & Solbakk, A.K. (2012). Executive functions after orbital or lateral prefrontal lesions: Neuropsychological profiles and self-reported executive functions in everyday living. Brain Injury, 26(13-14), 15861598. doi:10.3109/02699052.2012.698787
Løvstad, M., Funderud, I., Lindgren, M., Endestad, T., Due-Tonnessen, P., Meling, T., & Solbakk, A.K. (2012). Contribution of subregions of human frontal cortex to novelty processing. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 24(2), 378395. doi:10.1162/jocn_a_00099
MacAllister, W.S., Bender, H.A., Whitman, L., Welsh, A., Keller, S., Granader, Y., & Sherman, E.M. (2012). Assessment of executive functioning in childhood epilepsy: The Tower of London and BRIEF. Child Neuropsychology, 18(4), 404415. doi:10.1080/09297049.2011.613812
Malloy, P., & Grace, J. (2005). A review of rating scales for measuring behavior change due to frontal systems damage. Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology, 18(1), 1827. doi:00146965-200503000-00003
Mangeot, S., Armstrong, K., Colvin, A.N., Yeates, K.O., & Taylor, H.G. (2002). Long-term executive function deficits in children with traumatic brain injuries: Assessment using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). Child Neuropsychology, 8(4), 271284.
Marchetta, N.D., Hurks, P.P., Krabbendam, L., & Jolles, J. (2008). Interference control, working memory, concept shifting, and verbal fluency in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Neuropsychology, 22(1), 7484. doi:10.1037/0894-4105.22.1.74
Matheson, L. (2010). Executive dysfunction, severity of traumatic brain injury, and IQ in workers with disabilities. Work, 36(4), 413422. doi:1586230120601826
McAuley, T., Chen, S., Goos, L., Schachar, R., & Crosbie, J. (2010). Is the behavior rating inventory of executive function more strongly associated with measures of impairment or executive function? Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 16(3), 495505. doi:S1355617710000093
Miranda, A., Mercader, J., Fernandez, M.I., & Colomer, C. (2013). Reading performance of young adults with ADHD diagnosed in childhood: Relations with executive functioning. Journal of Attention Disorders ([Epub ahead of print]. doi:10.1177/1087054713507977
Moberget, T., Andersson, S., Lundar, T., Due-Tonnessen, B., Heldal, A., Endestad, T., & Westlye, L.T. (2015). Long-term supratentorial brain structure and cognitive function following cerebellar tumour resections in childhood. Neuropsychologia, 69, 218231. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2015.02.007
Narayanan, N.S., Rodnitzky, R.L., & Uc, E.Y. (2013). Prefrontal dopamine signaling and cognitive symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. Reviews in the Neurosciences, 24(3), 267278. doi:10.1515/revneuro-2013-0004
Niendam, T.A., Horwitz, J., Bearden, C.E., & Cannon, T.D. (2007). Ecological assessment of executive dysfunction in the psychosis prodrome: A pilot study. Schizophrenia Research, 93(1–3), 350354. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2007.03.009
Nigg, J.T., Stavro, G., Ettenhofer, M., Hambrick, D.Z., Miller, T., & Henderson, J.M. (2005). Executive functions and ADHD in adults: Evidence for selective effects on ADHD symptom domains. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 114(4), 706717. doi:10.1037/0021-843X.114.3.706
Pham, U., Solbakk, A.K., Skogseid, I.M., Toft, M., Pripp, A.H., Konglund, A.E., & Malt, U.F. (2015). Personality changes after deep brain stimulation in Parkinson’s disease. Parkinsons Disease, 2015, 490507. doi:10.1155/2015/490507
Ponsford, J.L., Downing, M.G., Olver, J., Ponsford, M., Acher, R., Carty, M., & Spitz, G. (2014). Longitudinal follow-up of patients with traumatic brain injury: Outcome at two, five, and ten years post-injury. Journal of Neurotrauma, 31(1), 6477. doi:10.1089/neu.2013.2997
Rabin, L.A., Roth, R.M., Isquith, P.K., Wishart, H.A., Nutter-Upham, K.E., Pare, N., & Saykin, A.J. (2006). Self- and informant reports of executive function on the BRIEF-A in MCI and older adults with cognitive complaints. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 21(7), 721732. doi:S0887-6177(06)00107-7
Reid, R.C., McKittrick, H.L., Davtian, M., & Fong, T.W. (2012). Self-reported differences on measures of executive function in a patient sample of pathological gamblers. International Journal of Neuroscience, 122(9), 500505. doi:10.3109/00207454.2012.673516
Røe, C., Skandsen, T., Anke, A., Ader, T., Vik, A., Lund, S.B., & Andelic, N. (2013). Severe traumatic brain injury in Norway: Impact of age on outcome. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 45(8), 734740. doi:10.2340/16501977-1198
Roth, R.M., Isquith, P.K., & Gioia, G.A. (2005). Behavioral rating inventory of executive function-adult version. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.
Roth, R.M., Lance, C.E., Isquith, P.K., Fischer, A.S., & Giancola, P.R. (2013). Confirmatory factor analysis of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult version in healthy adults and application to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 28(5), 425434. doi:10.1093/arclin/act031
Royall, D.R., Lauterbach, E.C., Cummings, J.L., Reeve, A., Rummans, T.A., Kaufer, D.I., & Coffey, C.E. (2002). Executive control function: A review of its promise and challenges for clinical research. A report from the Committee on Research of the American Neuropsychiatric Association. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 14(4), 377405.
Sigurdardottir, S., Andelic, N., Wehling, E., Roe, C., Anke, A., Skandsen, T., & Schanke, A.K. (2015). Neuropsychological functioning in a national cohort of severe traumatic brain injury: Demographic and acute injury-related predictors. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 30(2), E1E12. doi:10.1097/HTR.0000000000000039
Sølsnes, A.E., Skranes, J., Brubakk, A.M., & Lohaugen, G.C. (2014). Executive functions in very-low-birth-weight young adults: A comparison between self-report and neuropsychological test results. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 20(5), 506515. doi:10.1017/S1355617714000332
Tamnes, C.K., Zeller, B., Amlien, I.K., Kanellopoulos, A., Andersson, S., Due-Tonnessen, P., & Fjell, A.M. (2015). Cortical surface area and thickness in adult survivors of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Pediatric Blood & Cancer, 62(6), 10271034. doi:10.1002/pbc.25386
Teunisse, J.P., Roelofs, R.L., Verhoeven, E.W., Cuppen, L., Mol, J., & Berger, H.J. (2012). Flexibility in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD): Inconsistency between neuropsychological tests and parent-based rating scales. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 34(7), 714723. doi:10.1080/13803395.2012.670209
Toplak, M.E., West, R.F., & Stanovich, K.E. (2013). Practitioner review: Do performance-based measures and ratings of executive function assess the same construct? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 54(2), 131143. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12001
Vriezen, E.R., & Pigott, S.E. (2002). The relationship between parental report on the BRIEF and performance-based measures of executive function in children with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury. Child Neuropsychology, 8(4), 296303. doi:10.1076/chin.8.4.296.13505
Waid-Ebbs, J.K., Wen, P.S., Heaton, S.C., Donovan, N.J., & Velozo, C. (2012). The item level psychometrics of the behaviour rating inventory of executive function-adult (BRIEF-A) in a TBI sample. Brain Injury, 26(13–14), 16461657. doi:10.3109/02699052.2012.700087
Wechsler, D. (1997). Wechsler Adult Inteligence Scale-third edition. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.
Wechsler, D. (1999). Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Inteligence. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.
Woods, S.P., Lovejoy, D.W., & Ball, J.D. (2002). Neuropsychological characteristics of adults with ADHD: A comprehensive review of initial studies. Clinical Neuropsychologist, 16(1), 1234. doi:10.1076/clin.16.1.12.8336
Zald, D.H. (2002). Neuropsychological assessment of the orbitofrontal cortex. In D.H. Zald & S. Rauch (Eds.), The orbitofrontal cortex (pp. 449479). New York: Oxford University Press.
Zald, D.H., & Andreotti, C. (2010). Neuropsychological assessment of the orbital and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Neuropsychologia, 48(12), 33773391. doi:S0028-3932(10)00366-0
Zigmond, A.S., & Snaith, R.P. (1983). The hospital anxiety and depression scale. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 67(6), 361370.

Keywords

Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary materials

Løvstad supplementary material S1
Supplementary Table

 Word (114 KB)
114 KB
WORD
Supplementary materials

Løvstad supplementary material S2
Supplementary Table

 Word (95 KB)
95 KB

Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function Adult Version in Patients with Neurological and Neuropsychiatric Conditions: Symptom Levels and Relationship to Emotional Distress

  • M. Løvstad (a1) (a2), S. Sigurdardottir (a1) (a3), S. Andersson (a2) (a4), V.A. Grane (a2) (a5), T. Moberget (a6) (a7), J. Stubberud (a1) and A.K. Solbakk (a2) (a5) (a8)...

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed