Skip to main content
×
Home

Differences in attention, executive functioning, and memory in children with and without ADHD after severe traumatic brain injury

  • BETH S. SLOMINE (a1) (a2), CYNTHIA F. SALORIO (a3) (a4), MARCO A. GRADOS (a2), ROMA A. VASA (a2) (a5), JAMES R. CHRISTENSEN (a3) (a4) (a6) and AND JOAN P. GERRING (a2) (a5)...
Abstract

Although the development of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) after traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been described, it is unknown whether children with TBI and ADHD have greater neuropsychological impairments than children with TBI alone. This study examines attention, executive functioning, and memory in children with TBI-only and TBI + ADHD. Caregivers of 82 children with severe TBI completed structured psychiatric interviews at enrollment to diagnose premorbid ADHD and one-year after injury to diagnose post-injury ADHD. Children underwent neuropsychological testing one year after injury. One memory measure significantly differentiated children with TBI-only from children with newly developed ADHD [secondary ADHD (S-ADHD)] and those with premorbid ADHD that persisted after injury [persisting ADHD (P-ADHD)]. Compared with the TBI-only group, children with TBI + ADHD had worse performance on measures of attention, executive functioning, and memory. Results reveal that in children with severe TBI, the behavioral diagnosis of ADHD is associated with more difficulty in attention, executive functioning, and memory. Additionally, results suggest greater deficits in memory skills in the S-ADHD group compared with the P-ADHD group. Although findings provide preliminary support for distinguishing P-ADHD from S-ADHD, further research is needed to investigate neuropsychological differences between these subgroups of children with severe TBI. (JINS, 2005, 11, 645–653.)

Copyright
Corresponding author
Reprint requests to: Beth S. Slomine, Ph.D., ABPP, Department of Neuropsychology, Kennedy Krieger Institute, 707 North Broadway, Baltimore, MD 21205. E-mail: Slomine@Kennedykrieger.org
References
Hide All

REFERENCES

American Psychiatric Association (1987). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd ed., revised) Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Auerbach, S.H. (1986). Neuroanatomical correlates of attention and memory disorders in traumatic brain injury: An application of neurobehavioral subtypes. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 1, 112.
Barkley, R.A. (1997). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, self-regulation, and time: Toward a more comprehensive theory. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 18, 271279.
Benton, A.L., Hamsher, K., & Silvan, A.B. (1983). Multilingual Aphasia Examination (3rd ed.). Iowa City: AJA Associates.
Brown, G., Chadwick, O., Shaffer, D., Rutter, M., & Traub, M. (1981). A prospective study of children with head injuries, III: Psychiatric sequelae. Psychological Medicine, 11, 6378.
Cahn, D.A. & Marcotte, A.C. (1995). Rates of forgetting in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Child Neuropsychology, 1, 158163.
Delis, D.C., Kramer, J.H., Kaplan, E., & Ober, B.A. (1994). California Verbal Learning Test–Children's Version. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.
Dennis, M., Wilkinson, M., Koski, L., & Humphreys, R.P. (1995). Attention deficits in the long term after childhood head injury. In S.H. Broman & M.E. Michel (Ed.), Traumatic Head Injury in Children. New York: Oxford University Press.
Durston, S. (2003). A review of the biological bases of ADHD: What have we learned from imaging studies? Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 9, 184195.
Gerring, J.P., Brady, K.D., Chen, A., Vasa, R., Grados, M., Bandeen-Roche, K.J., Bryan, R.N., & Denckla, M.B. (1998). Premorbid prevalence of ADHD and development of secondary ADHD after closed head injury. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 37, 647654.
Gerring, J., Brady, K., Chen, A., Quinn, C., Herskovits, E., Bandeen-Roche, K., Denckla, M.B., & Bryan, R.N. (2000). Neuroimaging variables related to development of Secondary Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder after closed head injury in children and adolescents. Brain Injury, 14, 205218.
Grant, D.A. & Berg, E.A. (1948). A behavioral analysis of degree of reinforcement and ease of shifting to new response in a Weigl type card sorting problem. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 38, 404411.
Grodzinsky, G.M. & Barkley, R.A. (1999). Predictive power of frontal lobe tests in the diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Clinical Neuropsychologist, 13, 1221.
Heaton, R.K., Chelune, G.L., Talley, J.L., Kay, G.G., & Curtiss, G. (1993). Wisconsin Card Sorting Test Manual–Revised and Expanded. Odessa: Psychological Assessment Resources.
Hollingshead, A. (1975). Four factor index of social status. Unpublished manuscript, Yale University, New Haven, CT.
Kaplan, B.J., Dewey, D., Crawford, S.G., & Fisher, G.C. (1998). Deficits in long-term memory are not characteristic of ADHD. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 20, 518528.
Kaufmann, P.M., Fletcher, J.M., Levin, H.S., Miner, M.E., & Ewing-Cobbs, L. (1993). Attention disturbance after closed head injury. Journal of Child Neurology, 8, 348353.
Leark, R.A., Dupuy, T.R., Greenberg, L.M., Corman, C.L., & Kindschi, C.L. ( 19881996). T.O.V.A. Test of Variables of Attention. Professional Manual Version 7.0. Los Alamitos, CA: Lawrence M. Greenberg.
Levin, H.S., Culhane, K.A., Hartmann, J., Evankovich, K., Mattson, A.J., Haward, H., Ringholz, G., Ewings-Cobbs, L., & Fletcher, J.M. (1991). Developmental changes in performance on tests of purported frontal lobe functioning. Developmental Neuropsychology, 7, 377395.
Levin, H.S., Culhane, K.A., Mendelsohn, D., Lilly, M.A., Bruce, D., Flethcher, J.M., Chapman, S.B., Harward, H., & Eisenberg, H.M. (1993). Cognition in relation to magnetic resonance imaging in head-injured children and adolescents. Archives of Neurology, 50, 897905.
Levin, H.S., Ewing-Cobbs, L., & Eisenberg, H.M. (1995). Neurobehavioral outcome of pediatric closed head injury. In S.H. Broman & M.E. Michel (Ed.), Traumatic Head Injury in Children. New York: Oxford University Press.
Massagli, T.L., Michaud, L.J., & Rivara, F.P. (1996). Association between injury indices and outcome after severe traumatic brain injury in children. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 77, 125132.
Max, J.E., Arndt, S., Castillo, C.S., Bokura, H., Robin, D., Lindgren, S.D., Smith, W.L., Sato, Y., & Philip, M. (1998). Attention-deficit hyperactivity symptomatology after traumatic brain injury: A perspective study. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 37, 841847.
Max, J.E., Lansing, A.E., Koele, S.L., Castillo, C.S., Bokura, H., Schachar, R., Collings, N., & Williams, K.E. (2004). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents following traumatic brain injury. Developmental Neuropsychology, 25, 159177.
Roncadin, C., Guger, S., Archibald, J., Barns, M., & Dennis, M. (2004). Working memory after mild, moderate, or severe childhood closed head injury. Developmental Neuropsychology, 25, 2136.
Schachar, R., Levin, H.S., Max, J.E., Purvis, K., & Chen, S. (2004). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms and response inhibition after closed head injury in children: Do preinjury behavior and injury severity predict outcome? Developmental Neuropsychology, 25, 179198.
Slomine, B.S., Gerring, J.P., Grados, M.A., Vasa, R., Brady, K.D., Christensen, J.R., and Denckla, M.B. (2002). Performance on measures of ‘executive function’ following pediatric traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury, 16, 759772.
Teasdale, G. & Jennett, B. (1974). Assessment of coma and impaired consciousness. A practical scale. Lancet, 2, 8184.
Van Zomeren, A.H., Brouwer, W.H., & Deelman, B.G. (1984). Attention deficits: The riddles of selectivity, speed and alertness. In N. Brooks (Ed.), Closed Head Injury: Psychological, Social, and Family Consequences. New York: Oxford University Press.
Wassenberg, R., Max, J.E., Lindgren, S.D., & Schatz, A. (2004). Sustained attention in children and adolescents after traumatic brain injury: Relation to severity of injury, adaptive functioning, ADHD and social background. Brain Injury, 18, 751764.
Wechsler, D. (1991). Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (3rd ed.). San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.
Welner, Z., Reich, W., Herjanic, B., Jung, B., & Amado, H. (1987). Reliability, validity, and parent-child agreement studies of the Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents (DICA). Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 26, 649653.
Welsh, M.C., Pennington, B.F., & Groisser, D.B. (1991). A normative-developmental study of executive functioning: A window on prefrontal functioning in children. Developmental Neuropsychology, 7, 131149.
Yeates, K.O., Blumenstein, E., Patterson, C.M., & Delis, D.C. (1995). Verbal learning and memory following pediatric closed-head injury. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 1, 7887.
Zafonte, R.D., Hammond, F.M., & Mann, N.R. (1996). Relationship between Glasgow Coma Scale and functional outcome. American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 75, 364369.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society
  • ISSN: 1355-6177
  • EISSN: 1469-7661
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-the-international-neuropsychological-society
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 8
Total number of PDF views: 81 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 308 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 18th November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.