Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 17
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Chao, Linda L. Reeb, Rosemary Esparza, Iva L. and Abadjian, Linda R. 2016. Associations between the self-reported frequency of hearing chemical alarms in theater and regional brain volume in Gulf War Veterans. NeuroToxicology, Vol. 53, p. 246.


    White, Roberta F. Steele, Lea O'Callaghan, James P. Sullivan, Kimberly Binns, James H. Golomb, Beatrice A. Bloom, Floyd E. Bunker, James A. Crawford, Fiona Graves, Joel C. Hardie, Anthony Klimas, Nancy Knox, Marguerite Meggs, William J. Melling, Jack Philbert, Martin A. and Grashow, Rachel 2016. Recent research on Gulf War illness and other health problems in veterans of the 1991 Gulf War: Effects of toxicant exposures during deployment. Cortex, Vol. 74, p. 449.


    Zuj, Daniel V. Palmer, Matthew A. Lommen, Miriam J.J. and Felmingham, Kim L. 2016. The centrality of fear extinction in linking risk factors to PTSD: A narrative review. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, Vol. 69, p. 15.


    Mueller, S.C. Baudoncq, R. and De Schryver, M. 2015. The effect of parental loss on cognitive and affective interference in adolescent boys from a post-conflict region. Journal of Adolescence, Vol. 42, p. 11.


    Piermartiri, Tetsade CB Pan, Hongna Chen, Jun McDonough, John Grunberg, Neil Apland, James P. and Marini, Ann M. 2015. Alpha-Linolenic Acid-Induced Increase in Neurogenesis is a Key Factor in the Improvement in the Passive Avoidance Task After Soman Exposure. NeuroMolecular Medicine, Vol. 17, Issue. 3, p. 251.


    Piermartiri, Tetsade Pan, Hongna Figueiredo, Taiza and Marini, Ann 2015. α-Linolenic Acid, A Nutraceutical with Pleiotropic Properties That Targets Endogenous Neuroprotective Pathways to Protect against Organophosphate Nerve Agent-Induced Neuropathology. Molecules, Vol. 20, Issue. 11, p. 20355.


    Steele, Lea Lockridge, Oksana Gerkovich, Mary M Cook, Mary R and Sastre, Antonio 2015. Butyrylcholinesterase genotype and enzyme activity in relation to Gulf War illness: preliminary evidence of gene-exposure interaction from a case–control study of 1991 Gulf War veterans. Environmental Health, Vol. 14, Issue. 1, p. 4.


    Reinhard, Matthew J. Nassif, Thomas H. Bloeser, Katharine Dursa, Erin K. Barth, Shannon K. Benetato, Bonnie and Schneiderman, Aaron 2014. CAM Utilization Among OEF/OIF Veterans. Medical Care, Vol. 52, p. S45.


    Abdullah, Laila Evans, James E. Montague, Hannah Reed, Jon M. Moser, Ann Crynen, Gogce Gonzalez, Ariel Zakirova, Zuchra Ross, Ivan Mullan, Chris Mullan, Michael Ait-Ghezala, Ghania and Crawford, Fiona 2013. Chronic elevation of phosphocholine containing lipids in mice exposed to Gulf War agents pyridostigmine bromide and permethrin. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, Vol. 40, p. 74.


    Haley, Robert W. and Tuite, James J. 2013. Epidemiologic Evidence of Health Effects from Long-Distance Transit of Chemical Weapons Fallout from Bombing Early in the 1991 Persian Gulf War. Neuroepidemiology, Vol. 40, Issue. 3, p. 178.


    McNeil, Rebecca B Thomas, Catherine M Coughlin, Steven S Hauser, Elizabeth Huang, Grant D Goldstein, Karen M Johnson, Marcus R Dunn-Thomas, Tyra and Provenzale, Dawn T 2013. An assessment of survey measures used across key epidemiologic studies of United States Gulf War I Era Veterans. Environmental Health, Vol. 12, Issue. 1,


    Abdullah, Laila Evans, James E. Bishop, Alex Reed, Jon M. Crynen, Gogce Phillips, John Pelot, Robert Mullan, Myles A. Ferro, Austin Mullan, Christopher M. Mullan, Michael J. Ait-Ghezala, Ghania and Crawford, Fiona C. 2012. Lipidomic Profiling of Phosphocholine Containing Brain Lipids in Mice with Sensorimotor Deficits and Anxiety-Like Features After Exposure to Gulf War Agents. NeuroMolecular Medicine, Vol. 14, Issue. 4, p. 349.


    Chen, Yun 2012. Organophosphate-induced brain damage: Mechanisms, neuropsychiatric and neurological consequences, and potential therapeutic strategies. NeuroToxicology, Vol. 33, Issue. 3, p. 391.


    Abdullah, Laila Crynen, Gogce Reed, Jon Bishop, Alex Phillips, John Ferguson, Scott Mouzon, Benoit Mullan, Myles Mathura, Venkatarajan Mullan, Michael Ait-Ghezala, Ghania and Crawford, Fiona 2011. Proteomic CNS Profile of Delayed Cognitive Impairment in Mice Exposed to Gulf War Agents. NeuroMolecular Medicine, Vol. 13, Issue. 4, p. 275.


    Li, B. Ricordel, I. Schopfer, L. M. Baud, F. Megarbane, B. Nachon, F. Masson, P. and Lockridge, O. 2010. Detection of Adduct on Tyrosine 411 of Albumin in Humans Poisoned by Dichlorvos. Toxicological Sciences, Vol. 116, Issue. 1, p. 23.


    Li, Bin Ricordel, Ivan Schopfer, Lawrence M. Baud, Frédéric Mégarbane, Bruno Masson, Patrick and Lockridge, Oksana 2010. Dichlorvos, chlorpyrifos oxon and Aldicarb adducts of butyrylcholinesterase, detected by mass spectrometry in human plasma following deliberate overdose. Journal of Applied Toxicology, Vol. 30, Issue. 6, p. 559.


    Lockridge, Oksana and Schopfer, Lawrence M. 2010. Review of tyrosine and lysine as new motifs for organophosphate binding to proteins that have no active site serine. Chemico-Biological Interactions, Vol. 187, Issue. 1-3, p. 344.


    ×
  • Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, Volume 15, Issue 5
  • September 2009, pp. 717-729

Neuropsychological functioning of U.S. Gulf War veterans 10 years after the war

  • ROSEMARY TOOMEY (a1) (a2) (a3) (a4), RENEE ALPERN (a5), JENNIFER J. VASTERLING (a6) (a7), DEWLEEN G. BAKER (a8) (a9), DOMENIC J. REDA (a5), MICHAEL J. LYONS (a1) (a2) (a3) (a4), WILLIAM G. HENDERSON (a5), HAN K. KANG (a10), SETH A. EISEN (a11) (a12) (a13) and FRANCES M. MURPHY (a14) (a15)
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1355617709990294
  • Published online: 01 September 2009
Abstract
Abstract

Many U.S. Gulf War-era veterans complained of poor cognition following the war. This study assessed neuropsychological functioning in veterans 10 years after the war through objective tests. 2189 Gulf War-era veterans (1061 deployed, 1128 non-deployed) were examined at 1 of 16 U.S. Veterans Affairs medical centers. Outcomes included neuropsychological domains derived from factor analysis and individual test scores. Deployed veterans performed significantly worse than non-deployed veterans on 2 of 8 factors (motor speed & sustained attention, analysis not corrected for multiple comparisons) and on 4 of 27 individual test variables (Trails A & B, California Verbal Learning Test – List B, and Continuous Performance Test sensitivity, with only Trails B surviving Bonferroni correction). Within deployed veterans, Khamisiyah exposure was negatively correlated with motor speed after controlling for emotional distress. Depressive symptoms and self-reported exposure to toxicants were independently and significantly associated with worse sustained attention. Other factors were also associated with self-reported exposures. The findings were not a result of differential effort across groups. Gulf War deployment is associated with subtle declines of motor speed and sustained attention, despite overall intact neuropsychological functioning. Evidence suggests that toxicant exposures influence both these functions, and depressive symptoms also influence attention. (JINS, 2009, 15, 717–729.)

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Correspondence and reprint requests: Rosemary Toomey, Ph.D., Psychology Department, Boston University, 648 Beacon Street, 6th Floor, Boston, MA. 02215. E-mail: rosemary_toomey@hms.harvard.edu
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

W.K. Anger , D. Storzbach , L.M. Binder , K.A. Campbell , D.S. Rohlman , L. McCauley , . (1999). Neurobehavioral deficits in Persian Gulf veterans: Evidence from a population-based study. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 5, 203212.

J.C. Beckham , A.L. Crawford , & M.E Feldman . (1998). Trail Making Test performance in Vietnam combat veterans with and without posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 11(4), 811819.

L.M. Binder , D. Storzbach , W.K. Anger , K.A. Campbell , & D.S Rohlman . (1999). Subjective cognitive complaints, affective distress, and objective cognitive performance in Persian Gulf War veterans. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 14, 531536.

E.B. Blanchard , J. Jones-Alexander , T.C. Buckley , & C.A Forneris . (1996). Psychometric properties of the PTSD Checklist (PCL). Behavior Research and Therapy, 34(8), 669673.

M.S. Blanchard , S.A. Eisen , R. Alpern , J. Karlinsky , R. Toomey , D.J. Reda , . (2006). Chronic multisymptom illness complex in Gulf War I veterans 10 years later. American Journal of Epidemiology, 163(1), 6675.

L.E. Davis , S.A. Eisen , F.M. Murphy , R. Alpern , B.J. Parks , M. Blanchard , . (2004). Clinical and laboratory assessment of distal peripheral nerves in Gulf War veterans and spouses. Neurology, 63, 10701077.

D.R. Davies , & R Parasuraman . (1982). The psychology of vigilance. Orlando, FL: Academic Press.

J. Egeland , B.R. Rund , K. Sundet , N.I. Landrø , A. Asbjørnsen , A. Lund , A. Roness , K.I. Stordal , & K Hugdahl . (2003). Attention profile in schizophrenia compared with depression: Differential effects of processing speed, selective attention and vigilance. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 108(4), 276284.

S.A. Eisen , H.K. Kang , F.M. Murphy , M.S. Blanchard , D.J. Reda , W.G. Henderson , . (2005). Gulf War veterans’ health: Medical evaluation of a U.S. cohort. Annals of Internal Medicine, 142(11), 881890.

K. Fukuda , R. Nisenbaum , G. Stewart , W.W. Thompson , L. Robin , R.M. Washko , . (1998). Chronic multisystem illness affecting Air Force veterans of the Gulf War. Journal of the American Medical Association, 280, 981988.

R. Garfield , & C Leu . (2000). A Multivariate method for estimating mortality rates among children under 5 years from health and social indicators in Iraq. International Epidemiological Association, 29, 510515.

S.L. Griffin , M. Rivera Mindt , E.J. Rankin , A.J. Ritchie , & J.G Scott . (2002). Estimating premorbid intelligence: Comparison of traditional and contemporary methods across the intelligence continuum. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 17(5), 497507.

D.M.A Gronwall . (1977). Paced Auditory Serial-Addition Task: A measure of recovery from concussion. Perceptual Motor Skills, 44, 367373.

M. Haapea , J. Miettunen , E. Läärä , M.I. Joukamaa , M. Järvelin , M.K. Isohanni , J.M Veijola . (2008). Non-participation in a field survey with respect to psychiatric disorders. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 36, 728736.

R.W. Haley , J. Hom , P.S. Roland , W.W. Bryan , P.C. Van Ness , F.J. Bonte , . (1997b). Evaluation of neurologic function in Gulf War veterans. A blinded case-control study. Journal of the American Medical Association, 277(3), 223230.

R.W. Haley , & T.L Kurt . (1997c). Self-reported exposure to neurotoxic chemical combinations in the Gulf War. A cross-sectional epidemiologic study. Journal of the American Medical Association, 277(3), 231237.

R.W. Haley , T.L. Kurt , & J Hom . (1997a). Is there a Gulf War Syndrome? Searching for syndromes by factor analysis of symptoms. Journal of the American Medical Association, 277(3), 215222.

K.J. Heaton , C.L. Palumbo , S.P. Proctor , R.J. Killiany , D.A. Yurgelun-Todd , & R.F White . (2007). Quantitative magnetic resonance brain imaging in US army veterans of the 1991 Gulf War potentially exposed to sarin and cyclosarin. Neurotoxicology, 28, 761769.

J. Hom , R.W. Haley , & T.L Kurt . (1997). Neuropsychological correlates of Gulf War syndrome. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 12, 531544.

Iowa Persian Gulf Study Group. (1997). Self-reported illnesses and health status among Gulf War veterans: A population-based study. Journal of the American Medical Association, 277, 238245.

M.A. Jenkins , P.J. Langlais , D. Delis , & R.A Cohen . (2000). Attentional dysfunction associated with posttraumatic stress disorder among rape survivors. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 14, 712.

B. Johnstone , C.D. Callahan , C.J. Kapila , & D.E Bouman . (1996). The comparability of the WRAT-R reading test and NAART as estimates of premorbid intelligence in neurologically impaired patients. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 11(6), 513519.

H.K. Kang , & T.A Bullman . (2001). Mortality among US veterans of the Persian Gulf War: 7 year follow-up. American Journal of Epidemiology, 154, 399405.

H.K. Kang , C.M. Mahan , K.Y. Lee , C.A. Magee , & F.M Murphy . (2000). Illnesses among United States veterans of the Gulf War: A population-based survey of 30,000 veterans. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 42, 491501.

G. Lange , L.A. Tiersky , J. DeLuca , J.B. Scharer , T. Policastro , N. Fiedler , . (2001). Cognitive functioning in Gulf War illness. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 23(2), 240249.

K. Lindem , S.P. Proctor , T. Heeren , M. Krengel , J. Vasterling , P.B. Sutker , . (2003). Neuropsychological performance in Gulf War era veterans: Neuropsychological symptom reporting. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 25(2), 121127

M.A. McDiarmid , J.P. Keogh , F.J. Hooper , K. McPhaul , K. Squibbs , R. Kane , . (2000). Health effects of depleted uranium on exposed Gulf War veterans. Environmental Research, 82, 168180.

S.P. Proctor , K.J. Heaton , T. Heeren , & R.F White . (2006). Effects of sarin and cyclosarin exposure during the 1991 Gulf War on neurobehavioral functioning in US army veterans. Neurotoxicology, 27, 931939.

M.C. Sillanpaa , L.M. Agar , I.B. Milner , E.C. Podany , B.N. Axelrod , & G.G Brown . (1997). Gulf War veterans: A neuropsychological examination. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 19, 211219.

D. Storzbach , K.A. Campbell , L.M. Binder , L. McCauley , W.K. Anger , D.S. Rohlman , & C.A Kovera . (2000). Psychological differences between veterans with and without Gulf War unexplained symptoms. Psychosomatic Medicine, 62, 726735.

C. Unwin , N. Blatchley , W. Coker , S. Ferry , M. Hotopf , L. Hull , . (1999). Health of UK servicemen who served in the Persian Gulf War. Lancet, 353, 169178.

J. van der Meere , N. Börger , & T van Os . (2007). Sustained attention in major unipolar depression. Perceptual Motor Skills, 104(3 Pt. 2), 13501354.

J.J. Vasterling , K. Brailey , J.I. Constans , & P.B Sutker . (1998). Attention and memory dysfunction in posttraumatic stress disorder. Neuropsychology, 12, 125133.

J.J. Vasterling , K. Brailey , H. Tomlin , J. Rice , & P.B Sutker . (2003). Olfactory functioning in Gulf War-era veterans: Relationships to war-zone duty, self-reported hazards exposures, and psychological distress. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 9, 407418.

J.J. Vasterling , & J.D Bremner . (2006). The impact of the 1991 Gulf War on the mind and brain: Findings from neuropsychological and neuroimaging research. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society and Biological Sciences, 361(1468), 593604.

J.J. Vasterling , S.P. Proctor , P. Amoroso , R. Kane , T. Heeren , & R.F White . (2006). Neuropsychological outcomes of Army personnel following deployment to the Iraq war. Journal of the American Medical Association, 296, 519529.

D.P. Waber , & J.M Holmes . (1986). Assessing children’s memory productions of the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 8, 565580.

R.F. White , S.P. Proctor , T. Heeren , J. Wolfe , M. Krengel , J. Vasterling , . (2001). Neuropsychological function in Gulf War veterans: Relationships to self-reported toxicant exposures. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 40, 4252.

R. Toomey , H.K. Kang , K. Karlinsky , D.G. Baker , J.J. Vasterling , R. Alpern , D.J. Reda , W.G. Henderson , F.M. Murphy , S.A. Eisen . (2007). Mental health of U.S. Gulf War veterans: A psychological evaluation 10 years after the war. British Journal of Psychiatry, 190, 385393.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society
  • ISSN: 1355-6177
  • EISSN: 1469-7661
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-the-international-neuropsychological-society
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords: