Skip to main content

HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders: A Global Perspective

  • Rowan Saloner (a1) (a2) and Lucette A. Cysique (a3) (a4) (a5)

The present review on HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) provides a worldwide overview of studies that have investigated the rate and neuropsychological (NP) profile of HAND research since the inception of the 2007 HAND diagnostic nomenclature. In the first part, the review highlights some of the current controversies around HAND prevalence rates. In the second part, the review critically assesses some solutions to move the field forward. In the third part, we present the cross-sectional NP profile in non-Western HIV+ cohorts and in relation to Western cohorts’ findings. The adopted global perspective highlights the successful expansion of NP studies in HIV infection to culturally diverse low- to medium-income countries with high HIV burden. These studies have produced interestingly similar rates of HAND whether patients were naïve or treated and/or virally suppressed compared to the rich income countries where the NP research in NeuroHIV has originated. The perspective also demonstrates that globally, the group which is the most representative of the HIV epidemic, and thus at risk for HAND are persons with chronic HIV infection and survivors of past immunosuppression, while in relative terms, those who have been treated early with long-term viral suppression represent a minority. In the last part, we present a review of the naturalistic longitudinal NP global studies in HIV+cohorts, discuss the role of longitudinal design in solving issues around the question of asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment, and the question of biomarker discovery. Finally, we conclude by calling for greater methods and data harmonization at a global level. (JINS, 2017, 23, 860–869)

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders: A Global Perspective
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders: A Global Perspective
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders: A Global Perspective
      Available formats
This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (, which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Corresponding author
Correspondence and reprint requests to: Lucette A. Cysique, Neuroscience Research Australia, 139 Barker Street Randwick, NSW. Ph: +61 2 9399 1880. E-mail:
Hide All
Agelink van Rentergem, J.A., Murre, J.M., & Huizenga, H.M. (2017). Multivariate normative comparisons using an aggregated database. PLoS One, 12(3), e0173218.
Akolo, C., Royal, W. III, Cherner, M., Okwuasaba, K., Eyzaguirre, L., Adebiyi, R., & Blattner, W.A. (2014). Neurocognitive impairment associated with predominantly early stage HIV infection in Abuja, Nigeria. Journal of Neurovirology, 20(4), 380387.
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. Washington, DC: APA.
Antinori, A., Arendt, G., Becker, J.T., Brew, B.J., Byrd, D.A., Cherner, M., & Wojna, V.E. (2007). Updated research nosology for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Neurology, 69, 17891799. doi: 10.1212/01.WNL.0000287431.88658.8b
Blackstone, K., Moore, D.J., Franklin, D.R., Clifford, D.B., Collier, A.C., Marra, C.M., & Heaton, R.K. (2012). Defining neurocognitive impairment in HIV: Deficit scores versus clinical ratings. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 26(6), 894908.
Blackstone, K., Moore, D.J., Heaton, R.K., Franklin, D.R. Jr., Woods, S.P., Clifford, D.B., & Grant, I. (2012). Diagnosing symptomatic HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders: Self-report versus performance-based assessment of everyday functioning. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 18(1), 7988.
Bloch, M., Kamminga, J., Jayewardene, A., Bailey, M., Carberry, A., Vincent, T., & Cysique, L.A. (2016). A screening strategy for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders that accurately identifies patients requiring neurological review. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 63(5), 687693.
Brandt, C., Zvolensky, M.J., Woods, S.P., Gonzalez, A., Safren, S.A., & O’Cleirigh, C.M. (2017). Anxiety symptoms and disorders among adults living with HIV and AIDS: A critical review and integrative synthesis of the empirical literature. Clinical Psychology Review, 51, 164184.
Brew, B.J. (2004). Evidence for a change in AIDS dementia complex in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy and the possibility of new forms of AIDS dementia complex. Aids, 18(Suppl. 1), S75S78.
Brew, B.J., & Cysique, L. (2017). Does HIV prematurely age the brain? Lancet HIV, 4(9), e380e381.
Brouillette, M.J., Yuen, T., Fellows, L.K., Cysique, L.A., Heaton, R.K., & Mayo, N.E. (2016). Identifying neurocognitive decline at 36 months among HIV-positive participants in the CHARTER cohort using group-based trajectory analysis. PLoS One, 11(5), e0155766.
Buch, S., Chivero, E.T., Hoare, J., Jumare, J., Nakasujja, N., Mudenda, V., & Joseph, J. (2016). Proceedings from the NIMH symposium on “NeuroAIDS in Africa: Neurological and neuropsychiatric complications of HIV”. Journal of Neurovirology, 22(5), 699702.
Carey, C.L., Woods, S.P., Gonzalez, R., Conover, E., Marcotte, T.D., Grant, I., & Heaton, R.K. (2004). Predictive validity of global deficit scores in detecting neuropsychological impairment in HIV infection. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 26, 307319. doi: 10.1080/13803390490510031
Carter, S.L., Rourke, S.B., Murji, S., Shore, D., & Rourke, B.P. (2003). Cognitive complaints, depression, medical symptoms, and their association with neuropsychological functioning in HIV infection: A structural equation model analysis. Neuropsychology, 17(3), 410419.
Cherner, M., Cysique, L., Heaton, R. K., Marcotte, T. D., Ellis, R. J., Masliah, E., & Grant, I. (2007). Neuropathologic confirmation of definitional criteria for human immunodeficiency virus-associated neurocognitive disorders. Journal of Neurovirology, 13, 2328. doi: 10.1080/13550280601089175
Cherner, M., Masliah, E., Ellis, R. J., Marcotte, T. D., Moore, D. J., Grant, I., & Heaton, R.K. (2002). Neurocognitive dysfunction predicts postmortem findings of HIV encephalitis. Neurology, 59(10), 15631567.
Chiao, S., Rosen, H.J., Nicolas, K., Wendelken, L.A., Alcantar, O., Rankin, K.P., & Valcour, V. (2013). Deficits in self-awareness impact the diagnosis of asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment in HIV. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 29(6), 949956.
Clifford, D.B., Mitike, M.T., Mekonnen, Y., Zhang, J., Zenebe, G., Melaku, Z., & Evans, S. (2007). Neurological evaluation of untreated human immunodeficiency virus infected adults in Ethiopia. Journal of Neurovirology, 13(1), 6772.
Cole, M.A., Castellon, S.A., Perkins, A.C., Ureno, O.S., Robinet, M.B., Reinhard, M.J., & Hinkin, C.H. (2007). Relationship between psychiatric status and frontal-subcortical systems in HIV-infected individuals. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 13(3), 549554.
Cole, M.A., Margolick, J.B., Cox, C., Li, X., Selnes, O.A., Martin, E.M., & Miller, E.N. (2007). Longitudinally preserved psychomotor performance in long-term asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals. Neurology, 69(24), 22132220.
Crawford, J.R., & Allan, K.M. (1994). The Mahalanobis Distance index of WAIS-R subtest scatter: Psychometric properties in a healthy UK sample. The British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 33(Pt 1), 6569.
Crum-Cianflone, N.F., Moore, D.J., Letendre, S., Poehlman Roediger, M., Eberly, L., Weintrob, A., & Hale, B.R. (2013). Low prevalence of neurocognitive impairment in early diagnosed and managed HIV-infected persons. Neurology, 80(4), 371379.
Cysique, L.A., & Becker, J.T. (2017). HIV-related cognitive impairment and decline can be detected in virally suppressed women above and beyond the effects of confounds. Neurology. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000004503.
Cysique, L.A., & Brew, B.J. (2009). Neuropsychological functioning and antiretroviral treatment in HIV/AIDS: A review. Neuropsychology Review, 19, 169185. doi: 10.1007/s11065-009-9092-3
Cysique, L.A., & Brew, B.J. (in press). Comorbid depression and apathy in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder in the era of chronic HIV infection. In V.I. Reus & D. Lindqvist (Eds.), The Psychopharmacology of HIV-related dementia and HAND. Amsterdam: Elsevier/Academic Press.
Cysique, L.A., Dermody, N., Carr, A., Brew, B.J., & Teesson, M. (2016). The role of depression chronicity and recurrence on neurocognitive dysfunctions in HIV-infected adults. Journal of Neurovirology, 22(1), 5665.
Cysique, L.A., Deutsch, R., Atkinson, J.H., Young, C., Marcotte, T.D., Dawson, L., & Heaton, R.K. (2007). Incident major depression does not affect neuropsychological functioning in HIV-infected men. Journal of International Neuropsychological Society, 13, 111. doi: 10.1017/S1355617707070026
Cysique, L.A., Heaton, R.K., Kamminga, J., Lane, T., Gates, T.M., Moore, D.M., & Brew, B.J. (2014). HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder in Australia: A case of a high-functioning and optimally treated cohort and implications for international neuroHIV research. Journal of Neurovirology, 20(3), 258268.
Cysique, L.A., Letendre, S.L., Ake, C., Jin, H., Franklin, D.R., Gupta, S., & Heaton, R.K. (2010). Incidence and nature of cognitive decline over 1 year among HIV-infected former plasma donors in China. Aids, 24(7), 983990.
Cysique, L.A., Maruff, P., & Brew, B.J. (2004). Prevalence and pattern of neuropsychological impairment in human immunodeficiency virus-infected/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) patients across pre- and post-highly active antiretroviral therapy eras: A combined study of two cohorts. Journal of Neurovirology, 10, 350357. doi: 10.1080/13550280490521078
Cysique, L.A., Maruff, P., & Brew, B.J. (2006). Variable benefit in neuropsychological function in HIV-infected HAART-treated patients. Neurology, 66, 14471450. doi: 10.1212/01.wnl.0000210477.63851.d3
Cysique, L.A., Maruff, P., Darby, D., & Brew, B.J. (2006). The assessment of cognitive function in advanced HIV-1 infection and AIDS dementia complex using a new computerised cognitive test battery. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 21, 185194. doi: 10.1016/j.acn.2005.07.011
De Francesco, D., Underwood, J., Post, F.A., Vera, J.H., Williams, I., Boffito, M., & Sabin, C.A. (2016). Defining cognitive impairment in people-living-with-HIV: The POPPY study. BMC Infectious Diseases, 16(1), 617.
Ene, L., Franklin, D.R., Burlacu, R., Luca, A.E., Blaglosov, A.G., Ellis, R.J., & Marcotte, T.D. (2014). Neurocognitive functioning in a Romanian cohort of young adults with parenterally-acquired HIV-infection during childhood. Journal of Neurovirology, 20(5), 496504.
Fellows, R.P., Byrd, D.A., Elliott, K., Robinson-Papp, J., Mindt, M.R., & Morgello, S. (2012). Distal sensory polyneuropathy is associated with neuropsychological test performance among persons with HIV. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 18(5), 898907. doi: 10.1017/S1355617712000707
Fellows, R.P., Byrd, D.A., Morgello, S., & Manhattan HIV Brain Bank. (2013). Major depressive disorder, cognitive symptoms, and neuropsychological performance among ethnically diverse HIV+ men and women. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 19(2), 216225. doi: 10.1017/S1355617712001245
Gates, T.M., & Cysique, L.A. (2016). The chronicity of HIV infection should drive the research strategy of neuroHIV treatment studies: A critical review. CNS Drugs, 30(1), 5369.
Ghate, M., Mehendale, S., Meyer, R., Umlauf, A., Deutsch, R., Kamat, R., & Marcotte, T.D. (2015). The effects of antiretroviral treatment initiation on cognition in HIV-infected individuals with advanced disease in Pune, India. Journal of Neurovirology, 21(4), 391398.
Gisslen, M., Price, R.W., & Nilsson, S. (2011). The definition of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders: Are we overestimating the real prevalence? BMC Infectious Diseases, 11(356), 356.
Goodkin, K., Miller, E.N., Cox, C., Reynolds, S., Becker, J.T., Martin, E., & Sacktor, N.C. (2017). Effect of ageing on neurocognitive function by stage of HIV infection: Evidence from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. Lancet HIV, 4(9), e411e422.
Gott, C., Gates, T., Dermody, N., Brew, B.J., & Cysique, L.A. (2017). Cognitive change trajectories in virally suppressed HIV-infected individuals indicate high prevalence of disease activity. PLoS One, 12(3), e0171887.
Grant, I., Atkinson, J.H., Hesselink, J.R., Kennedy, C.J., Richman, D.D., Spector, S.A., & McCutchan, J.A. (1987). Evidence for early central nervous system involvement in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and other human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. Studies with neuropsychologic testing and magnetic resonance imaging. Annals of Internal Medicine, 107, 828836.
Grant, I., Franklin, D.R. Jr., Deutsch, R., Woods, S.P., Vaida, F., Ellis, R.J., & Heaton, R.K. (2014). Asymptomatic HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment increases risk for symptomatic decline. Neurology, 82(23), 20552062.
Guaraldi, G., Orlando, G., Zona, S., Menozzi, M., Carli, F., Garlassi, E., & Palella, F. (2011). Premature age-related comorbidities among HIV-infected persons compared with the general population. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 53(11), 11201126.
Gupta, J.D., Satishchandra, P., Gopukumar, K., Wilkie, F., Waldrop-Valverde, D., Ellis, R., & Kumar, M. (2007). Neuropsychological deficits in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 clade C-seropositive adults from South India. Journal of Neurovirology, 13(3), 195202.
Gupta, S., Iudicello, J.E., Shi, C., Letendre, S., Knight, A., Li, J., & Heaton, R.K. (2014). Absence of neurocognitive impairment in a large Chinese sample of HCV-infected injection drug users receiving methadone treatment. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 137, 2935.
Gupta, S., Vaida, F., Riggs, K., Jin, H., Grant, I., Cysique, L., & Heaton, R.K. (2011). Neuropsychological performance in mainland china: The effect of urban/rural residence and self-reported daily academic skill use. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 17, 163173. doi: 10.1017/S1355617710001384
Habib, A.G., Yakasai, A.M., Owolabi, L.F., Ibrahim, A., Habib, Z.G., Gudaji, M., & Nashabaru, I. (2013). Neurocognitive impairment in HIV-1-infected adults in Sub-Saharan Africa: A systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 17(10), e820e831.
Heaton, R.K., Clifford, D.B., Franklin, D.R. Jr., Woods, S.P., Ake, C., Vaida, F., & Grant, I. (2010). HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders persist in the era of potent antiretroviral therapy: CHARTER Study. Neurology, 75, 20872096. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0b013e318200d727
Heaton, R.K., Cysique, L.A., Jin, H., Shi, C., Yu, X., Letendre, S., & Wu, Z. (2008). Neurobehavioral effects of human immunodeficiency virus infection among former plasma donors in rural China. Journal of Neurovirology, 14, 536549. doi: 10.1080/13550280802378880
Heaton, R.K., Cysique, L.A., Jin, H., Shi, C., Yu, X., Letendre, S., & Wu, Z. (2010). Neurobehavioral effects of human immunodeficiency virus infection among former plasma donors in rural China. Journal of Neurovirology, 16(2), 185188.
Heaton, R.K., Franklin, D.R., Ellis, R.J., McCutchan, J.A., Letendre, S.L., Leblanc, S., & Grant, I. (2011). HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders before and during the era of combination antiretroviral therapy: Differences in rates, nature, and predictors. Journal of Neurovirology, 17, 316. doi: 10.1007/s13365-010-0006-1
Heaton, R.K., Franklin, D.R. Jr., Deutsch, R., Letendre, S., Ellis, R.J., Casaletto, K., & Grant, I. (2015). Neurocognitive change in the era of HIV combination antiretroviral therapy: The longitudinal CHARTER study. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 60(3), 473480.
Helmick, K.M., Spells, C.A., Malik, S.Z., Davies, C.A., Marion, D.W., & Hinds, S.R. (2015). Traumatic brain injury in the US military: Epidemiology and key clinical and research programs. Brain Imaging and Behavior, 9(3), 358366.
Huizenga, H.M., Agelink van Rentergem, J.A., Grasman, R.P., Muslimovic, D., & Schmand, B. (2016). Normative comparisons for large neuropsychological test batteries: User-friendly and sensitive solutions to minimize familywise false positives. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 38(6), 611629.
Ingraham, L.J., & Aiken, C.B. (1996). An empirical approach to determining criteria for abnormality in test batteries with multiple measures. Neuropsychology, 10(1), 120124. doi: 10.1037/0894-4105.10.1.120
Joseph, J., Achim, C.L., Boivin, M.J., Brew, B.J., Clifford, D.B., Colosi, D.A., & Wood, C. (2013). Global NeuroAIDS roundtable. Journal of Neurovirology, 19(1), 19.
Joska, J.A., Westgarth-Taylor, J., Hoare, J., Thomas, K.G., Paul, R., Myer, L., & Stein, D.J. (2012). Neuropsychological outcomes in adults commencing highly active anti-retroviral treatment in South Africa: A prospective study. BMC Infectious Diseases, 12(39), 39.
Joska, J.A., Westgarth-Taylor, J., Myer, L., Hoare, J., Thomas, K.G., Combrinck, M., & Flisher, A.J. (2011). Characterization of HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders among individuals starting antiretroviral therapy in South Africa. AIDS and Behavior, 15(6), 11971203.
Kabuba, N., Anitha Menon, J., Franklin, D.R. Jr., Heaton, R.K., & Hestad, K.A. (2017). Use of Western Neuropsychological Test Battery in Detecting HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND) in Zambia. AIDS and Behavior, 21, 17171727.
Kamminga, J., Bloch, M., Vincent, T., Carberry, A., Brew, B.J., & Cysique, L.A. (2017). Determining optimal impairment rating methodology for a new HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder screening procedure. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 4, 115.
Kanmogne, G.D., Kuate, C.T., Cysique, L.A., Fonsah, J.Y., Eta, S., Doh, R., & Njamnshi, A.K. (2010). HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in sub-Saharan Africa: A pilot study in Cameroon. BMC Neurology, 10, 60. doi: 10.1186/1471-2377-10-60
Kelly, C.M., van Oosterhout, J.J., Ngwalo, C., Stewart, R.C., Benjamin, L., Robertson, K.R., & Solomon, T. (2014). HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in Malawian adults and effect on adherence to combination anti-retroviral therapy: A cross sectional study. PLoS One, 9(6), e98962.
Ku, N.S., Lee, Y., Ahn, J.Y., Song, J.E., Kim, M.H., Kim, S.B., & Choi, J.Y. (2014). HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder in HIV-infected Koreans: The Korean NeuroAIDS Project. HIV Medicine, 15(8), 470477.
Lawler, K., Jeremiah, K., Mosepele, M., Ratcliffe, S.J., Cherry, C., Seloilwe, E., & Steenhoff, A.P. (2011). Neurobehavioral effects in HIV-positive individuals receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in Gaborone, Botswana. PLoS One, 6(2), e17233.
Maki, P.M., Rubin, L.H., Valcour, V., Martin, E., Crystal, H., Young, M., & Anastos, K. (2015). Cognitive function in women with HIV: Findings from the Women’s Interagency HIV Study. Neurology, 84(3), 231240.
Masliah, E., Heaton, R. K., Marcotte, T. D., Ellis, R. J., Wiley, C. A., Mallory, M., & Grant, I. (1997). Dendritic injury is a pathological substrate for human immunodeficiency virus-related cognitive disorders. HNRC Group. The HIV Neurobehavioral Research Center. Annals of Neurology, 42(6), 963972.
McArthur, J.C. (2004). HIV dementia: An evolving disease. Journal of Neuroimmunology, 157, 310. doi: 10.1016/j.jneuroim.2004.08.042
McCombe, J.A., Vivithanaporn, P., Gill, M.J., & Power, C. (2013). Predictors of symptomatic HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in universal health care. HIV Medicine, 14(2), 99107.
McDonnell, J., Haddow, L., Daskalopoulou, M., Lampe, F., Speakman, A., Gilson, R., & Rodger, A. (2014). Minimal cognitive impairment in UK HIV-positive men who have sex with men: Effect of case definitions and comparison with the general population and HIV-negative men. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (1999), 67(2), 120127. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000000273
Moore, D. J., Masliah, E., Rippeth, J. D., Gonzalez, R., Carey, C. L., Cherner, M., & Grant, I. (2006). Cortical and subcortical neurodegeneration is associated with HIV neurocognitive impairment. Aids, 20(6), 879887.
Munoz-Moreno, J.A., Perez-Alvarez, N., Munoz-Murillo, A., Prats, A., Garolera, M., Jurado, M.A., & Clotet, B. (2014). Classification models for neurocognitive impairment in HIV infection based on demographic and clinical variables. PLoS One, 9(9), e107625.
Nightingale, S., Winston, A., Letendre, S., Michael, B.D., McArthur, J.C., Khoo, S., & Solomon, T. (2014). Controversies in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Lancet Neurology, 13(11), 11391151.
Pumpradit, W., Ananworanich, J., Lolak, S., Shikuma, C., Paul, R., Siangphoe, U., & Valcour, V. (2010). Neurocognitive impairment and psychiatric comorbidity in well-controlled human immunodeficiency virus-infected Thais from the 2NN Cohort Study. Journal of Neurovirology, 16(1), 7682.
Rabinowitz, A.R., Li, X., McCauley, S.R., Wilde, E.A., Barnes, A., Hanten, G., & Levin, H.S. (2015). Prevalence and Predictors of poor recovery from mild traumatic brain injury. Journal of Neurotrauma, 32(19), 14881496.
Robertson, K., Bayon, C., Molina, J.M., McNamara, P., Resch, C., Munoz-Moreno, J.A., & van Wyk, J. (2014). Screening for neurocognitive impairment, depression, and anxiety in HIV-infected patients in Western Europe and Canada. AIDS Care, 26(12), 15551561.
Robertson, K., Jiang, H., Kumwenda, J., Supparatpinyo, K., Evans, S., Campbell, T.B., & Nair, A. (2012). Improved neuropsychological and neurological functioning across three antiretroviral regimens in diverse resource-limited settings: AIDS Clinical Trials Group study a5199, the International Neurological Study. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 55(6), 868876.
Robertson, K., Kumwenda, J., Supparatpinyo, K., Jiang, J.H., Evans, S., Campbell, T.B., & Brouwers, P. (2011). A multinational study of neurological performance in antiretroviral therapy-naive HIV-1-infected persons in diverse resource-constrained settings. Journal of Neurovirology, 17(5), 438447.
Robertson, K., Liner, J., & Heaton, R. (2009). Neuropsychological assessment of HIV-infected populations in international settings. Neuropsychology Review, 19(2), 232249.
Robertson, K.R., Nakasujja, N., Wong, M., Musisi, S., Katabira, E., Parsons, T.D., & Sacktor, N. (2007). Pattern of neuropsychological performance among HIV positive patients in Uganda. BMC Neurology, 7(8), 8.
Robertson, K.R., Smurzynski, M., Parsons, T.D., Wu, K., Bosch, R.J., Wu, J., & Ellis, R.J. (2007). The prevalence and incidence of neurocognitive impairment in the HAART era. Aids, 21, 19151921. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e32828e4e27
Royal, W. III, Cherner, M., Burdo, T.H., Umlauf, A., Letendre, S.L., Jumare, J., & Blattner, W.A. (2016). Associations between cognition, gender and monocyte activation among HIV infected individuals in Nigeria. PLoS One, 11(2), e0147182.
Rubin, L.H., Maki, P.M., Springer, G., Benning, L., Anastos, K., Gustafson, D., & Valcour, V.G. (2017). Cognitive trajectories over four years among HIV-infected women with optimal viral suppression. Neurology. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000004491
Rubin, L.H., Pyra, M., Cook, J.A., Weber, K.M., Cohen, M.H., Martin, E., & Maki, P.M. (2016). Post-traumatic stress is associated with verbal learning, memory, and psychomotor speed in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women. Journal of Neurovirology, 22(2), 159169.
Sacktor, N., Nakasujja, N., Okonkwo, O., Skolasky, R.L., Robertson, K., Musisi, S., & Katabira, E. (2013). Longitudinal neuropsychological test performance among HIV seropositive individuals in Uganda. Journal of Neurovirology, 19(1), 4856.
Sacktor, N., Skolasky, R.L., Seaberg, E., Munro, C., Becker, J.T., Martin, E., & Miller, E. (2016). Prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. Neurology, 86(4), 334340.
Seider, T.R., Luo, X., Gongvatana, A., Devlin, K.N., de la Monte, S.M., Chasman, J.D., & Cohen, R.A. (2014). Verbal Memory Declines More Rapidly with Age in HIV Infected versus Uninfected Adults. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 36(4), 356367. doi: 10.1080/13803395.2014.892061
Sheppard, D.P., Woods, S.P., Bondi, M.W., Gilbert, P.E., Massman, P.J., Doyle, K.L., & HIV Neurobehavioral Research Program Group. (2015). Does older age confer an increased risk of incident neurocognitive disorders among persons living with HIV disease? The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 29(5), 656677. doi: 10.1080/13854046.2015.1077995
Sheppard, D.P., Woods, S.P., & Verduzco, M. (2017). Construct validity of the UCSD performance-based skills assessment-brief version (UPSA-B) in HIV disease. Applied Neuropsychology. Adult, 25, 112.
Simioni, S., Cavassini, M., Annoni, J.M., Rimbault Abraham, A., Bourquin, I., Schiffer, V., & Du Pasquier, R.A. (2010). Cognitive dysfunction in HIV patients despite long-standing suppression of viremia. Aids, 24, 12431250. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e3283354a7b
Su, T., Schouten, J., Geurtsen, G.J., Wit, F.W., Stolte, I.G., Prins, M., & Schmand, B.A. (2015). Multivariate normative comparison, a novel method for more reliably detecting cognitive impairment in HIV infection. Aids, 29(5), 547557.
Taylor, M.J., & Heaton, R.K. (2001). Sensitivity and specificity of WAIS-III/WMS-III demographically corrected factor scores in neuropsychological assessment. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 7(7), 867874.
Thames, A.D., Becker, B.W., Marcotte, T.D., Hines, L.J., Foley, J.M., Ramezani, A., & Hinkin, C.H. (2011). Depression, cognition, and self-appraisal of functional abilities in HIV: An examination of subjective appraisal versus objective performance. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 25(2), 224243.
The ACT UP/New York Women and AIDS Book Group. (1990). Women, AIDS & Activism. Boston, MA: South End Press.
Tierney, S.M., Sheppard, D.P., Kordovski, V.M., Faytell, M.P., Avci, G., & Woods, S.P. (2017). A comparison of the sensitivity, stability, and reliability of three diagnostic schemes for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Journal of Neurovirology, 23(3), 404421.
Tozzi, V., Balestra, P., Lorenzini, P., Bellagamba, R., Galgani, S., Corpolongo, A., & Narciso, P. (2005). Prevalence and risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus-associated neurocognitive impairment, 1996 to 2002: Results from an urban observational cohort. Journal of Neurovirology, 11(3), 265273.
Underwood, J., Leech, R., Winston, A., Sabin, C., & De Francesco, D. (2017). Medicalising normality? Using a simulated dataset to assess the performance of different diagnostic criteria of cognitive impairment. HIV Medicine, 18, British HIV Association Conference, Poster 83.
Valcour, V.G., Shiramizu, B.T., Sithinamsuwan, P., Nidhinandana, S., Ratto-Kim, S., Ananworanich, J., & Shikuma, C.M. (2009). HIV DNA and cognition in a Thai longitudinal HAART initiation cohort: The SEARCH 001 Cohort Study. Neurology, 72(11), 992998.
Vassallo, M., Fabre, R., Durant, J., Lebrun-Frenay, C., Joly, H., Ticchioni, M., & Pradier, C. (2017). A decreasing CD4/CD8 ratio over time and lower CSF-penetrating antiretroviral regimens are associated with a higher risk of neurocognitive deterioration, independently of viral replication. Journal of Neurovirology, 23, 216225.
Watkins, C.C., & Treisman, G.J. (2012). Neuropsychiatric complications of aging with HIV. Journal of Neurovirology, 18(4), 277290.
Woods, S.P., Iudicello, J.E., Morgan, E.E., Verduzco, M., Smith, T.V., & Cushman, C. (2017). Household everyday functioning in the internet age: Online shopping and banking skills are affected in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 23(7), 605615.
Wright, E., Brew, B., Arayawichanont, A., Robertson, K., Samintharapanya, K., Kongsaengdao, S., & Wesselingh, S. (2008). Neurologic disorders are prevalent in HIV-positive outpatients in the Asia-Pacific region. Neurology, 71(1), 5056.
Wright, E.J., Grund, B., Cysique, L.A., Robertson, K.R., Brew, B.J., Collins, G., & Price, R.W. (2015). Factors associated with neurocognitive test performance at baseline: A substudy of the INSIGHT Strategic Timing of AntiRetroviral Treatment (START) trial. HIV Medicine, 16(Suppl 1), 97108.
Yepthomi, T., Paul, R., Vallabhaneni, S., Kumarasamy, N., Tate, D.F., Solomon, S., & Flanigan, T. (2006). Neurocognitive consequences of HIV in southern India: A preliminary study of clade C virus. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 12(3), 424430.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society
  • ISSN: 1355-6177
  • EISSN: 1469-7661
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-the-international-neuropsychological-society
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed