Skip to main content Accesibility Help
×
×
Home

Neuropsychological Effects of Sleep Loss: Implication for Neuropsychologists

  • Flavie Waters (a1) and Romola S. Bucks (a2)
Abstract

There is rapidly accumulating evidence of a close relationship between sleep loss and cognition. Neuropsychologists need to become aware of this body of knowledge as the effects of sleep loss on brain functions are significant. The current study (a) outlines the extent to which insufficient sleep affects performance on cognitive tasks in otherwise healthy people, (b) discusses the relationship between sleep and neurocognitive disorders, and (c) highlights key issues that merit consideration for neuropsychologists. This review shows that sleep loss has a measurable impact on performance through decreases in cognitive functions and effects on biological pathways that support cognitive performance. Sleep loss reliably produces reductions in speed of processing and attention. Higher order cognitive functions are affected to a lesser extent, and there is sparing on tasks of crystallized abilities. Deficits worsen with increasing time awake, but may be overturned after normal sleep is resumed. The review also shows that sleep disorders are a major feature of neuropsychological conditions contributing to the pattern of cognitive impairment. Overall, neuropsychologists must be alert to sleep problems in their clients, so that sleep interventions, or referrals, are put in place in the rehabilitation plan of individuals with cognitive dysfunctions. Recommendations also include routine screening of sleep as part of cognitive assessment. (JINS, 2011, 17, 571–586)

Copyright
Corresponding author
Correspondence and reprint requests to: Flavie Waters, Centre for Clinical Research in Neuropsychiatry, Graylands Hospital, Mail Bag No 1, Claremont, Perth, 6910, Australia. E-mail: flavie.waters@health.wa.gov.au
References
Hide All
Alvarenga, T.A., Patti, C.L., Andersen, M.L., Silva, R.H., Calzavara, M.B., Lopez, G.B., Tufik, S. (2008). Paradoxical sleep deprivation impairs acquisition, consolidation, and retrieval of a discriminative avoidance task in rats. Neurobiology, Learning and Memory, 90(4), 624632.
Australian Psychological Society. Retrieved from http://www.psychology.org.au/community/specialist/clinicalneuro/
Baglioni, C., Spiegelhalder, K., Lombardo, C., Riemann, D. (2010). Sleep and emotions: A focus on insomnia. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 14(4), 227238.
Ban, D.J., Lee, T.J. (2001). Sleep duration, subjective sleep disturbances and associated factors among university students in Korea. Journal of Korean Medicine and Science, 16, 475480.
Banks, S., Dinges, D.F. (2007). Behavioral and physiological consequences of sleep restriction. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 3(5), 519528.
Bamer, A., Johnson, K., Amtmann, D., Kraft, G.H. (2008). Prevalence of sleep problems in individuals with multiple sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis, 14, 11271130.
Bartel, P., Offermeier, W., Smith, F., Becker, P. (2004). Attention and working memory in resident anaesthetists after night duty: Group and individual effects. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 61, 170176.
Baumann, C.R., Werth, E., Stocker, R. (2007). Sleep-wake disturbances 6 months after TBI: A prospective study. Brain, 130, 18731883.
Beebe, D.W., Difrancesco, M.W., Tlustos, S.J., McNally, K.A., Holland, S.K. (2009). Preliminary fMRI findings in experimentally sleep-restricted adolescents engaged in a working memory task. Behavior and Brain Functions, 5, 9.
Beebe, D.W., Gozal, D. (2002). Obstructive sleep apnea and the prefrontal cortex: Towards a comprehensive model linking nocturnal upper airway obstruction to daytime cognitive and behavioral deficits. Journal of Sleep Research, 11(1), 116.
Belenky, G., Wesensten, N.J., Thorne, D.R., Thomas, M.L., Sing, H.C., Redmond, D.P., Balkin, T.J. (2003). Patterns of performance degradation and restoration during sleep restriction and subsequent recovery: A sleep dose-response study. Journal of Sleep Research, 12(1), 112.
Binks, P.G., Waters, W.F., Hurry, M. (1999). Short-term total sleep deprivations does not selectively impair higher cortical functioning. Sleep, 22(3), 328334.
Blagrove, M., Alexander, C., Horne, J. (1995). The effects of chronic sleep reduction on the performance of cognitive tasks sensitive to sleep deprivation. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 9, 2140.
Blatter, K., Graw, P., Munch, M., Knoblauch, V., Wirz-Justice, A., Cajochen, C. (2006). Gender and age differences in psychomotor vigilance performance under differential sleep pressure conditions. Behavioural Brain Research, 168(2), 312317.
Blatter, K., Opwis, K., Munch, M., Wirz-Justice, A., Cajochen, C. (2005). Sleep loss-related decrements in planning performance in healthy elderly depend on task difficulty. Journal of Sleep Research, 14, 409417.
Bliwise, D. (2004). Sleep disorders in Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. Clinical Cornerstone, 6(1), S16S28.
Bloom, H.G., Ahmed, I., Alessi, C.A., Ancoli-Israel, S., Buysse, D.J., Kryger, M.H., Zee, P.C. (2009). Evidence-based recommendations for the assessment and management of sleep disorders in older persons. Journal of American Geriatric Society, 57(5), 761789.
Bruni, O., Ottaviano, S., Guidetti, V., Romoli, M., Innocanzi, M., Cortesi, F., Giannotti, F. (1996). The Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children (SDSC) Construction and validation of an instrument to evaluate sleep disturbances in childhood and adolescence. Journal of Sleep Research, 5, 251261.
Buysse, D.J., Monk, T.H., Carrier, J., Begley, A. (2005). Circadian patterns of sleep, sleepiness, and performance in older and younger adults. Sleep, 28(11), 13651376.
Buysse, D.J., IIIReynolds, C.F., Monk, T., Berman, S., Kupfer, D. (1989). The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index: A new instrument for psychiatric practice and research. Psychiatry Research, 28, 193213.
Campos-Morales, R.M., Valencia-Flores, M., Castaño-Meneses, A., Castañeda-Figueiras, S., Martínez-Guerrero, J. (2005). Sleepiness, performance and mood in a group of Mexican undergraduate students. Biological Rhythm Research, 26(1–2), 913.
Castriotta, R., Atanasov, S., Wilde, M., Masel, B., Lai, J., Kuna, S. (2009). Treatment of sleep disorders after traumatic brain injury. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 5(2), 137144.
Chee, M.W., Choo, W.C. (2004). Functional imaging of working memory after 24 hr of total sleep deprivation. Journal of Neuroscience, 24, 45604567.
Chee, M.W., Chuah, L.Y. (2007). Functional neuroimaging and behavioral correlates of capacity decline in visual short-term memory after sleep deprivation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the United States of America, 104(22), 94879492.
Chee, M.W., Chuah, L.Y., Venkatraman, V., Chan, W.Y., Philip, P., Dinges, D.F. (2006). Functional imaging of working memory following normal sleep and after 24 and 35 h of sleep deprivation: Correlations of fronto-parietal activation with performance. Neuroimage, 31, 419428.
Chen, C., Hardy, M., Zhang, J., LaHoste, G.L., Bazan, N. (2006). Altered NMDA receptor trafficking contributes to sleep deprivation-induced hippocampal synaptic cognitive impairments. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 340, 435440.
Chervin, R.D., Dillon, J.E., Bassetti, C., Ganoczy, D., Pituch, K. (1997). Symptoms of sleep disorders, inattention and hyperactivity in children. Sleep, 20(12), 11851192.
Choo, W.C., Lee, W.W., Venkatraman, V., Sheu, F.S., Chee, M.W. (2005). Dissociation of cortical regions modulated by both working memory load and sleep deprivation and by sleep deprivation alone. Neuroimage, 25, 579587.
Clarke, D.J., Waters, J., Corbett, J.A. (1989). Adults with Prader-Willi syndrome: Abnormalities of sleep and behaviour. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 82, 2125.
Comella, C. (2008). Sleep disorders in Parkinson's Disease. Sleep Medicine Clinics, 3(3), 325335.
De Gennaro, L., Ferrara, M., Curcio, G., Bertini, M. (2001). Visual search performance across 40 h of continuous wakefulness: Measures of speed and accuracy and relation with oculomotor performance. Physiology & Behavior, 74, 197204.
Devine, E.B., Zafar, H., Green, J. (2005). A systematic review of patient-reported outcome instruments measuring sleep dysfunction in adults. Pharmacoeconomics, 23(9), 889912.
Dinges, D.F., Powell, J.W. (1985). Microcomputer analyses of performance on a portable, simple visual RT task during sustained operations. Behaviour Research Methods, Instruments and Computers, 17(6), 652655.
Doran, S.M., Van Dongen, H.P., Dinges, D.F. (2001). Sustained attention performance during sleep deprivation: Evidence of state instability. Archives of Italian Biology, 139(3), 253267.
Drake, C.L., Roehrs, T.A., Burduvali, E., Bonahoom, A., Rosekind, M., Roth, T. (2001). Effects of rapid versus slow accumulation of eight hours of sleep loss. Psychophysiology, 38(6), 979987.
Drummond, S.P., Bischoff-Grethe, A., Dinges, D.F., Ayalon, L., Mednick, S.C., Meloy, M.J. (2005). The neural basis of the psychomotor vigilance task. Sleep, 28(9), 10591068.
Drummond, S.P., Brown, G.G., Gillian, J., Stricker, J., Wong, E., Buxton, R. (2000). Altered brain response to verbal learning following sleep deprivation. Nature, 403, 655657.
Drummond, S.P., Brown, G.G., Salamat, J.S., Gillin, J.C. (2004). Increasing task difficulty facilitates the cerebral compensatory response to total sleep deprivation. Sleep, 27, 445451.
Drummond, S.P., Brown, G.G., Stricker, J.L., Buxton, R.B., Wong, E.C., Gillin, J.C. (1999). Sleep deprivation-induced reduction in cortical functional response to serial subtraction. Neuroreport, 10, 37453748.
Drummond, S.P., Gillin, J.C., Brown, G.G. (2001). Increased cerebral response during a divided attention task following sleep deprivation. Journal of Sleep Research, 10, 8592.
Drummond, S.P., Meloy, M.J., Yanagi, M.A., Orff, H.J., Brown, G.G. (2005). Compensatory recruitment after sleep deprivation and the relationship with performance. Psychiatry Research, 140, 211223.
Drummond, S.P., Paulus, M.P., Tapert, S.F. (2006). Effects of two nights sleep deprivation and two nights recovery sleep on response inhibition. Journal of Sleep Research, 15(3), 261265.
Durmer, J.S., Dinges, D.F. (2005). Neurocognitive consequences of sleep deprivation. Seminars in Neurology, 25(1), 117129.
Falleti, M., Maruff, P., Collie, A., Darby, D., McStephen, M. (2003). Qualitative similarities in cognitive impairment associated with 24 hr of sustained wakefulness and a blood alcohol concentration of 0.05%. Journal of Sleep Research, 12(4), 265274.
Ferri, R., Drago, V., Arico, D., Bruni, O., Remington, R., Stamatakis, K., Punjabi, N. (2001). The effects of experimental sleep fragmentation on cognitive processing. Sleep Medicine, 11(4), 378385.
Festen, D., deWeerd, A., van den Bossche, R., Hoeve, J, Hokken-Koelega, A. (2006). Sleep-related breathing disorders in prepubertal children with Prader-Willi Syndrome and Effects of Growth Hormone Treatment. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 91(12), 49114915.
Fluck, E., File, S., Springett, J., Kopelman, M., Rees, J., Orgill, J. (1998). Does the sedation resulting from sleep deprivation and Lorazepam cause similar cognitive deficits? Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behaviour, 59(4), 909915.
Frey, D.J., Badia, P., Wright, K.P. Jr. (2004). Inter- and intra-individual variability in performance near the circadian nadir during sleep deprivation. Journal of Sleep Research, 13(4), 305315.
Forest, G., Godbout, R. (2000). Effects of sleep deprivation on performance and EEG spectral analysis in young adults. Brain & Cognition, 43, 195200.
Gais, S., Koster, S., Sprenger, A., Bethke, J., Heide, W., Kimmig, H. (2008). Sleep is required for improving reaction times after training on a procedural visuo-motor task. Neurobiology, Learning and Memory, 90(4), 610615.
Glenville, M., Broughton, R., Wing, A.M., Wilkinson, R.T. (1978). Effects of sleep deprivation on short duration performance measures compared to the Wilkinson auditory vigilance task. Sleep, 1(2), 169176.
Goel, N., Banks, S., Mignot, E., Dinges, D.F. (2009). PER3 polymorphism predicts cumulative sleep homeostatic but not neurobehavioral changes to chronic partial sleep deprivation. PLoS One, 4(6), e5874.
Gradisar, M., Terrill, G., Johnston, A., Douglas, P. (2008). Adolescent sleep and working memory performance. Sleep and Biological Rhythms, 6(3), 146154.
Gregory, A.M., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T.E., Poulton, R. (2009). Sleep problems in childhood predict neuropsychological functioning in adolescence. Pediatrics, 123(4), 11711176.
Habeck, C., Rakitin, B.C., Moeller, J., Scarmeas, N., Zarahn, E., Brown, T., Stern, Y. (2004). An event-related fMRI study of the neurobehavioral impact of sleep deprivation on performance of a delayed-match-to-sample task. Cognition and Brain Research, 18, 306321.
Hagewoud, R., Havekes, R., Novati, A., Keijser, J.N., Van der Zee, E.A., Meerlo, P. (2010). Sleep deprivation impairs spatial working memory and reduces hippocampal AMPA receptor phosphorylation. Journal of Sleep Research, 19(2), 280288.
Harrison, Y., Espelid, E. (2004). Loss of negative priming following sleep deprivation. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology A, 57(3), 437446.
Harrison, Y., Horne, J.A. (1997). Sleep deprivation affects speech. Sleep, 20(10), 871877.
Harrison, Y., Horne, J.A. (1998). Sleep loss impairs short and novel language tasks having a prefrontal focus. Journal of Sleep Research, 7(2), 95100.
Harrison, Y., Horne, J.A. (2000). The impact of sleep deprivation on decision making: A review. Journal Experimental Psychology Applied, 6(3), 236249.
Harrison, Y., Horne, J.A., Rothwell, A. (2000). Prefrontal neuropsychological effects of sleep deprivation in young adults, a model for healthy aging? Sleep, 23(8), 10671973.
Harrison, Y., Jones, K., Waterhouse, J. (2007). The influence of time awake and circadian rhythm upon performance on a frontal lobe task. Neuropsychologia, 45(8), 19661972.
Hoddes, E., Zarcone, V., Smythe, H., Phillips, R., Dement, W.C. (1972). Quantification of sleepiness: A new approach. Psychophysiology, 10, 431436.
Horne, J.A. (1988). Why we sleep: The functions of sleep in humans and other animals. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Horne, J.A. (1993). Human sleep, sleep loss and behaviour. Implications for the prefrontal cortex and psychiatric disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry, 162, 413419.
Hublin, C., Kaprio, J., Partinen, M., Koskenvuo, M. (2001). Insufficient sleep--a population-based study in adults. Sleep, 24(4), 392400.
Jansson-Frojmark, M., Lindblom, K. (2008). A bi-directional relationship between anxiety and depression, and insomnia? A prospective study in the general population. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 64, 440443.
Jennings, J.R., Monk, T.H., van der Molen, M.W. (2003). Sleep deprivation influences some but not all processes of supervisory attention. Psychological Science, 14(5), 473486.
Johns, M.W. (1991). A new method for measuring daytime sleepiness: The Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Sleep, 14, 540545.
Killgore, W.D., Balkin, T.J., Wesensten, N.J. (2006). Impaired decision making following 49 h of sleep deprivation. Journal of Sleep Research, 15(1), 713.
Killgore, W.D., Grugle, N.L., Reichardt, R.M., Killgore, D.B., Balkin, T.J. (2009). Executive functions and the ability to sustain vigilance during sleep loss. Aviation and Space Environmental Medicine, 80(2), 8187.
Killgore, W.D., Kahn-Greene, E.T., Lipizzi, E.L., Newman, R.A., Kamimori, G.H., Balkin, T.J. (2008). Sleep deprivation reduces perceived emotional intelligence and constructive thinking skills. Sleep Medicine, 9(5), 517526.
Killgore, W.D., Killgore, D.B., Day, L.M., Li, C., Kamimori, G.H., Balkin, T.J. (2007). The effects of 53 hours of sleep deprivation on moral judgment. Sleep, 30(3), 345352.
Koslowsky, M., Babkoff, H. (1992). Meta-analysis of the relationship between total sleep deprivation and performance. Chronobiology International, 9(2), 132136.
Kripke, D.F. (2004). Do we sleep too much? Sleep, 27(1), 1314.
Krueger, P., Friedman, E. (2009). Sleep duration in the United States: A cross sectional population based study. The American Journal of Epidemiology, 169(9), 10521963.
Kyle, S., Morgan, K., Espie, C. (2010). Insomnia and health related quality of life. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 14, 6982.
Lezak, M.D., Howieson, D.B., Loring, D.W. (2004). Neuropsychological assessment. New York: Oxford University Press.
Lim, J., Choo, W.C., Chee, M.W. (2007). Reproducibility of changes in behaviour and fMRI activation associated with sleep deprivation in a working memory task. Sleep, 30(1), 6170.
Lim, J., Dinges, D.F. (2008). Sleep deprivation and vigilant attention. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1129, 305322.
Lim, J., Dinges, D.F. (2010). A meta-analysis of the impact of short-term sleep deprivation on cognitive variables. Psychological Bulletin, 136(3), 375389.
Linde, L., Bergstrom, M. (1992). The effect of one night without sleep on problem-solving and immediate recall. Psychological Research, 54(2), 127136.
Liu, X., Hubbard, J., Fabes, R., Adams, J. (2006). Sleep disturbances and correlates of children with autism spectrum disorders. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 37(2), 179191.
Martin, S.E., Engleman, H.M., Deary, I.J., Douglas, N.J. (1996). The effect of sleep fragmentation on daytime function. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 153, 13281332.
Mittler, M.M., Carskadon, M.A., Czeisler, C., Dement, W.C., Dinges, D., Graeber, R.C. (1988). Catastrophes, sleep and public policy: Consensus report. Sleep, 11(1), 100109.
Monteleone, P., Maj, M. (2008). The circadian basis of mood disorders: Recent developments and treatment implications. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 18, 701711.
Morris, G.O., Williams, H.L., Lubin, A. (1960). Misperception and distortion during sleep deprivation. Archives of General Psychiatry, 2, 247254.
Moturi, S., Avis, K. (2010). Assessment and treatment of common pediatric sleep disorders. Psychiatry (Edgmont), 7(6), 2437.
Mu, Q., Nahas, Z., Johnson, K.A., Yamanaka, K., Mishory, A., Koola, J., George, M.S. (2005). Decreased cortical response to verbal working memory following sleep deprivation. Sleep, 28(1), 5567.
Neikrug, A.B., Ancoli-Israel, S. (2010). Sleep disorders in the older adult – a mini-review. Gerontology, 56(2), 181189.
Nilsson, J.P., Soderstrom, M., Karlsson, A.U., Lekander, M., Akerstedt, T., Lindroth, N.E., Axelsson, J. (2005). Less effective executive functioning after one night's sleep deprivation. Journal of Sleep Research, 14(1), 16.
Owens, J., Nobile, C., McGuinn, M., Spirito, A. (2000). The Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire: Construction and validation of a sleep survey for school-aged children. Sleep, 23(8), 10431051.
Partinen, M., Hublin, C. (2005). Epidemiology of sleep disorders. In M. Kryger, T. Roth, & W. Dement (Eds.), Principles and practice of sleep medicine (4th ed.). Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Co.
Patrick, G., Gilbert, J. (1896). On the effects of loss of sleep. Psychological Review, 3(5), 469483.
Petit, D., Montplaisir, J., Boeve, B.F. (2005). Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. In M. Kryger, T. Roth, & W. Dement (Eds.),, Principles and practice of sleep medicine (4th ed.). Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Co.
Pilcher, J.J., Huffcutt, A.I. (1996). Effects of sleep deprivation on performance: A meta-analysis. Sleep, 19, 318326.
Pilcher, J.J., McClelland, L.E., Moore, D.D., Haarmann, H., Baron, J., Wallsten, T.S., McCubbin, J.A. (2007). Language performance under sustained work and sleep deprivation conditions. Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine, 78(5 Suppl), B25B38.
Philip, P., Taillard, J., Sagaspe, P., Valtat, C., Sanchez-Ortuno, M., Moore, N., Bioulac, B. (2004). Age, performance and sleep deprivation. Journal of Sleep Research, 13, 105110.
Phillips, K.D., Sowell, R.L., Boyd, M., Dudgeon, W.D., Hand, G.A. (2005). Sleep quality and health-related quality of life in HIV-infected African-American women of childbearing age. Quality of Life Research, 14(4), 959970.
Plihal, W., Born, J. (1999). Effects of early and late nocturnal sleep on priming and spatial memory. Psychophysiology, 36(5), 571582.
Polzella, D.J. (1975). Effects of sleep deprivation on short-term recognition memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning, 104(2), 194200.
Quigley, N., Green, J.F., Morgan, D., Idzikowski, C., King, D.J. (2000). The effect of sleep deprivation on memory and psychomotor function in healthy volunteers. Human Psychopharmacology, 15(3), 171177.
Rauchs, G., Desgranges, B., Foret, J., Eustache, F. (2005). The relationships between memory systems and sleep stages. Journal of Sleep Research, 14(2), 123140.
Ravid, S., Afek, I., Suraiya, S., Shahar, E., Pillar, G. (2009). Kindergarten children's failure to qualify for first grade could result from sleep disturbances. Journal of Child Neurology, 24(7), 816822.
Reid, S., Dwyer, J. (2005). Insomnia in HIV infection: A systematic review of prevalence, correlates, and management. Psychosomatic Medicine, 67, 260269.
Richdale, A., Prior, M. (1995). The Sleep/wake rhythm in children with autism. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 4(3), 175186.
Riemann, D., Spiegelhalder, K., Feige, B., Voderholzer, U., Berger, M., Perlis, M., Nissen, C. (2010). The hyperarousal of insomnia: A review of the concept and its evidence. Sleep Medicine Review, 14, 1931.
Roehrs, T., Burduvali, E., Bonahoom, A., Drake, C., Roth, T. (2003). Ethanol and sleep loss: A dose comparison of impairing effects. Sleep, 26(8), 981998.
Ruskin, D.N., Liu, C., Dunn, K.E., Bazan, N.G., LaHoste, G.J. (2004). Sleep deprivation impairs hippocampus-mediated contextual learning but not amygdala-mediated cued learning in rats. European Journal of Neuroscience, 19(11), 31213124.
Russo, M., Thomas, M., Thorne, D., Sing, H., Redmond, D., Rowland, L., Balkin, T. (2003). Oculomotor impairment during chronic partial sleep deprivation. Clinical Neurophysiology, 114(4), 723736.
Sagaspe, P., Sanchez-Ortuno, M., Charles, A., Taillard, J., Valtat, C., Bioulac, B., Philip, P. (2006). Effects of sleep deprivation on color-word, emotional, and specific Stroop interference and on self-reported anxiety. Brain & Cognition, 60(1), 7687.
Schmidt, R.E., Gay, P., Ghisletta, P. (2010). Linking impulsivity to dysfunctional thought control and insomnia: A structural equation model. Journal of Sleep Research, 19(1 Pt 1), 311.
Shekleton, J.A., Parcell, D.L., Redman, J.R., Phipps-Nelson, J., Ponsford, J.L., Rajaratnam, S.M. (2010). Sleep disturbance and melatonin levels following traumatic brain injury. Neurology, 74, 17321738.
Smulders, F.T., Kenemans, J.L., Jonkman, L.M., Kok, A. (1997). The effects of sleep loss on task performance and the electroencephalogram in young and elderly subjects. Biology Psychology, 45(1–3), 217239.
Stenuit, P., Kerkhofs, M. (2008). Effects of sleep restriction on cognition in women. Biological Psychology, 77(1), 8188.
Stores, G. (2006). Practitioner review: Assessment and treatment of sleep disorders in children and adolescents. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 37, 907925.
Strangman, G., Thompson, J.H., Strauss, M.M., Marshburn, T.H., Sutton, J.P. (2005). Functional brain imaging of a complex navigation task following one night of total sleep deprivation: A preliminary study. Journal of Sleep Research, 14(4), 369375.
Stricker, J.L., Brown, G.G., Wetherell, L.A., Drummond, S.P. (2006). The impact of sleep deprivation and task difficulty on networks of fMRI brain response. Journal of International Neuropsychological Society, 12(5), 591597.
Taheri, S., Lin, L., Austin, D., Young, T., Mignot, E. (2004). Short sleep duration is associated with reduced leptin, elevated ghrelin, and increased body mass index. PLoS Medicine, 1(3), e62.
Tarter, R.E., Butters, M., Beers, S.R. (2001). Medical neuropsychology (2nd ed.). New York: Kluwer Academic. Plenum Publishers.
Tempesta, D., Couyoumdjian, A., Curcio, G., Moroni, F., Marzano, C., DeGennaro, L., Ferrara, M. (2010). Lack of sleep affects the evaluation of emotional stimuli. Brain Research Bulletin, 82, 104108.
Tilley, A.J., Wilkinson, R.T. (1984). The effects of a restricted sleep regime on the composition of sleep and on performance. Psychophysiology, 21(4), 406412.
Thomas, M., Sing, H., Belenky, G., Holcomb, H., Mayberg, H., Dannals, R., Redmond, D. (2000). Neural basis of alertness and cognitive performance impairments during sleepiness. I. Effects of 24 h of sleep deprivation on waking human regional brain activity. Journal of Sleep Research, 9(4), 335352.
Thomas, R.J., Kwong, K. (2006). Modafinil activates cortical and subcortical sites in the sleep-deprived state. Sleep, 29, 14711481.
Tomasi, D., Wang, R.L., Telang, F., Boronikolas, V., Jayne, M.C., Wang, G.J., Volkow, N.D. (2009). Impairment of attentional networks after 1 night of sleep deprivation. Cerebral Cortex, 19(1), 233240.
Tucker, A.M., Whitney, P., Belenky, G., Hinson, J.M., Van Dongen, H.P. (2010). Effects of sleep deprivation on dissociated components of executive functioning. Sleep, 33(1), 4757.
Turner, T.H., Drummond, S.P., Salamat, J.S., Brown, G.G. (2007). Effects of 42 hr of total sleep deprivation on component processes of verbal working memory. Neuropsychology, 21(6), 787795.
Van der Werf, Y., Altena, E., Schoonheim, M., Sanz-Arigita, E., Vis, J.C., De Rijke, W., Van Someren, J.W. (2009). Sleep benefits subsequent hippocampal functioning. Nature, Neuroscience, 12(2), 122123.
Van Dongen, H.P., Maislin, G., Mullington, J.M., Dinges, D.F. (2003). The cumulative cost of additional wakefulness: Dose-response effects on neurobehavioral functions and sleep physiology from chronic sleep restriction and total sleep deprivation. Sleep, 26(2), 117126.
Viola, A.U., Archer, S.N., James, L.M., Groeger, J.A., Lo, J.C., Skene, D.J., Dijk, D.J. (2007). PER3 polymorphism predicts sleep structure and waking performance. Current Biology, 17(7), 613618.
Weaver, T., Laizner, A., Evans, L., Maislin, G., Chugh, D., Lyon, K., Smith, P., Schwartz, A., Redline, S., Pack, A., Dinges, D. (1997). An instrument to measure functional status outcomes for disorders of excessive sleepiness. Sleep, 20, 835843.
Wilkinson, R.T. (1961). Interaction of lack of sleep with knowledge of results, repeated testing, and individual differences. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 62, 263271.
Williams, E.S. (1959). Sleep and wakefulness at high altitudes. British Medical Journal, 1(5116), 197198.
Williamson, A.M., Feyer, A.M. (2000). Moderate sleep deprivation produces impairments in cognitive and motor performance equivalent to legally prescribed levels of alcohol intoxication. Occupational Environmental Medicine, 57, 649655.
Wimmer, F., Hoffmann, R.F., Bonato, R.A., Moffitt, A.R. (1992). The effects of sleep deprivation on divergent thinking and attention processes. Journal of Sleep Research, 1, 223230.
Yoo, S.S., Hu, P.T., Gujar, N., Jolesz, F.A., Walker, M.P. (2007). A deficit in the ability to form new human memories without sleep. Nature Neuroscience, 10, 385392.
Young, T., Evans, L., Finn, L., Palta, M. (1997). Estimation of the clinically diagnosed proportion of sleep apnea syndrome in middle aged men and women. Sleep, 9, 705706.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society
  • ISSN: 1355-6177
  • EISSN: 1469-7661
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-the-international-neuropsychological-society
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed