Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Executive functioning in preschool children born very preterm: Relationship with early white matter pathology

  • JAMIE O. EDGIN (a1) (a2), TERRIE E. INDER (a3) (a4), PETER J. ANDERSON (a5), KELLY M. HOOD (a1), CARON A.C. CLARK (a1) and LIANNE J. WOODWARD (a1)...
Abstract

Despite evidence for executive dysfunction in school-aged preterm children, less is known about the early development of these difficulties or their underlying neuropathology. This study used prospective longitudinal data from a regional cohort of 88 very preterm and 98 full-term comparison children to examine the executive functioning (EF) of preschool children born very preterm. The relationship between the severity of neonatal cerebral white matter (WM) abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at term equivalent and children's EF at ages two and four years (corrected age) was examined. At age four, very preterm children with WM abnormalities performed less well than full-term children on the Detour Reaching Box, a measure of behavioral inhibition and cognitive flexibility, even after controlling for child IQ, SES, and medical background. Examination of patterns of EF performance between the ages of 2 and 4 years showed that the performance of all groups improved with age. However, very preterm children with mild and moderate-severe WM abnormalities were characterized by higher rates of consistent performance impairments. These findings support the presence of early and persistent executive difficulties in preschool children born very preterm, and highlight the importance of white matter pathology in the development of executive impairments. (JINS, 2008, 14, 90–101.)

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Executive functioning in preschool children born very preterm: Relationship with early white matter pathology
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Executive functioning in preschool children born very preterm: Relationship with early white matter pathology
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Executive functioning in preschool children born very preterm: Relationship with early white matter pathology
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
Correspondence and reprint requests to: Jamie Edgin, University of Arizona, Department of Psychology, 1503 E. University Blvd., Building 68, Tucson, AZ 85721. E-mail: jedgin@email.arizona.edu
References
Hide All

REFERENCES

Anderson, P.J., Doyle, L.W., & The Victorian Infant Collaborative Study Group (2004). Executive functioning in school-aged children who were born very preterm or with extremely low birth weight in the 1990s. Pediatrics, 114, 5057.
Anderson, P.J., Doyle, L.W., & The Victorian Infant Collaborative Study Group (2003). Neurobehavioural outcomes of school-age children who were born very preterm or with extremely low birth weight in the 1990s. Journal of the American Medical Association, 289, 32643272.
Assel, M.A., Landry, S.H., Swank, P., Smith, K.E., & Steelman, L.M. (2003). Precursors to mathematical skills: Examining the roles of visual-spatial skills, executive processes, and parenting factors. Applied Developmental Science, 7, 2738.
Bayless, S. & Stevenson, J. (2007). Executive functions in school-age children born very prematurely. Early Human Development, 83, 247254.
Bhutta, A.T., Cleves, M.A., Casey, P.H., Cradock, M.M., & Anand, K.J.S. (2002). Cognitive and behavioral outcomes of school aged children who were born preterm. Journal of the American Medical Association, 288, 728737.
Bohm, B., Kats-Salamon, M., Smedler, C., Lagercrants, H., & Forssberg, H. (2002). Developmental risks and protective factors for influencing cognitive outcome at 5 1/2 years of age in very low birthweight children. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 44, 508516.
Caravale, B., Tozzi, C., Albino, B., & Vicari, S (2005). Cognitive development in low risk preterm infants at 3–4 years of life. Archives of disease in childhood, 90, 474479.
Carlson, S.M. (2005). Developmentally sensitive measures of executive function in preschool children. Developmental Neuropsychology, 28, 595616.
Counsell, S.J., Allsop, J.M., Harrison, M.C., Larkman, D.J., Kennea, N.L., Kapellou, O., Cowan, F.M., Hajnal, J.V., Edwards, A.D., & Rutherford, M.A. (2003). Diffusion-weighted imaging of the brain in preterm infants with focal and diffuse white matter abnormality. Pediatrics, 112, 17.
Curtis, W.J., Lindeke, L.L., Georgieff, M.K., & Nelson, C.A. (2002). Neurobehavioural functioning in neonatal intensive care unit graduates in late childhood and early adolescence. Brain, 125, 16461659.
Diamond, A. (1990). The development and neural bases of memory functions as indexed by the AB and delayed response tasks in human infants and infant monkeys. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 608, 267317.
Elley, W.B. & Irving, J.C. (2003). Revised socio-economic index for New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Educational Studies, 38, 317.
Espy, K.A., Kaufmann, P.M., McDiarmid, M.D., & Glisky, M.L. (1999). Executive functioning in preschool children: Performance on A-not-B and other delayed response format tasks. Brain and Cognition, 41, 178199.
Espy, K.A., Kaufmann, P.M., & Glisky, M.L. (2001). New procedures to assess executive functions in preschool children. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 15, 4658.
Espy, K.A., Stalets, M.M., McDiarmid, M.M., Senn, T.E., Cwik, M.F., & Hamby, A. (2002). Executive functions in preschool children born preterm: Application of cognitive neuroscience paradigms. Child Neuropsychology, 8, 8392.
Horwood, L.J., Mogridge, N., & Darlow, B.A. (1998). Cognitive, educational and behavioural outcomes at 7 to 8 years in a national very low birthweight cohort. Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal Neonatal Edition, 79, F12F20.
Hughes, C., Dunn, J., & White, A. (1998). Trick or treat? Uneven understanding of mind and emotion and executive dysfunction in “hard-to-manage” preschoolers. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 39, 981994.
Hughes, C. & Russell, J. (1993). Autistic children's difficulty with mental disengagement from an object: Its implications for theories of autism. Developmental Psychology, 29, 498510.
Huppi, P.S., Murphy, B., Maier, S.E., Zientara, G.P., Inder, T.E., Barnes, P.D., Kikinis, R., Jolesz, F.A., & Volpe, J.J. (2001). Microstructural brain development after perinatal cerebral white matter injury assessed by diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging. Pediatrics, 107, 445460.
Inder, T.E., Huppi, P.S., Warfield, S., Kikinis, R., Zientara, G.P., Barnes, P.D., Jolesz, F., & Volpe, J.J. (1999). Periventricular white matter injury in the premature infant is followed by reduced cerebral cortical gray matter volume at term. Annals of Neurology, 46, 755760.
Inder, T.E., Warfield, S.K., Wang, H., Huppi, P.S., & Volpe, J.J. (2005). Abnormal cerebral structure is present at term in premature infants. Pediatrics, 115, 286294.
Inder, T.E., Wells, S.J., Mogridge, N.B., Spencer, C., & Volpe, J.J. (2003). Defining the nature of the cerebral abnormalities in the premature infant: A qualitative magnetic resonance imaging study. Journal of Pediatrics, 143, 171179.
LoBello, S.G. (1991). A short form of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised. Journal of School Psychology, 29, 229236.
Luciana, M. (2003). Cognitive development in children born preterm: Implications for theories of brain plasticity following early injury. Development and Psychopathology, 15, 10171047.
Luciana, M., Lindeke, L., Georgieff, M., Mills, M., & Nelson, C.A. (1999). Neurobehavioral evidence for working memory deficits in school aged children with histories of prematurity. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 41, 521533.
Matthews, A., Ellis, A.E., & Nelson, C.A. (1996). Development of preterm and full-term infant ability on AB, recall memory, transparent barrier detour, and means-end tasks. Child Development, 67, 26582676.
Ment, L.R., Vohr, B., Katz, A., Scheider, K.C., Westerveld, M., Duncan, C.C., & Makuch, R.W. (2003). Change in cognitive function over time in very low-birth-weight infants. Journal of the American Medical Association, 289, 705711.
Partridge, S.C., Mukherjee, P., Henry, R.G., Miller, S.P., Berman, J.I., Jin, H., Lu, Y., Glenn, O.A., Barkovich, A.J., & Vigneron, D.B. (2004). Diffusion tensor imaging: Serial quantification of white matter tract maturity in premature newborns. Neuroimage, 22, 13021314.
Perlman, J.M. (1998). White matter injury in the preterm infant: An important determination of abnormal neurodevelopment outcome. Early Human Development, 53, 99120.
Rickards, A.L., Kitchen, W.H., Doyle, L.W., & Kelly, E.A. (1989). Correction of developmental and intelligence test scores for premature birth. Australian Journal of Paediatrics, 25, 12729.
Ross, G., Boatright, S., Auld, P.A., & Nass, R. (1996). Specific cognitive abilities in 2-year old children with subependymal and mild intraventricular hemorrhage. Brain and Cognition, 32, 113.
Ross, G., Tesman, J., Auld, P.A.M., & Nass, R. (1992). Effects of subependymal and mild intraventricular lesions on visual attention and memory in premature infants. Developmental Psychology, 28, 10671074.
Rushe, T.M., Rifkin, L., Stewart, A.L., Townsend, J.P., Roth, S.C., Wyatt, J.S., & Murray, R.M. (2001). Neuropsychological outcome at adolescence of very preterm birth and its relation to brain structure. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 43, 226233.
Taylor, H.G., Klein, N., Drotar, D., Schluchter, M., & Hack, M. (2006). Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 27, 459470.
Taylor, H.G., Minich, N., Bangert, B., Filipek, P.A., & Hack, M. (2004). Long-term neuropsychological outcomes of very low birth weight: Associations with early risks for periventricular brain insults. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 10, 9871004.
Taylor, H.G., Minich, N., Klein, N., & Hack, M. (2004). Longitudinal outcomes of very low birth weight: Neuropsychological findings. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 10, 149163.
Valkama, A.M., Paakko, E.L.E., Vainionpaa, L.K., Lanning, F.P., Ilkko, E.A., & Koivisto, M.E. (2000). Magnetic resonance imaging at term and neuromotor outcome in preterm infants. Acta Paediatrica, 89, 348355.
Vicari, S., Caravale, B., Carlesimo, G.A., Casadei, A.M., & Allemand, F. (2004). Spatial working memory deficits in children at ages 3–4 who were low birth weight, preterm infants. Neuropsychology, 18, 673678.
Wechsler, D. (1989). WPPSI-R Manual. New York: Psychological Corporation.
Welsh, M.C. & Pennington, B.F. (1988). Assessing frontal lobe functioning in children: Views from developmental psychology. Developmental Neuropsychology, 4, 199230.
Woodward, L.J., Anderson, P.J., Austin, N.C., Howard, K., & Inder, T.E. (2006). Neonatal MRI to predict neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm infants. New England Journal of Medicine, 355, 685694.
Woodward, L.J., Edgin, J.O., Thompson, D., & Inder, T.E. (2005). Object working memory deficits predicted by early brain injury and development in the preterm infant. Brain, 128 (Pt 11), 25782587.
Woodward, L.J., Mogridge, N., Wells, S.W., & Inder, T.E. (2004). Can neurobehavioural examination predict the presence of cerebral injury in the very low birth weight infant? Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 25, 326334.
Zeger, S.L. & Liang, K. (1992). An overview of methods for the analysis of longitudinal data. Statistical Medicine, 11, 18251839.
Zeger, S.L. & Liang, K. (1986). Longitudinal data analysis for discrete and continuous outcomes. Biometrics, 42, 121130.
Zelazo, P.D., Reznick, J.S., & Spinazzola, J. (1998). Representational flexibility and response control in a multistep multilocation search task. Developmental Psychology, 34, 203214.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society
  • ISSN: 1355-6177
  • EISSN: 1469-7661
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-the-international-neuropsychological-society
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed