Skip to main content

Neuropsychology and clinical neuroscience of persistent post-concussive syndrome

  • ERIN D. BIGLER (a1)

On the mild end of the acquired brain injury spectrum, the terms concussion and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) have been used interchangeably, where persistent post-concussive syndrome (PPCS) has been a label given when symptoms persist for more than three months post-concussion. Whereas a brief history of concussion research is overviewed, the focus of this review is on the current status of PPCS as a clinical entity from the perspective of recent advances in the biomechanical modeling of concussion in human and animal studies, particularly directed at a better understanding of the neuropathology associated with concussion. These studies implicate common regions of injury, including the upper brainstem, base of the frontal lobe, hypothalamic-pituitary axis, medial temporal lobe, fornix, and corpus callosum. Limitations of current neuropsychological techniques for the clinical assessment of memory and executive function are explored and recommendations for improved research designs offered, that may enhance the study of long-term neuropsychological sequelae of concussion. (JINS, 2008, 14, 1–22.)

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Neuropsychology and clinical neuroscience of persistent post-concussive syndrome
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Neuropsychology and clinical neuroscience of persistent post-concussive syndrome
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Neuropsychology and clinical neuroscience of persistent post-concussive syndrome
      Available formats
Corresponding author
Correspondence and reprint request to: Erin D. Bigler, Ph.D., Departments of Psychology and Neuroscience, 1190D SWKT, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah 84602. E-mail:
Hide All


Acerini, C.L., Tasker, R.C., Bellone, S., Bona, G., Thompson, C.J., & Savage, M.O. (2006). Hypopituitarism in childhood and adolescence following traumatic brain injury: The case for prospective endocrine investigation. European Journal of Endocrinology, 155, 663669.
Alexander, S., Kerr, M.E., Kim, Y., Kamboh, M.I., Beers, S.R., & Conley, Y.P. (2007). Apolipoprotein E4 allele presence and functional outcome after severe traumatic brain injury. Journal of Neurotrauma, 24, 790797.
Alfano, D.P. (2006). Emotional and pain-related factors in neuropsychological assessment following mild traumatic brain injury. Brain and Cognition, 60, 194196.
Allet, J.L. & Allet, R.E. (2006). Somatoform disorders in neurological practice. Current Opinions in Psychiatry, 19, 413420.
American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine Head Injury Interdisciplinary Special Interest Group. (1993). Definition of mild traumatic brain injury. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 8, 8687.
Andersen, P., Morris, R., Amaral, D., Bliss, T., & O'Keefe, J. (2006). The hippocampus book. New York: Oxford University Press.
Anderson, R.W., Brown, C.J., Blumbergs, P.C., McLean, A.J., & Jones, N.R. (2003). Impact mechanics and axonal injury in a sheep model. Journal of Neurotrauma, 20, 961974.
Anderson, T., Heitger, M., & Macleod, A.D. (2006). Concussion and mild head injury. Practical Neurology, 6, 342357.
Ashman, T.A., Gordon, W.A., Cantor, J.B., & Hibbard, M.R. (2006). Neurobehavioral consequences of traumatic brain injury. Mt Sinai Journal of Medicine, 73, 9991005.
Ashwal, S., Babikian, T., Gardner-Nichols, J., Freier, M.C., Tong, K.A., & Holshouser, B.A. (2006). Susceptibility-weighted imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in assessment of outcome after pediatric traumatic brain injury. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 87, 5058.
Atmaca, M., Aydin, A., Tezcan, E., Poyraz, A.K., & Kara, B. (2006). Volumetric investigation of brain regions in patients with conversion disorder. Progress in Neuropsychopharmacolgical Biology and Psychiatry, 30, 708713.
Bach-y-Rita, P. (2004). Is it possible to restore function with two percent surviving neural tissue? Journal of Integrated Neuroscience, 3, 36.
Barrow, I.M., Collins, J.N., & Britt, L.D. (2006a). The influence of an auditory distraction on rapid naming after a mild traumatic brain injury: A longitudinal study. Journal of Trauma, 61, 11421149.
Barrow, I.M., Hough, M., Rastatter, M.P., Walker, M., Holbert, D., & Rotondo, M.F. (2006b). The effects of mild traumatic brain injury on confrontation naming in adults. Brain Injury, 20, 845855.
Bayly, P.V., Cohen, T.S., Leister, E.P., Ajo, D., Leuthardt, E.C., & Genin, G.M. (2005). Deformation of the human brain induced by mild acceleration. Journal of Neurotrauma, 22, 845856.
Bayly, P.V., Dikranian, K.T., Black, E.E., Young, C., Qin, Y.Q., Labruyere, J., & Olney, J.W. (2006). Spatiotemporal evolution of apoptotic neurodegeneration following traumatic injury to the developing rat brain. Brain Research, 1107, 7081.
Bazarian, J.J., Beck, C., Blyth, B., von Ahsen, N., & Hasselblatt, M. (2006a). Impact of creatine kinase correction on the predictive value of S-100B after mild traumatic brain injury. Restoration of Neurology and Neuroscience, 24, 163172.
Bazarian, J.J., McClung, J., Shah, M.N., Cheng, Y.T., Flesher, W., & Kraus, J. (2005). Mild traumatic brain injury in the United States, 1998–2000. Brain Injury, 19, 8591.
Bazarian, J.J., Zemlan, F.P., Mookerjee, S., & Stigbrand, T. (2006b). Serum S-100B and cleaved-tau are poor predictors of long-term outcome after mild traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury, 20, 759765.
Begaz, T., Kyriacou, D.N., Segal, J., & Bazarian, J.J. (2006). Serum biochemical markers for post-concussion syndrome in patients with mild traumatic brain injury. Journal of Neurotrauma, 23, 12011210.
Belanger, H.G., Curtiss, G., Demery, J.A., Lebowitz, B.K., & Vanderploeg, R.D. (2005). Factors moderating neuropsychological outcomes following mild traumatic brain injury: A meta-analysis. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 11, 215227.
Bergemalm, P.O. & Lyxell, B. (2005). Appearances are deceptive? Long-term cognitive and central auditory sequelae from closed head injury. International Journal of Audiology, 44, 3949.
Berker, E. (1996). Diagnosis, physiology, pathology and rehabilitation of traumatic brain injuries. International Journal of Neuroscience, 85, 195220.
Bernstein, D.M. (2002). Information processing difficulty long after self-reported concussion. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 8, 673682.
Beschorner, R., Nguyen, T.D., Gozalan, F., Pedal, I., Mattern, R., Schluesener, H.J., Meyermann, R., & Schwab, J.M. (2002). CD14 expression by activated parenchymal microglia/macrophages and infiltrating monocytes following human traumatic brain injury. Acta Neuropathologica (Berlin), 103, 541549.
Bigler, E.D. (2004). Neuropsychological results and neuropathological findings at autopsy in a case of mild traumatic brain injury. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 10, 794806.
Bigler, E.D. (2005). Structural Imaging. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc.
Bigler, E.D. (2006). Can author bias be determined in forensic neuropsychology research published in Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology? Archives in Clincal Neuropsychology, 21, 503508.
Bigler, E.D. (2007). Anterior and middle cranial fossa in traumatic brain injury: Relevant neuroanatomy and neuropathology in the study of neuropsychological outcome. Neuropsychology, 21, 515531.
Bigler, E.D., Ryser, D.K., Gandhi, P., Kimball, J., & Wilde, E.A. (2006). Day-of-injury computerized tomography, rehabilitation status, and development of cerebral atrophy in persons with traumatic brain injury. American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 85, 793806.
Binder, L.M., Rohling, M.L., & Larrabee, J. (1997). A review of mild head trauma. Part I: Meta-analytic review of neuropsychological studies. Journal of Clinical Experiments in Neuropsychology, 19, 421431.
Blinkov, S.M., Gabibov, G.A., & Tanyashin, S.V. (1992). Variations in location of the arteries coursing between the brain stem and the free edge of the tentorium. Journal of Neurosurgery, 76, 973978.
Blostein, P. & Jones, S.J. (2003). Identification and evaluation of patients with mild traumatic brain injury: Results of a national survey of level I trauma centers. Journal of Trauma, 55, 450453.
Blumbergs, P.C., Scott, G., Manavis, J., Wainwright, H., Simpson, D.A., & McLean, A.J. (1994). Staining of amyloid precursor protein to study axonal damage in mild head injury. Lancet, 344, 10551056.
Blumbergs, P.C., Scott, G., Manavis, J., Wainwright, H., Simpson, D.A., & McLean, A.J. (1995). Topography of axonal injury as defined by amyloid precursor protein and the sector scoring method in mild and severe closed head injury. Journal of Neurotrauma, 12, 565572.
Boake, C., McCauley, S.R., Levin, H.S., Pedroza, C., Contant, C.F., Song, J.X., Brown, S.A., Goodman, H., Brundage, S.I., & Diaz-Marchan, P.J. (2005). Diagnostic criteria for postconcussional syndrome after mild to moderate traumatic brain injury. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 17, 350356.
Bradshaw, D.R., Ivarsson, J., Morfey, C.L., & Viano, D.C. (2001). Simulation of acute subdural hematoma and diffuse axonal injury in coronal head impact. Journal of Biomechanics, 34, 8594.
Broglio, S.P., Macciocchi, S.N., & Ferrara, M.S. (2007). Sensitivity of the concussion assessment battery. Neurosurgery, 60, 10501057; discussion 1057–1058.
Bryant, R.A. (2001). Posttraumatic stress disorder and mild brain injury: Controversies, causes and consequences. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 23, 718728.
Buki, A. & Povlishock, J.T. (2006). All roads lead to disconnection?—Traumatic axonal injury revisited. Acta Neurochir (Wien), 148, 181193; discussion 193–184.
Cantu, R.C. (2003). Recurrent athletic head injury: Risks and when to retire. Clinical Sports Medicine, 22, 593603.
Cantu, R.C. (2007). Athletic concussion: Current understanding as of 2007. Neurosurgery, 60, 963964.
Carroll, L.J., Cassidy, J.D., Holm, L., Kraus, J., & Coronado, V.G. (2004a). Methodological issues and research recommendations for mild traumatic brain injury: The WHO Collaborating Centre Task Force on Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 43 (Suppl.), 113125.
Carroll, L.J., Cassidy, J.D., Peloso, P.M., Borg, J., von Holst, H., Holm, L., Paniak, C., & Pepin, M. (2004b). Prognosis for mild traumatic brain injury: Results of the WHO Collaborating Centre Task Force on Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 43 (Suppl.), 84105.
Casanueva, F.F., Ghigo, E., Polak, M., & Savage, M.O. (2006). The importance of investigation of pituitary function in children and adolescents following traumatic brain injury. Journal of Endocrinological Investigation, 29, 764766.
Casson, I.R., Pellman, E.J., & Viano, D.C. (2006). Chronic traumatic encephalopathy in a National Football League player. Neurosurgery, 59, E1152.
Cecil, K.M., Hills, E.C., Sandel, M.E., Smith, D.H., McIntosh, T.K., Mannon, L.J., Sinson, G.P., Bagley, L.J., Grossman, R.I., & Lenkinski, R.E. (1998). Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy for detection of axonal injury in the splenium of the corpus callosum of brain-injured patients. Journal of Neurosurgery, 88, 795801.
Cernich, A., Reeves, D., Sun, W., & Bleiberg, J. (2007). Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics sports medicine battery. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 22 (Suppl. 1), S101114.
Chamelian, L. & Feinstein, A. (2006). The effect of major depression on subjective and objective cognitive deficits in mild to moderate traumatic brain injury. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 18, 3338.
Chamelian, L., Reis, M., & Feinstein, A. (2004). Six-month recovery from mild to moderate Traumatic Brain Injury: The role of APOE-epsilon4 allele. Brain, 127, 26212628.
Chan, R.C. (2001). Attentional deficits in patients with post-concussion symptoms: A componential perspective. Brain Injury, 15, 7194.
Chan, R.C. (2005). How severe should symptoms be before someone is said to be suffering from post-concussion syndrome? An exploratory study with self-reported checklist using Rasch analysis. Brain Injury, 19, 11171124.
Chappell, M.H., Ulug, A.M., Zhang, L., Heitger, M.H., Jordan, B.D., Zimmerman, R.D., & Watts, R. (2006). Distribution of microstructural damage in the brains of professional boxers: A diffusion MRI study. Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 24, 537542.
Chaytor, N., Schmitter-Edgecombe, M., & Burr, R. (2006). Improving the ecological validity of executive functioning assessment. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 21, 217227.
Chen, J.K., Johnston, K.M., Collie, A., McCrory, P., & Ptito, A. (2007). A validation of the post concussion symptom scale in the assessment of complex concussion using cognitive testing and functional MRI. Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 78, 12311238.
Chen, S.H., Kareken, D.A., Fastenau, P.S., Trexler, L.E., & Hutchins, G.D. (2003). A study of persistent post-concussion symptoms in mild head trauma using positron emission tomography. Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 74, 326332.
Cicerone, K., Levin, H., Malec, J., Stuss, D., & Whyte, J. (2006). Cognitive rehabilitation interventions for executive function: Moving from bench to bedside in patients with traumatic brain injury. Journal of Cognitive and Neuroscience, 18, 12121222.
Cohen, B.A., Inglese, M., Rusinek, H., Babb, J.S., Grossman, R.I., & Gonen, O. (2007). Proton MR spectroscopy and MRI-volumetry in mild traumatic brain injury. AJNR American Journal of Neuroradiology, 28, 907913.
Collie, A., Makdissi, M., Maruff, P., Bennell, K., & McCrory, P. (2006). Cognition in the days following concussion: Comparison of symptomatic versus asymptomatic athletes. J Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 77, 241245.
Conner, J.M., Chiba, A.A., & Tuszynski, M.H. (2005). The basal forebrain cholinergic system is essential for cortical plasticity and functional recovery following brain injury. Neuron, 46, 173179.
Crawford, M.A., Knight, R.G., & Alsop, B.L. (2007). Speed of word retrieval in postconcussion syndrome. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 13, 178182.
Creamer, M., O'Donnell, M.L., & Pattison, P. (2005). Amnesia, traumatic brain injury, and posttraumatic stress disorder: a methodological inquiry. Behavior Research and Therapy, 43, 13831389.
Crosby, E.C. & Schnitzlein, H.N. (1982). Comparative correlative neuroanatomy of the vertebrate telencephalon. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co.
Das, R.R. & Moorthi, R.N. (2005). Traumatic brain injury in the war zone. N Engl J Med, 353, 633634.
De Kruijk, J.R., Leffers, P., Menheere, P.P., Meerhoff, S., Rutten, J., & Twijnstra, A. (2002). Prediction of post-traumatic complaints after mild traumatic brain injury: Early symptoms and biochemical markers. Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 73, 727732.
Delaney, J.S., Abuzeyad, F., Correa, J.A., & Foxford, R. (2005). Recognition and characteristics of concussions in the emergency department population. Journal of Emergency Medicine, 29, 189197.
de Lange, F.P., Kalkman, J.S., Bleijenberg, G., Hagoort, P., van der Werf, S.P., van der Meer, J.W., & Toni, I. (2004). Neural correlates of the chronic fatigue syndrome—an fMRI study. Brain, 127(Pt 9), 19481957.
de la Plata, C.M., Ardelean, A., Koovakkattu, D., Srinivasan, P., Miller, A., Phuong, V., Harper, C., Moore, C., Whittemore, A., Madden, C., Diaz-Arrastia, R., & Devous, M., Sr. (2007). Magnetic resonance imaging of diffuse axonal injury: Quantitative assessment of white matter lesion volume. Journal of Neurotrauma, 24, 591598.
De Monte, V.E., Geffen, G.M., May, C.R., McFarland, K., Heath, P., & Neralic, M. (2005). The acute effects of mild traumatic brain injury on finger tapping with and without word repetition. Journal of Clinical Experiments in Neuropsychology, 27, 224239.
Desmurget, M., Bonnetblanc, F., & Duffau, H. (2007). Contrasting acute and slow-growing lesions: A new door to brain plasticity. Brain, 130, 898914.
Diaz-Arrastia, R. & Baxter, V.K. (2006). Genetic factors in outcome after traumatic brain injury: What the human genome project can teach us about brain trauma. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 21, 361374.
Dockree, P.M., Bellgrove, M.A., O'Keeffe, F.M., Moloney, P., Aimola, L., Carton, S., & Robertson, I.H. (2006a). Sustained attention in traumatic brain injury (TBI) and healthy controls: Enhanced sensitivity with dual-task load. Experimental Brain Research, 168, 218229.
Dockree, P.M., O'Keeffe, F.M., Moloney, P., Bishara, A.J., Carton, S., Jacoby, L.L., & Robertson, I.H. (2006b). Capture by misleading information and its false acceptance in patients with traumatic brain injury. Brain, 129, 128140.
Duff, D. (2001). Review article: Altered states of consciousness, theories of recovery, and assessment following a severe traumatic brain injury. Axone, 23, 1823.
Duffau, H. (2006). Brain plasticity: From pathophysiological mechanisms to therapeutic applications. Journal of Clinical Neuroscience, 13, 885897.
Elliott, M.R., Arbogast, K.A., & Durbin, D.R. (2006). A latent class analysis of injury patterns among rear-seated, seat-belted children. Journal of Trauma, 61, 12441248.
Evans, R.W. (1994). The postconcussion syndrome: 130 years of controversy. Seminars in Neurology, 14, 3239.
Fijalkowski, R.J., Ellingson, B.M., Stemper, B.D., Yoganandan, N., Gennarelli, T.A., & Pintar, F.A. (2006). Interface parameters of impact-induced mild traumatic brain injury. Biomedical Sciences Instrumentation, 42, 108113.
Frater, C.J. & Haindl, W. (2003). Blunt trauma soft-tissue uptake on skeletal scintigraphy. Clinical Nuclear Medicine, 28, 699700.
Frencham, K.A., Fox, A.M., & Maybery, M.T. (2005). Neuropsychological studies of mild traumatic brain injury: A meta-analytic review of research since 1995. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 27, 334351.
Gaetz, M. (2004). The neurophysiology of brain injury. Clinical Neurophysiology, 115, 418.
Gale, S.D., Johnson, S.C., Bigler, E.D., & Blatter, D.D. (1995). Nonspecific white matter degeneration following traumatic brain injury. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 1, 1728.
Geddes, D.M., LaPlaca, M.C., & Cargill, R.S., 2nd. (2003). Susceptibility of hippocampal neurons to mechanically induced injury. Experimental Neurology, 184, 420427.
Ghaffar, O., Staines, W.R., & Feinstein, A. (2006). Unexplained neurologic symptoms: An fMRI study of sensory conversion disorder. Neurology, 67, 20362038.
Giza, C.C. & Prins, M.L. (2006). Is being plastic fantastic? Mechanisms of altered plasticity after developmental traumatic brain injury. Developmental Neuroscience, 28, 364379.
Gowda, N.K., Agrawal, D., Bal, C., Chandrashekar, N., Tripati, M., Bandopadhyaya, G.P., Malhotra, A., & Mahapatra, A.K. (2006). Technetium Tc-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer brain single-photon emission CT in mild traumatic brain injury: A prospective study. AJNR American Journal of Neuroradiology, 27, 447451.
Gronwall, D. & Wrightson, P. (1975). Cumulative effect of concussion. Lancet, 2, 995997.
Guigon, E., Baraduc, P., & Desmurget, M. (2007). Computational motor control: Redundancy and invariance. Journal of Neurophysiology, 97, 331347.
Gurkoff, G.G., Giza, C.C., & Hovda, D.A. (2006). Lateral fluid percussion injury in the developing rat causes an acute, mild behavioral dysfunction in the absence of significant cell death. Brain Resonance, 1077, 2436.
Guskiewicz, K.M., Bruce, S.L., Cantu, R.C., Ferrara, M.S., Kelly, J.P., McCrea, M., Putukian, M., & Valovich McLeod, T.C. (2004). National Athletic Trainers” Association Position Statement: Management of Sport-Related Concussion. Journal of Athletic Training, 39, 280297.
Guskiewicz, K.M., Marshall, S.W., Bailes, J., McCrea, M., Harding, H.P., Jr., Matthews, A., Mihalik, J.R., & Cantu, R.C. (2007). Recurrent Concussion and Risk of Depression in Retired Professional Football Players. Medical Science and Sports Exercise, 39, 903909.
Hall, E.D., Sullivan, P.G., Gibson, T.R., Pavel, K.M., Thompson, B.M., & Scheff, S.W. (2005). Spatial and temporal characteristics of neurodegeneration after controlled cortical impact in mice: More than a focal brain injury. Journal of Neurotrauma, 22, 252265.
Hall, R.C. & Chapman, M.J. (2005). Definition, diagnosis, and forensic implications of postconcussional syndrome. Psychosomatics, 46, 195202.
Heitger, M.H., Anderson, T.J., Jones, R.D., Dalrymple-Alford, J.C., Frampton, C.M., & Ardagh, M.W. (2004). Eye movement and visuomotor arm movement deficits following mild closed head injury. Brain, 127, 575590.
Heitger, M.H., Jones, R.D., Dalrymple-Alford, J.C., Frampton, C.M., Ardagh, M.W., & Anderson, T.J. (2006). Motor deficits and recovery during the first year following mild closed head injury. Brain Injury, 20, 807824.
Heitger, M.H., Macaskill, M.R., Jones, R.D., & Anderson, T.J. (2005). The impact of mild closed head injury on involuntary saccadic adaptation: Evidence for the preservation of implicit motor learning. Brain Injury, 19, 109117.
Henninger, N., Dutzmann, S., Sicard, K.M., Kollmar, R., Bardutzky, J., & Schwab, S. (2005). Impaired spatial learning in a novel rat model of mild cerebral concussion injury. Experimental Neurology, 195, 447457.
Hessen, E., Nestvold, K., & Sundet, K. (2006). Neuropsychological function in a group of patients 25 years after sustaining minor head injuries as children and adolescents. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 47, 245251.
Holm, L.W., Carroll, L.J., Cassidy, J.D., Skillgate, E., & Ahlbom, A. (2006). Widespread pain following whiplash-associated disorders: Incidence, course, and risk factors. Journal of Rheumatology, 34, 193200.
Holshouser, B.A., Tong, K.A., Ashwal, S., Oyoyo, U., Ghamsary, M., Saunders, D., & Shutter, L. (2006). Prospective longitudinal proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging in adult traumatic brain injury. Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 24, 3340.
Hopkins, R.O., Beck, C.J., Burnett, D.L., Weaver, L.K., Victoroff, J., & Bigler, E.D. (2006). Prevalence of white matter hyperintensities in a young healthy population. Journal of Neuroimaging, 16, 243251.
Hovda, D.A. (2004). Pathophysiology of TBI. In M. Lovell, R.J. Echemendia, J.T. Barth & M.W. Collins (Eds.), Traumatic brain injury in sports: An international and neuropsychological perspective. Lisse, The Netherlands: Swets & Zeitlinger Publishers.
Huh, J.W., Widing, A.G., & Raghupathi, R. (2007). Basic science; repetitive mild non-contusive brain trauma in immature rats exacerbates traumatic axonal injury and axonal calpain activation: A preliminary report. Journal of Neurotrauma, 24, 1527.
Igarashi, T., Potts, M.B., & Noble-Haeusslein, L.J. (2007). Injury severity determines Purkinje cell loss and microglial activation in the cerebellum after cortical contusion injury. Expimental Neurology, 203, 258268.
Inglese, M., Bomsztyk, E., Gonen, O., Mannon, L.J., Grossman, R.I., & Rusinek, H. (2005a). Dilated perivascular spaces: hallmarks of mild traumatic brain injury. AJNR American Journal of Neuroradiology, 26, 719724.
Inglese, M., Makani, S., Johnson, G., Cohen, B.A., Silver, J.A., Gonen, O., & Grossman, R.I. (2005b). Diffuse axonal injury in mild traumatic brain injury: A diffusion tensor imaging study. Journal of Neurosurgery, 103, 298303.
Ivarsson, J., Viano, D.C., & Lovsund, P. (2002). Influence of the lateral ventricles and irregular skull base on brain kinematics due to sagittal plane head rotation. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, 124, 422431.
Iverson, G.I., Zasler, N.D., & Lange, R.T. (Ed.). (2007). Post-concussion disorder. New York: Demos.
Iverson, G.L. (2005). Outcome from mild traumatic brain injury. Current Opinions in Psychiatry, 18, 301317.
Iverson, G.L. (2006). Misdiagnosis of the persistent postconcussion syndrome in patients with depression. Archives in Clinical Neuropsychology, 21, 303310.
Iverson, G.L. & Binder, L.M. (2000). Detecting exaggeration and malingering in neuropsychological assessment. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 15, 829858.
Iverson, G.L., Brooks, B.L., Collins, M.W., & Lovell, M.R. (2006a). Tracking neuropsychological recovery following concussion in sport. Brain Injury, 20, 245252.
Iverson, G.L., Brooks, B.L., Lovell, M.R., & Collins, M.W. (2006b). No cumulative effects for one or two previous concussions. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 40, 7275.
Iverson, G.L., Gaetz, M., Lovell, M.R., & Collins, M.W. (2004). Relation between subjective fogginess and neuropsychological testing following concussion. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 10, 904906.
Iverson, G.L., Lovell, M.R., & Collins, M.W. (2005). Validity of ImPACT for measuring processing speed following sports-related concussion. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 27, 683689.
Jackson, J.C., Obremskey, W., Bauer, R., Greevy, R., Cotton, B.A., Anderson, V., Song, Y., & Ely, E.W. (2007). Long-term cognitive, emotional, and functional outcomes in trauma intensive care unit survivors without intracranial hemorrhage. Journal of Trauma, 62, 8088.
Jantzen, K.J., Anderson, B., Steinberg, F.L., & Kelso, J.A. (2004). A prospective functional MR imaging study of mild traumatic brain injury in college football players. AJNR American Journal of Neuroradiology, 25, 738745.
Johansen, V.A., Wahl, A.K., Eilertsen, D.E., Hanestad, B.R., & Weisaeth, L. (2006). Acute psychological reactions in assault victims of non-domestic violence: Peritraumatic dissociation, post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety and depression. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 60, 452462.
Johansson, B.H. (2006). Whiplash injuries can be visible by functional magnetic resonance imaging. Pain Research & Management, 11, 197199.
Karp, J.F., Reynolds, C.F., 3rd, Butters, M.A., Dew, M.A., Mazumdar, S., Begley, A.E., Lenze, E., & Weiner, D.K. (2006). The relationship between pain and mental flexibility in older adult pain clinic patients. Pain Medicne, 7, 444452.
Karzmark, P., Hall, K., & Englander, J. (1995). Late-onset post-concussion symptoms after mild brain injury: The role of premorbid, injury-related, environmental, and personality factors. Brain Injury, 9, 2126.
Kashluba, S., Casey, J.E., & Paniak, C. (2006). Evaluating the utility of ICD-10 diagnostic criteria for postconcussion syndrome following mild traumatic brain injury. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 12, 111118.
Keane, J.R. & Baloh, R.W. (1992). Posttraumatic cranial neuropathies. Neurology Clinics, 10, 849867.
Kelestimur, F. (2005). Chronic trauma in sports as a cause of hypopituitarism. Pituitary, 8, 259262.
Kelly, D.F., McArthur, D.L., Levin, H., Swimmer, S., Dusick, J.R., Cohan, P., Wang, C., & Swerdloff, R. (2006). Neurobehavioral and quality of life changes associated with growth hormone insufficiency after complicated mild, moderate, or severe traumatic brain injury. Journal of Neurotrauma, 23, 928942.
Kelly, J.P. (1999). Traumatic brain injury and concussion in sports. Journal of the American Medical Association, 282, 989991.
Kennedy, R.E., Livingston, L., Marwitz, J.H., Gueck, S., Kreutzer, J.S., & Sander, A.M. (2006). Complicated mild traumatic brain injury on the inpatient rehabilitation unit: A multicenter analysis. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 21, 260271.
Kent, D.H.R. (2007). When averages hide individual differences in clinical trials. American Scientist, 95, 6068.
Kercel, S.W., Reber, A.S., & Manges, W.W. (2005). Some radical implications of Bach-y-Rita's discoveries. Journal of Integrated Neurosciences, 4, 551565.
Kertesz, A.G. & Gold, B.T. (2003). Recovery of cognition (4th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.
Kharatishvili, I., Nissinen, J.P., McIntosh, T.K., & Pitkanen, A. (2006). A model of posttraumatic epilepsy induced by lateral fluid-percussion brain injury in rats. Neuroscience, 140, 685697.
King, N.S. (2003). Post-concussion syndrome: Clarity amid the controversy? British Journal of Psychiatry, 183, 276278.
Konsman, J.P., Drukarch, B., & Van Dam, A.M. (2007). (Peri)vascular production and action of pro-inflammatory cytokines in brain pathology. Clinical Science (London), 112, 125.
Korn, A., Golan, H., Melamed, I., Pascual-Marqui, R., & Friedman, A. (2005). Focal cortical dysfunction and blood-brain barrier disruption in patients with Postconcussion syndrome. Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology, 22, 19.
Kozora, E., Ellison, M.C., & West, S. (2006). Depression, fatigue, and pain in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): Relationship to the American College of Rheumatology SLE neuropsychological battery. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 55, 628635.
Langlois, J.A., Marr, A., Mitchko, J., & Johnson, R.L. (2005). Tracking the silent epidemic and educating the public: CDC's traumatic brain injury-associated activities under the TBI Act of 1996 and the Children's Health Act of 2000. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 20, 196204.
Laurer, H.L., Bareyre, F.M., Lee, V.M., Trojanowski, J.Q., Longhi, L., Hoover, R., Saatman, K.E., Raghupathi, R., Hoshino, S., Grady, M.S., & McIntosh, T.K. (2001). Mild head injury increasing the brain's vulnerability to a second concussive impact. Journal of Neurosurgery, 95, 859870.
Leclerc, S., Lassonde, M., Delaney, J.S., Lacroix, V.J., & Johnston, K.M. (2001). Recommendations for grading of concussion in athletes. Sports Medicine, 31, 629636.
Leker, R.R., Shohami, E., & Constantini, S. (2002). Experimental models of head trauma. Acta Neurochirurgica Supplement, 83, 4954.
Levine, B., Fujiwara, E., O'Connor, C., Richard, N., Kovacevic, N., Mandic, M., Restagno, A., Easdon, C., Robertson, I.H., Graham, S.J., Cheung, G., Gao, F., Schwartz, M.L., & Black, S.E. (2006). In vivo characterization of traumatic brain injury neuropathology with structural and functional neuroimaging. Journal of Neurotrauma, 23, 13961411.
Levy, A. (1992). Compensation neurosis rides again. Brain Injury, 6, 401410.
Lew, H.L., Lin, P.H., Fuh, J.L., Wang, S.J., Clark, D.J., & Walker, W.C. (2006). Characteristics and treatment of headache after traumatic brain injury: A focused review. American Journal of Physical and Medical Rehabilitation, 85, 619627.
Lewine, J.D., Davis, J.T., Bigler, E.D., Thoma, R., Hill, D., Funke, M., Sloan, J.H., Hall, S., & Orrison, W.W. (2007). Objective documentation of traumatic brain injury subsequent to mild head trauma: Multimodal brain imagng with MEG, SPECT, and MRI. Journal of Head Trama Rehabilitation, 22, 141155.
Longhi, L., Saatman, K.E., Fujimoto, S., Raghupathi, R., Meaney, D.F., Davis, J., McMillan, B.S.A., Conte, V., Laurer, H.L., Stein, S., Stocchetti, N., & McIntosh, T.K. (2005). Temporal window of vulnerability to repetitive experimental concussive brain injury. Neurosurgery, 56, 364374; discussion 364–374.
Loring, D.W., Larrabee, G.J., Lee, G.P., & Meador, K.J. (2007). [image omitted] Victoria Symptom Validity Test Performance in a heterogenous clinical sample. Clinical Neuropsychology, 21, 522531.
Lundin, A., de Boussard, C., Edman, G., & Borg, J. (2006). Symptoms and disability until 3 months after mild TBI. Brain Injury, 20, 799806.
MacKenzie, J.D., Siddiqi, F., Babb, J.S., Bagley, L.J., Mannon, L.J., Sinson, G.P., & Grossman, R.I. (2002). Brain atrophy in mild or moderate traumatic brain injury: A longitudinal quantitative analysis. AJNR American Journal of Neuroradiology, 23, 15091515.
Maegele, M., Riess, P., Sauerland, S., Bouillon, B., Hess, S., McIntosh, T.K., Mautes, A., Brockmann, M., Koebke, J., Knifka, J., & Neugebauer, E.A. (2005). Characterization of a new rat model of experimental combined neurotrauma. Shock, 23, 476481.
Mai, J.K., Assheuer, J., & Paxinos, G. (2004). Atlas of the Human Brain. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Manville, J., Laurer, H.L., Steudel, W.I., & Mautes, A.E. (2007). Changes in cortical and subcortical energy metabolism after repetitive and single controlled cortical impact injury in the mouse. Journal of Molecular Neuroscience, 31, 95100.
Martin, P. & Leibovich, S.J. (2005). Inflammatory cells during wound repair: The good, the bad and the ugly. Trends Cell Biology, 15, 599607.
Mathias, J.L., Bigler, E.D., Jones, N.R., Bowden, S.C., Barrett-Woodbridge, M., Brown, G.C., & Taylor, D.J. (2004). Neuropsychological and information processing performance and its relationship to white matter changes following moderate and severe traumatic brain injury: A preliminary study. Applied Neuropsychology, 11, 134152.
Mayou, R. & Bryant, B. (2002). Outcome 3 years after a road traffic accident. Psychology Medicine, 32, 671675.
McAllister, T.W., Flashman, L.A., McDonald, B.C., & Saykin, A.J. (2006). Mechanisms of working memory dysfunction after mild and moderate TBI: Evidence from functional MRI and neurogenetics. Journal of Neurotrauma, 23, 14501467.
McAllister, T.W., Sparling, M.B., Flashman, L.A., & Saykin, A.J. (2001). Neuroimaging findings in mild traumatic brain injury. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 23, 775791.
McCauley, S.R., Boake, C., Levin, H.S., Contant, C.F., & Song, J.X. (2001). Postconcussional disorder following mild to moderate traumatic brain injury: Anxiety, depression, and social support as risk factors and comorbidities. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 23, 792808.
McCauley, S.R., Boake, C., Pedroza, C., Brown, S.A., Levin, H.S., Goodman, H.S., & Merritt, S.G. (2005). Postconcussional disorder: Are the DSM-IV criteria an improvement over the ICD-10? Journal of Nervous and Mental Disorders, 193, 540550.
McCrea, M., Guskiewicz, K.M., Marshall, S.W., Barr, W., Randolph, C., Cantu, R.C., Onate, J.A., Yang, J., & Kelly, J.P. (2003). Acute effects and recovery time following concussion in collegiate football players: The NCAA Concussion Study. Journal of the American Medical Association, 290, 25562563.
McCrory, P., Johnston, K., Meeuwisse, W., Aubry, M., Cantu, R., Dvorak, J., Graf-Baumann, T., Kelly, J., Lovell, M., & Schamasch, P. (2005). Summary and agreement statement of the 2nd International Conference on Concussion in Sport, Prague 2004. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 39, 196204.
McCrory, P.R. & Berkovic, S.F. (2000). Video analysis of acute motor and convulsive manifestations in sport-related concussion. Neurology, 54, 14881491.
McCrory, P.R. & Berkovic, S.F. (2001). Concussion: The history of clinical and pathophysiological concepts and misconceptions. Neurology, 57, 22832289.
McDonald, T.J., Li, C., Vincent, S.E., & Nijland, M.J. (2006). Fetal fornix transection and gestation length in sheep. Experimental Neurology, 200, 532537.
McHugh, T., Laforce, R., Jr., Gallagher, P., Quinn, S., Diggle, P., & Buchanan, L. (2006). Natural history of the long-term cognitive, affective, and physical sequelae of mild traumatic brain injury. Brain Cognition, 60, 209211.
Meares, S., Shores, E.A., Batchelor, J., Baguley, I.J., Chapman, J., Gurka, J., & Marosszeky, J.E. (2006). The relationship of psychological and cognitive factors and opioids in the development of the postconcussion syndrome in general trauma patients with mild traumatic brain injury. Journal of the International and Neuropsycholical Society, 12, 792801.
Meares, S., Shores, E.A., Taylor, A.J., Batchelor, J., Bryant, R.A., Baguley, I.J., Chapman, J., Gurka, J., Dawson, K., Capon, L., & Marrosszkey, J.E. (in press). Mild traumatic brain injury does not predict acute postconcussion syndrome. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry
Mendez, C.V., Hurley, R.A., Lassonde, M., Zhang, L., & Taber, K.H. (2005). Mild traumatic brain injury: Neuroimaging of sports-related concussion. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 17, 297303.
Miller, H. (1961). Accident neurosis. British Medical Journal, 1, 919925.
Milman, A., Rosenberg, A., Weizman, R., & Pick, C.G. (2005). Mild traumatic brain injury induces persistent cognitive deficits and behavioral disturbances in mice. Journal of Neurotrauma, 22, 10031010.
Mooney, G. & Speed, J. (2001). The association between mild traumatic brain injury and psychiatric conditions. Brain Injury, 15, 865877.
Mooney, G., Speed, J., & Sheppard, S. (2005). Factors related to recovery after mild traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury, 19, 975987.
Moritz, S., Ferahli, S., & Naber, D. (2004). Memory and attention performance in psychiatric patients: Lack of correspondence between clinician-rated and patient-rated functioning with neuropsychological test results. Journal of the International of the Neuropsychological Society, 10, 623633.
Moser, R.S., Schatz, P., & Jordan, B.D. (2005). Prolonged effects of concussion in high school athletes. Neurosurgery, 57, 300306; discussion 300–306.
Moucha, R. & Kilgard, M.P. (2006). Cortical plasticity and rehabilitation. Prog Brain Res, 157, 111122.
Nolle, C., Todt, I., Seidl, R.O., & Ernst, A. (2004). Pathophysiological changes of the central auditory pathway after blunt trauma of the head. Journal of Neurotrauma, 21, 251258.
Obelieniene, D., Schrader, H., Bovim, G., Miseviciene, I., & Sand, T. (1999). Pain after whiplash: A prospective controlled inception cohort study. Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 66, 279283.
Odhuba, R.A., van den Broek, M.D., & Johns, L.C. (2005). Ecological validity of measures of executive functioning. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 44, 269278.
O'Keeffe, F., Dockree, P., Moloney, P., Carton, S., & Robertson, I.H. (2007a). Awareness of deficits in traumatic brain injury: A multidimensional approach to assessing metacognitive knowledge and online-awareness. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 13, 3849.
O'Keeffe, F.M., Dockree, P.M., Moloney, P., Carton, S., & Robertson, I.H. (2007b). Characterising error-awareness of attentional lapses and inhibitory control failures in patients with traumatic brain injury. Experimental Brain Research, 180, 5967.
Okie, S. (2005). Traumatic brain injury in the war zone. New England Journal of Medicine, 352, 20432047.
Omalu, B.I., DeKosky, S.T., Minster, R.L., Kamboh, M.I., Hamilton, R.L., & Wecht, C.H. (2005). Chronic traumatic encephalopathy in a National Football League player. Neurosurgery, 57, 128134; discussion 128–134.
Ost, M., Nylen, K., Csajbok, L., Ohrfelt, A.O., Tullberg, M., Wikkelso, C., Nellgard, P., Rosengren, L., Blennow, K., & Nellgard, B. (2006). Initial CSF total tau correlates with 1-year outcome in patients with traumatic brain injury. Neurology, 67, 16001604.
Page, J.D. (1947). Abnormal Psychology: A clinical approach to psychological deviants. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company.
Park, E., McKnight, S., Ai, J., & Baker, A.J. (2006). Purkinje cell vulnerability to mild and severe forebrain head trauma. Journal of Neuropathology and Expimental Neurology, 65, 226234.
Parker, T.M., Osternig, L.R., van Donkelaar, P., & Chou, L.S. (2007). Recovery of cognitive and dynamic motor function following concussion. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 41, 868873.
Pellman, E.J., Viano, D.C., Casson, I.R., Tucker, A.M., Waeckerle, J.F., Powell, J.W., & Feuer, H. (2004). Concussion in professional football: repeat injuries—part 4. Neurosurgery, 55, 860873; discussion 873–866.
Ponsford, J. (2005). Rehabilitation interventions after mild head injury. Current Opinions in Neurology, 18, 692697.
Povlishock, J.T. & Katz, D.I. (2005). Update of neuropathology and neurological recovery after traumatic brain injury. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 20, 7694.
Powner, D.J., Boccalandro, C., Alp, M.S., & Vollmer, D.G. (2006). Endocrine failure after traumatic brain injury in adults. Neurocritical Care, 5, 6170.
Priestley, J.V. (2007). Promoting anatomical plasticity and recovery of function after traumatic injury to the central or peripheral nervous system. Brain, 130, 895897.
Prigatano, G.P., Borgaro, S., Baker, J., & Wethe, J. (2005). Awareness and distress after traumatic brain injury: A relative's perspective. Journal of Head Trauma and Rehabilitation, 20, 359367.
Racette, B.A., Bradley, A., Wrisberg, C.A., & Perlmutter, J.S. (2006). The impact of litigation on neurologic research. Neurology, 67, 21242128.
Ragnarsson, K.T. (2006). Traumatic brain injury research since the 1998 NIH Consensus Conference: Accomplishments and unmet goals. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 21, 379387.
Rees, P.M. (2003). Contemporary issues in mild traumatic brain injury. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 84, 18851894.
Reeves, T.M., Phillips, L.L., & Povlishock, J.T. (2005). Myelinated and unmyelinated axons of the corpus callosum differ in vulnerability and functional recovery following traumatic brain injury. Experimental Neurology, 196, 126137.
Ropper, A.H. & Gorson, K.C. (2007). Clinical practice. Concussion. New England Journal of Medicine, 356, 166172.
Ross, S.R., Putnam, S.H., & Adams, K.M. (2006a). Psychological disturbance, incomplete effort, and compensation-seeking status as predictors of neuropsychological test performance in head injury. Journal of Clinical Experimental Neuropsychology, 28, 111125.
Ross, S.R., Putnam, S.H., Millis, S.R., Adams, K.M., & Krukowski, R.A. (2006b). Detecting insufficient effort using the Seashore Rhythm and Speech-Sounds Perception Tests in head injury. Clinical Neuropsychology, 20, 798815.
Roy, K., Murtie, J.C., El-Khodor, B.F., Edgar, N., Sardi, S.P., Hooks, B.M., Benoit-Marand, M., Chen, C., Moore, H., O'Donnell, P., Brunner, D., & Corfas, G. (2007). Loss of erbB signaling in oligodendrocytes alters myelin and dopaminergic function, a potential mechanism for neuropsychiatric disorders. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA, 104, 81318136.
Royo, N.C., Conte, V., Saatman, K.E., Shimizu, S., Belfield, C.M., Soltesz, K.M., Davis, J.E., Fujimoto, S.T., & McIntosh, T.K. (2006). Hippocampal vulnerability following traumatic brain injury: A potential role for neurotrophin-4/5 in pyramidal cell neuroprotection. European Journal of Neuroscience, 23, 10891102.
Ruff, R.M., Camenzuli, L., & Mueller, J. (1996). Miserable minority: Emotional risk factors that influence the outcome of a mild traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury, 10, 551565.
Ruff, R.M. & Jurica, P. (1999). In search of a unified definition for mild traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury, 13, 943952.
Rutland-Brown, W., Langlois, J.A., Thomas, K.E., & Xi, Y.L. (2006). Incidence of traumatic brain injury in the United States, 2003. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 21, 544548.
Ryan, L.M. & Warden, D.L. (2003). Post concussion syndrome. International Reviews in Psychiatry, 15, 310316.
Satz, P.S., Alfano, M.S., Light, R.F., Morgenstern, H.F., Zaucha, K.F., Asarnow, R.F., & Newton, S. (1999). Persistent Post-Concussive Syndrome: A proposed methodology and literature review to determine the effects, if any, of mild head and other bodily injury. J Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 21, 620628.
Savola, O. & Hillbom, M. (2003). Early predictors of post-concussion symptoms in patients with mild head injury. European Journal of Neurology, 10, 175181.
Schatz, P. & Putz, B.O. (2006). Cross-validation of measures used for computer-based assessment of concussion. Applied Neuropsychology, 13, 151159.
Scheibel, R.S., Newsome, M.R., Steinberg, J.L., Pearson, D.A., Rauch, R.A., Mao, H., Troyanskaya, M., Sharma, R.G., & Levin, H.S. (2007). Altered brain activation during cognitive control in patients with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, 21, 3645.
Scheid, R., Walther, K., Guthke, T., Preul, C., & von Cramon, D.Y. (2006). Cognitive sequelae of diffuse axonal injury. Archives in Neurology, 63, 418424.
Schnadower, D., Vazquez, H., Lee, J., Dayan, P., & Roskind, C.G. (2007). Controversies in the evaluation and management of minor blunt head trauma in children. Current Opinions in Pediatrics, 19, 258264.
Schonfeldt-Lecuona, C., Connemann, B.J., Viviani, R., Spitzer, M., & Herwig, U. (2006). Transcranial magnetic stimulation in motor conversion disorder: A short case series. Journal in Clinical Neurophysiology, 23, 472475.
Schretlen, D.J. & Shapiro, A.M. (2003). A quantitative review of the effects of traumatic brain injury on cognitive functioning. International Reviews in Psychiatry, 15, 341349.
Schweinhardt, P., Lee, M., & Tracey, I. (2006). Imaging pain in patients: Is it meaningful? Current Opinions in Neurology, 19, 392400.
Shaw, N.A. (2002). The neurophysiology of concussion. Programs in Neurobiology, 67, 281344.
Sheedy, J., Geffen, G., Donnelly, J., & Faux, S. (2006). Emergency department assessment of mild traumatic brain injury and prediction of post-concussion symptoms at one month post injury. J Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 28, 755772.
Silver, J.M., Mc Allister, T.W., & Yudofsky, S.C. (2005). Textbook of Traumatic Brain Injury. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc.
Singleton, R.H. & Povlishock, J.T. (2004). Identification and characterization of heterogeneous neuronal injury and death in regions of diffuse brain injury: Evidence for multiple independent injury phenotypes. Journal of Neuroscience, 24, 35433553.
Slobounov, S., Slobounov, E., & Newell, K. (2006). Application of virtual reality graphics in assessment of concussion. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 9, 188191.
Smith, D.H. (2006). Postconcussional symptoms not a syndrome. Psychosomatics, 47, 271272; author reply 272.
Sojka, P., Stalnacke, B.M., Bjornstig, U., & Karlsson, K. (2006). One-year follow-up of patients with mild traumatic brain injury: Occurrence of post-traumatic stress-related symptoms at follow-up and serum levels of cortisol, S-100B and neuron-specific enolase in acute phase. Brain Injury, 20, 613620.
Stalnacke, B.M., Bjornstig, U., Karlsson, K., & Sojka, P. (2005). One-year follow-up of mild traumatic brain injury: Post-concussion symptoms, disabilities and life satisfaction in relation to serum levels of S-100B and neurone-specific enolase in acute phase. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 37, 300305.
Stern, Y. (2007). Cognitive Reserve: Theory and applications. N.Y.: Taylor & Francis.
Sterr, A., Herron, K., Hayward, C., & Montaldi, D. (2006). Are mild head injuries as mild as we think? Neurobehavioral concomitants of chronic post-concussion syndrome. BMC Neurology, 6, 7.
Stonnington, C.M., Barry, J.J., & Fisher, R.S. (2006). Conversion disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 15101517.
Stulemeijer, M., van der Werf, S., Bleijenberg, G., Biert, J., Brauer, J., & Pieter, E.V. (2006). Recovery from mild traumatic brain injury: A focus on fatigue. J Neurology, 253, 10411047.
Suh, M., Basu, S., Kolster, R., Sarkar, R., McCandliss, B., & Ghajar, J. (2006). Increased oculomotor deficits during target blanking as an indicator of mild traumatic brain injury. Neuroscience Letters, 410, 203207.
Tagliaferri, F., Compagnone, C., Korsic, M., Servadei, F., & Kraus, J. (2006). A systematic review of brain injury epidemiology in Europe. Acta Neurochirurgica (Wien), 148, 255268; discussion 268.
Tang, Y.P., Noda, Y., Hasegawa, T., & Nabeshima, T. (1997). A concussive-like brain injury model in mice (I): Impairment in learning and memory. Journal of Neurotrauma, 14, 851862.
Tanriverdi, F., Unluhizarci, K., Coksevim, B., Selcuklu, A., Casanueva, F.F., & Kelestimur, F. (2007). Kickboxing sport as a new cause of traumatic brain injury-mediated hypopituitarism. Clinical Endocrinology (Oxford), 66, 360366.
Tashlykov, V., Katz, Y., Gazit, V., Zohar, O., Schreiber, S., & Pick, C.G. (2007). Apoptotic changes in the cortex and hippocampus following minimal brain trauma in mice. Brain Resonance, 1130, 197205.
Tasker, R.C., Salmond, C.H., Westland, A.G., Pena, A., Gillard, J.H., Sahakian, B.J., & Pickard, J.D. (2005). Head circumference and brain and hippocampal volume after severe traumatic brain injury in childhood. Pediatric Research, 58, 302308.
Tate, D.F. & Bigler, E.D. (2000). Fornix and hippocampal atrophy in traumatic brain injury. Learning and Memory, 7, 442446.
Tomaiuolo, F., Carlesimo, G.A., Di Paola, M., Petrides, M., Fera, F., Bonanni, R., Formisano, R., Pasqualetti, P., & Caltagirone, C. (2004). Gross morphology and morphometric sequelae in the hippocampus, fornix, and corpus callosum of patients with severe non-missile traumatic brain injury without macroscopically detectable lesions: A T1 weighted MRI study. Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 75, 13141322.
Ucar, T., Tanriover, G., Gurer, I., Onal, M.Z., & Kazan, S. (2006). Modified experimental mild traumatic brain injury model. Journal of Trauma, 60, 558565.
Udekwu, P., Kromhout-Schiro, S., Vaslef, S., Baker, C., & Oller, D. (2004). Glasgow Coma Scale score, mortality, and functional outcome in head-injured patients. Journal of Trauma, 56, 10841089.
Ueda, Y., Walker, S.A., & Povlishock, J.T. (2006). Perivascular nerve damage in the cerebral circulation following traumatic brain injury. Acta Neuropathologica (Berlin), 112, 8594.
Van Hoesen, G.W., Augustinack, J.C., & Redman, S.J. (1999). Ventromedial temporal lobe pathology in dementia, brain trauma, and schizophrenia. Annuals of the New York Academy of Science, 877, 575594.
Vasterling, J.J. & Bremner, J.D. (2006). The impact of the 1991 Gulf War on the mind and brain: findings from neuropsychological and neuroimaging research. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of Lond B Biological Science, 361, 593604.
Vasterling, J.J., Proctor, S.P., Amoroso, P., Kane, R., Heeren, T., & White, R.F. (2006). Neuropsychological outcomes of army personnel following deployment to the Iraq war. Jama, 296, 519529.
Veltmeyer, M.D., Clark, C.R., McFarlane, A.C., Felmingham, K.L., Bryant, R.A., & Gordon, E. (2005). Integrative assessment of brain and cognitive function in post-traumatic stress disorder. Journal of Integrated Neuroscience, 4, 145159.
Viano, D.C., Casson, I.R., Pellman, E.J., Bir, C.A., Zhang, L., Sherman, D.C., & Boitano, M.A. (2005a). Concussion in professional football: Comparison with boxing head impacts—part 10. Neurosurgery, 57, 11541172; discussion 1154–1172.
Viano, D.C., Casson, I.R., Pellman, E.J., Zhang, L., King, A.I., & Yang, K.H. (2005b). Concussion in professional football: Brain responses by finite element analysis: Part 9. Neurosurgery, 57, 891916; discussion 891–916.
Vick, N.A. (1976). Grinker's Neurology. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.
Vorst, M.V., Ono, K., Chan, P., & Stuhmiller, J. (2007). Correlates to traumatic brain injury in nonhuman primates. Journal of Trauma, 62, 199206.
Vos, P.E., Battistin, L., Birbamer, G., Gerstenbrand, F., Potapov, A., Prevec, T., Stepan Ch, A., Traubner, P., Twijnstra, A., Vecsei, L., & von Wild, K. (2002). EFNS guideline on mild traumatic brain injury: Report of an EFNS task force. European Journal of Neurology, 9, 207219.
Wall, S.E., Williams, W.H., Cartwright-Hatton, S., Kelly, T.P., Murray, J., Murray, M., Owen, A., & Turner, M. (2006). Neuropsychological dysfunction following repeat concussions in jockeys. Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 77, 518520.
Ward, N.S., Oakley, D.A., Frackowiak, R.S., & Halligan, P.W. (2003). Differential brain activations during intentionally simulated and subjectively experienced paralysis. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry, 8, 295312.
Warden, D. (2006). Military TBI during the Iraq and Afghanistan wars. Journal of Head Trauma and Rehabilitation, 21, 398402.
Warden, D.L. & French, L. (2005). Traumatic brain injury in the war zone. New England Journal of Medicine, 353, 633634.
Weiss, H.D., Stern, B.J., & Goldberg, J. (1991). Post-traumatic migraine: Chronic migraine precipitated by minor head or neck trauma. Headache, 31, 451456.
Whittaker, R., Kemp, S., & House, A. (2007). Illness perceptions and outcome in mild head injury: A longitudinal study. Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 78, 644646.
Wilde, E.A., Bigler, E.D., Haider, J.M., Chu, Z., Levin, H.S., Li, X., & Hunter, J.V. (2006a). Vulnerability of the anterior commissure in moderate to severe pediatric traumatic brain injury. Journal of Child Neurology, 21, 769776.
Wilde, E.A., Bigler, E.D., Hunter, J.V., Fearing, M.A., Scheibel, R.S., Newsome, M.R., Johnson, J.L., Bachevalier, J., Li., X. & Levin, H. (2007). Hippocampus, amygdala, and basal ganglia morphometrics in children after moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 49, 294299.
Wilde, E.A., Bigler, E.D., Pedroza, C., & Ryser, D.K. (2006b). Post-traumatic amnesia predicts long-term cerebral atrophy in traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury, 20, 695699.
Wilde, E.A., Chu, Z., Bigler, E.D., Hunter, J.V., Fearing, M.A., Hanten, G., Newsome, M.R., Scheibel, R.S., Li, X., & Levin, H.S. (2006c). Diffusion tensor imaging in the corpus callosum in children after moderate to severe traumatic brain injury. Journal of Neurotrauma, 23(10), 14121426.
Wilde, E.A., McCauley, S.R., Hunter, J.V., Bigler, E.D., Chu, Z., Wang, J., Hanten, G.R., Toyanskaya, M., Yallampalli, R., Li, X., Chia, J. & Levin, H.S. (in press). Diffusion tensor imaging of acute mild traumatic brain injury. Neurology
Willer, B. & Leddy, J.J. (2006). Management of concussion and post-concussion syndrome. Current Treatment Options in Neurology, 8, 415426.
Wood, P.B. (2005). Neuroimaging in functional somatic syndromes. International Reviews in Neurobiology, 67, 119163.
Wood, R.L. (2004). Understanding the “miserable minority”: A diasthesis-stress paradigm for post-concussional syndrome. Brain Injury, 18, 11351153.
Wood, R.L. (2007). Post concussional syndrome: All in the minds eye! Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 78, 552.
Wood, R.L. & Liossi, C. (2006). The ecological validity of executive tests in a severely brain injured sample. Archives in Clinical Neuropsychology, 21, 429437.
Wright, C.I., Williams, D., Feczko, E., Barrett, L.F., Dickerson, B.C., Schwartz, C.E., & Wedig, M.M. (2006). Neuroanatomical correlates of extraversion and neuroticism. Cerebral Cortex, 16, 18091819.
Yoshiyama, Y., Uryu, K., Higuchi, M., Longhi, L., Hoover, R., Fujimoto, S., McIntosh, T., Lee, V.M., & Trojanowski, J.Q. (2005). Enhanced neurofibrillary tangle formation, cerebral atrophy, and cognitive deficits induced by repetitive mild brain injury in a transgenic tauopathy mouse model. Journal of Neurotrauma, 22, 11341141.
Zasler, N.D., Katz, D.I., & Zafonte, R.D. (2007). Brain Injury Medicine. New York: Demos Medical Publishing.
Zetterberg, H., Hietala, M.A., Jonsson, M., Andreasen, N., Styrud, E., Karlsson, I., Edman, A., Popa, C., Rasulzada, A., Wahlund, L.O., Mehta, P.D., Rosengren, L., Blennow, K., & Wallin, A. (2006). Neurochemical aftermath of amateur boxing. Archives in Neurology, 63, 12771280.
Zhang, J., Yoganandan, N., Pintar, F.A., & Gennarelli, T.A. (2006a). Role of translational and rotational accelerations on brain strain in lateral head impact. Biomedical Sciences Instrumentation, 42, 501506.
Zhang, L., Heier, L.A., Zimmerman, R.D., Jordan, B., & Ulug, A.M. (2006b). Diffusion anisotropy changes in the brains of professional boxers. AJNR American Journal of Neuroradiology, 27, 20002004.
Zhu, Q., Prange, M., & Margulies, S. (2006). Predicting unconsciousness from a pediatric brain injury threshold. Developmental Neuroscience, 28, 388395.
Ziino, C. & Ponsford, J. (2006). Selective attention deficits and subjective fatigue following traumatic brain injury. Neuropsychology, 20, 383390.
Zohar, O., Getslev, V., Miller, A.L., Schreiber, S., & Pick, C.G. (2006). Morphine protects for head trauma induced cognitive deficits in mice. Neuroscience Letters, 394, 239242.
Zohar, O., Schreiber, S., Getslev, V., Schwartz, J.P., Mullins, P.G., & Pick, C.G. (2003). Closed-head minimal traumatic brain injury produces long-term cognitive deficits in mice. Neuroscience, 118, 949955.
Zumsteg, D., Wennberg, R., Gutling, E., & Hess, K. (2006). Whiplash and concussion: similar acute changes in middle-latency SEPs. Canadian Journal of Neurological Science, 33, 379386.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society
  • ISSN: 1355-6177
  • EISSN: 1469-7661
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-the-international-neuropsychological-society
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 214
Total number of PDF views: 949 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 1439 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 21st November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.