Skip to main content Accesibility Help
×
×
Home

Interdependence of episodic and semantic memory: Evidence from neuropsychology

  • DANIEL L. GREENBERG (a1) and MIEKE VERFAELLIE (a1)
Abstract

Tulving’s (1972) theory of memory draws a distinction between general knowledge (semantic memory) and memory for events (episodic memory). Neuropsychological studies have generally examined each type of memory in isolation, but theorists have long argued that these two forms of memory are interdependent. Here we review several lines of neuropsychological research that have explored the interdependence of episodic and semantic memory. The studies show that these forms of memory can affect each other both at encoding and at retrieval. We suggest that theories of memory should be revised to account for all of the interdependencies between episodic and semantic memory; they should also incorporate forms of memory that do not fit neatly into either category. (JINS, 2010, 16, 748–753.)

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Correspondence and reprint requests to: Daniel L. Greenberg, Memory Disorders Research Center, 150 S. Huntington Avenue (151-A), Boston, Massachusetts 02130. E-mail: dlg@bu.edu
References
Hide All
Baddeley, A.D. (1988). Cognitive psychology and human memory. Trends in Neurosciences, 11, 176–181.
Barsalou, L.W. (1988). The content and organization of autobiographical memories. In Neisser, U. & Winograd, E. (Eds.), Remembering reconsidered: Ecological and traditional approaches to the study of memory (pp. 193–243). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Bayley, P.J., Hopkins, R.O., & Squire, L.R. (2006). The fate of old memories after medial temporal lobe damage. Journal of Neuroscience, 26, 13311–13317.
Bayley, P.J., O’Reilly, R.C., Curran, T., & Squire, L.R. (2008). New semantic learning in patients with large medial temporal lobe lesions. Hippocampus, 18, 575–583.
Bayley, P.J., & Squire, L.R. (2005). Failure to acquire new semantic knowledge in patients with large medial temporal lobe lesions. Hippocampus, 15, 273–280.
Cabeza, R., & St. Jacques, P. (2007). Functional neuroimaging of autobiographical memory. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 11, 219–227.
Chan, D., Fox, N.C., Scahill, R.I., Crum, W.R., Whitwell, J.L., Leschziner, G., et al. . (2001). Patterns of temporal lobe atrophy in semantic dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. Annals of Neurology, 49, 433–442.
Conway, M.A. (2001). Sensory-perceptual episodic memory and its context: Autobiographical memory. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London: B, 356, 1375–1384.
Conway, M.A. & Pleydell-Pearce, C.W. (2000). The construction of autobiographical memories in the self-memory system. Psychological Review, 107, 261–288.
Graham, K.S., & Hodges, J.R. (1997). Differentiating the roles of the hippocampal complex and the neocortex in long-term memory storage: Evidence from the study of semantic dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. Neuropsychology, 11, 77–89.
Graham, K.S., Simons, J.S., Pratt, K.H., Patterson, K., & Hodges, J.R. (2000). Insights from semantic dementia on the relationship between episodic and semantic memory. Neuropsychologia, 38, 313–324.
Greenberg, D.L., Keane, M.M., Ryan, L.R. & Verfaellie, M. (2009). Impaired category fluency in medial temporal lobe amnesia: The role of episodic memory. Journal of Neuroscience, 29, 10900–10908.
Hassabis, D., Kumaran, D., Vann, S.D., & Maguire, E.A. (2007). Patients with hippocampal amnesia cannot imagine new experiences. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104, 1726–1731.
Hermann, D.J. (1982). The semantic-episodic distinction and the history of long-term memory typologies. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 20, 207–210.
Hodges, J.R., Graham, N., & Patterson, K. (1995). Charting the progression in semantic dementia: Implications for the organization of semantic memory. Memory, 3, 463–495.
Kan, I.P., Alexander, M.P., & Verfaellie, M. (2009). Contribution of prior semantic knowledge to new episodic learning in amnesia. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 21, 938–944.
Kazui, H., Hashimoto, M., Hirono, N., & Mori, E. (2003). Nature of personal semantic memory: Evidence from Alzheimer’s disease. Neuropsychologia, 41, 981–988.
Kitchener, E.G., Hodges, J.R., & McCarthy, R. (1998). Acquisition of post-morbid vocabulary and semantic facts in the absence of episodic memory. Brain, 121, 1313–1327.
Kinsbourne, M., Tocci Rufo, D., Gamzu, E., Palmer, R.L., & Berliner, A.K. (1991). Neuropsychological deficits in adults with dyslexia. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 33, 763–775.
Kopelman, M.D. (1989). Remote and autobiographical memory, temporal context memory, and frontal atrophy in Korsakoff and Alzheimer patients. Neuropsychologia, 27, 437–60.
Kopelman, M.D., & Kapur, N. (2001). The loss of episodic memories in retrograde amnesia: single-case and group studies. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B, 356, 1409–1421.
Kopelman, M.D., Stanhope, N., & Kingsley, D. (1999). Retrograde amnesia in patients with diencephalic, temporal lobe or frontal lesions. Neuropsychologia, 37, 939–958.
Levy, D.A., Bayley, P.J., & Squire, L.R. (2004). The anatomy of semantic knowledge: Medial vs. lateral temporal lobe. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101, 6710–6715.
Luzzi, S., Snowden, J.S., Neary, D., Coccia, M., Provinciali, L., & Lambon Ralph, M.A. (2007). Distinct patterns of olfactory impairment in Alzheimer’s disease, semantic dementia, frontotemporal dementia, and corticobasal degeneration. Neuropsychologia, 45, 1823–1831.
Maguire, E.A., Kumaran, D., Hassabis, D., & Kopelman, M.D. (2010). Autobiographical memory in semantic dementia: A longitudinal fMRI study. Neuropsychologia, 48, 123–136.
Manns, J.R., Hopkins, R.O., & Squire, L.R. (2003). Semantic memory and the human hippocampus. Neuron, 38, 127–133.
Mayes, A.R., & Roberts, N. (2001). Theories of episodic memory. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B, 356, 1395–1408.
McKoon, G., & Ratcliff, R. (1986). Automatic activation of episodic information in a semantic memory task. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 12, 108–115.
Neisser, U. (1981). John Dean’s memory: A case study. Cognition, 9, 1–22.
Piolino, P., Desgranges, B., Belliard, S., Matuszewski, V., Lalevée, C., de la Sayette, V., et al. . (2003). Autobiographical memory and autonoetic consciousness: triple dissociation in neurodegenerative diseases. Brain, 126, 2203–2219.
Reder, L.M., Park, H., & Kieffaber, P.D. (2009). Memory systems do not divide on consciousness: Reinterpreting memory in terms of activation and binding. Psychological Bulletin, 135, 23–49.
Roediger, H.L., & Blaxton, T.A. (1987). Retrieval modes produce dissociations in memory for surface information. In Gorfein, D.S. & Hoffman, R.R. (Eds.), Memory and learning: The Ebbinghaus Centennial Conference (pp. 349–379). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Rosenbaum, R.S., Moscovitch, M., Foster, J.K., Schnyer, D.M., Gao, F.Q., Kovacevic, N., et al. . (2008). Patterns of autobiographical memory loss in medial temporal lobe amnesic patients. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 20, 1490–1506.
Rubin, D.C., Schrauf, R.W., & Greenberg, D.L. (2003). Belief and recollection of autobiographical memories. Memory & Cognition, 31, 887–901.
Simmons, W.K., & Martin, A. (2009). The anterior temporal lobes and the functional architecture of semantic memory. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 15, 645–649.
Simons, J.S., Graham, K.S., & Hodges, J.R. (2002). Perceptual and semantic contributions to episodic memory: evidence from semantic dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. Journal of Memory and Language, 47, 197–213.
Stark, S., Gordon, B., & Stark, C. (2008). A case study of amnesia: Exploring a paradigm for new semantic learning and generalization. Brain Injury, 22, 283–292.
Toth, J.P., & Hunt, R.R. (1999). Not one versus many, but zero versus any: structure and function in the context of the multiple memory systems debate. In Foster, J.K. & Jelicic, M. (Eds.), Memory: Systems, process, or function? (pp. 232–272). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Tulving, E. (1972). Episodic and semantic memory. In Tulving, E. & Donaldson, W. (Eds.), Organization of memory (pp. 381–403). New York: Academic Press.
Tulving, E. (1983). Elements of episodic memory. New York: Oxford University Press.
Tulving, E. (1985). Memory and consciousness. Canadian Psychology, 26, 1–12.
Tulving, E. (2001). Episodic memory and common sense: how far apart? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 356, 1505–1515.
Tulving, E. (2002). Episodic memory: From mind to brain. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 1–25.
Tulving, E., Hayman, C.A., & Macdonald, C.A. (1991). Long-lasting perceptual priming and semantic learning in amnesia: a case experiment. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 17, 595–617.
Vargha-Khadem, F., Gadian, D.G., Watkins, K.E., Connelly, A., Van Paesschen, W., & Mishkin, M. (1997). Differential effects of early hippocampal pathology on episodic and semantic memory. Science, 277, 376–380.
Verfaellie, M. (2000). Semantic learning in amnesia. In Cermak, L.S. (Ed.), Handbook of Neuropsychology (pp. 335–354). Amsterdam: Elsevier Science.
Ween, J.E., Verfaellie, M., & Alexander, M.P. (1996). Verbal memory function in mild aphasia. Neurology, 47, 795–801.
Weldon, M.S. (1999). The memory chop shop: issues in the search for memory systems. In Foster, J.K. & Jelicic, M. (Eds.), Memory: Systems, process, or function? (pp. 162–204). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Westmacott, R., Black, S.E., Freedman, M., & Moscovitch, M. (2004). The contribution of autobiographical significance to semantic memory: Evidence from Alzheimer’s disease, semantic dementia, and amnesia. Neuropsychologia, 42, 25–48.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society
  • ISSN: 1355-6177
  • EISSN: 1469-7661
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-the-international-neuropsychological-society
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed