Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (CB): Validation of Executive Function Measures in Adults

  • Philip David Zelazo (a1), Jacob E. Anderson (a1), Jennifer Richler (a2), Kathleen Wallner-Allen (a3), Jennifer L. Beaumont (a4), Kevin P. Conway (a5), Richard Gershon (a4) and Sandra Weintraub (a4)...

Abstract

This study describes psychometric properties of the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (NIHTB-CB) executive function measures in an adult sample. The NIHTB-CB was designed for use in epidemiologic studies and clinical trials for ages 3 to 85. A total of 268 self-described healthy adults were recruited at four university-based sites, using stratified sampling guidelines to target demographic variability for age (20–85 years), gender, education and ethnicity. The NIHTB-CB contains two computer-based instruments assessing executive function: the Dimensional Change Card Sort (a measure of cognitive flexibility) and a flanker task (a measure of inhibitory control and selective attention). Participants completed the NIHTB-CB, corresponding gold standard convergent and discriminant measures, and sociodemographic questionnaires. A subset of participants (N=89) was retested 7 to 21 days later. Results reveal excellent sensitivity to age-related changes during adulthood, excellent test–retest reliability, and adequate to good convergent and discriminant validity. The NIH Toolbox EF measures can be used effectively in epidemiologic and clinical studies. (JINS, 2014, 20, 1–10)

Copyright

Corresponding author

Correspondence and reprint requests to: Philip David Zelazo, Institute of Child Development, University of Minnesota, 51 East River Road, Minneapolis, MN 55455-0345. E-mail: zelazo@umn.edu

References

Hide All
Beck, D.M., Schaefer, C., Pang, K., & Carlson, S.M. (2011). Executive function in preschool children: Test-retest reliability. Journal of Cognition and Development, 12, 169193.
Bialystok, E., & Craik, F.I.M. (2010). Structure and process in life-span cognitive development. In W.F. Overton (Ed.), Cognition, biology, and methods across the lifespan. Volume 1 of the Handbook of life-span development (pp. 195225). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Cepeda, N.J., Kramer, A.F., & Gonzalez de Sather, J.C.M. (2001). Changes in executive control across the life span: Examination of task-switching performance. Developmental Psychology, 37, 715730.
Cohen, J. (1992). A power primer. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 155159.
Coubard, O.A., Ferrufino, L., Boura, M., Gripon, A., Renaud, M., & Bherer, L. (2011). Attentional control in normal aging and Alzheimer’s disease. Neuropsychology, 25, 353367.
Craik, F.I.M., & Byrd, M. (1982). Aging and cognitive deficits: The role of attentional resources. In F.I.M. Craik & S. Trehub (Eds.), Aging and cognitive processes (pp. 191211). New York: Plenum Press.
Craik, F.I.M., & Salthouse, T.A. (Eds.) (2000). The handbook of aging and cognition (2nd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Crone, E.A., Bunge, S.A., Van der Molen, M.W., & Ridderinkhof, K.R. (2006). Switching between tasks and responses: A developmental study. Developmental Science, 9, 278287.
Davidson, M.C., Amso, D., Cruess-Anderson, L., & Diamond, A. (2006). Development of cognitive control and executive functions from 4-13 years: Evidence from manipulations of memory, inhibition and task switching. Neuropsychologia, 44, 20372078.
Delis, D.C., Kaplan, E., & Kramer, J.H. (2001). Delis-Kaplan executive function system. San Antonio, TX: Pearson (The Psychological Corporation).
Dempster, F.N. (1992). The rise and fall of the inhibitory mechanism: Toward a unified theory of cognitive development and aging. Developmental Review, 12, 4575.
Diamond, A., & Kirkham, N. (2005). Not quite as grown-up as we like to think. Psychological Science, 16, 291297.
Dick, A.S., Overton, W.F., & Kovacs, S.L. (2005). The development of symbolic coordination: Representation of imagined objects, executive function, and theory of mind. Journal of Cognition and Development, 6, 133161.
Dunn, L.M., & Dunn, D.M. (2007). Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, 4th edition. San Antonio, TX: Pearson.
Eriksen, B.A., & Eriksen, C.W. (1974). Effects of noise letters upon the identification of a target letter in a nonsearch task. Perception and Psychophysics, 16, 143149.
Fan, J., McCandliss, B.D., Sommer, T., Raz, A., & Posner, M.I. (2002). Testing the efficiency and independence of attentional networks. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 14, 340347.
Frye, D., Zelazo, P.D., & Palfai, T. (1995). Theory of mind and rule-based reasoning. Cognitive Development, 10, 483527.
Grant, D.A., & Berg, E.A. (1948). A behavioral analysis of degree of reinforcement and ease of shifting to new responses in a Weigl-type-card-sorting problem. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 38, 404411.
Happaney, K., Zelazo, P.D., & Stuss, D.T. (2004). Development of orbitofrontal function: Current themes and future directions. Brain and Cognition, 55, 110.
Hasher, L., & Zacks, R.T. (1988). Working memory, comprehension, and aging: A review and new view. In G. H. Bower (Ed.), The psychology of learning and motivation: Advances in research and theory (Vol. 22, pp. 193225). New York: Academic Press.
Jacques, S., & Marcovitch, S. (2010). Development of executive function across the lifespan. In W.F. Overton (Ed.), Cognition, biology, and methods across the lifespan. Volume 1 of the Handbook of life-span development (pp. 431466). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Kirkham, N., Cruess, L.M., & Diamond, A. (2003). Helping children apply their knowledge to their behavior on a dimension-switching task. Developmental Science, 6, 449467.
Kline, R.B. (2001). Brief cognitive assessment of children: Review of instruments and recommendations for best practice. In J.J.W. Andrews, D.H. Sakloske, & H.L. Janzem (Eds.), Handbook of psychoeducational assessment (pp. 103132). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Marner, L., Nyengaard, J.R., Tang, Y., & Pakkenberg, B. (2003). Marked loss of myelinated nerve fibers in the human brain with age. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 462, 144152.
Masten, A.S., Herbers, J.E., Desjardins, C.D., Cutuli, J.J., McCormick, C.M., Sapienze, J.K., … Zelazo, P.D. (2012). Executive function skills and school success in young children experiencing homelessness. Educational Researcher, 41, 375384.
Miller, E.K., & Cohen, J.D. (2001). An integrative theory of prefrontal cortex function. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 24, 167202.
Miyake, A., Friedman, N.P., Emerson, M.J., Witzki, A.H., Howerter, A., & Wager, T.D. (2000). The unity and diversity of executive functions and their contributions to complex “frontal lobe” tasks: A latent variable analysis. Cognitive Psychology, 41, 49100.
Moffit, T.E., Arsenault, L., Belsky, D., Dickson, N., Hancox, R.J., Harrington, H., … Caspi, A. (2011). A gradient of childhood self-control predicts health, wealth, and public safety. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108, 26932698.
Morton, J.B., Bosma, R., & Ansari, D. (2009). Age-related changes in brain activation associated with dimension shifts of attention: An fMRI study. Neuroimage, 46, 249256.
Noble, K.G., Norman, M.F., & Farah, M.J. (2004). Neurocognitive correlates of socioeconomic status in kindergarten children. Developmental Science, 8(1), 7487.
Olesen, P.J., Westerberg, H., & Klingberg, T. (2003). Increased prefrontal and parietal activity after training of working memory. Nature Neuroscience, 7, 7579.
Raz, N. (2000). Aging of the brain and its impact on cognitive performance: Integration of structural and functional findings. In F.I.M. Craik & T.A. Salthouse (Eds.), The handbook of aging and cognition (2nd ed., pp 190). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Reimers, S., & Maylor, E.A. (2005). Task switching across the lifespan: Effects of age on general and specific switch costs. Developmental Psychology, 41, 661671.
Rueda, M.R., Fan, J., McCandliss, B.D., Halparin, J.D., Gruber, D.B., Lercari, L.P., …Posner, M.I. (2004). Development of attentional networks in childhood. Neuropsychologia, 42, 10291040.
Salthouse, T.A. (1996). The processing-speed theory of adult age differences in cognition. Psychological Review, 103, 403428.
Salthouse, T.A., & Davies, H.P. (2006). Organization of cognitive abilities and neuropsychological variables across the lifespan. Developmental Review, 26, 3154.
Sowell, E.R., Peterson, B.S., Thompson, P.M., Welcome, S.E., Henkenius, A.L., & Toga, A.W. (2003). Mapping cortical change across the human life span. Nature Neuroscience, 6, 309315.
Stroop, J.R. (1935). Studies of interference in serial verbal reactions. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 18, 643662.
Terry, R.D., De Teresa, R., & Hansen, L.A. (1987). Neocortical cell counts in normal adult aging. Annals of Neurology, 21, 530539.
von Hippel, W. (2007). Aging, executive functioning, and social control. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16, 240244.
Weintraub, S., Dikmen, S.S., Heaton, R.K., Tulsky, D.S., Zelazo, P.D., Bauer, P.J., …Gershon, R.C. (2013). Cognition assessment using the NIH Toolbox. Neurology, 80(11 Suppl. 3), S54S64. doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e3182872ded
Zelazo, P.D. (2006). The Dimensional Change Card Sort: A method of assessing executive function in children. Nature Protocols, 1, 297301.
Zelazo, P.D., Anderson, J.E., Richler, J., Wallner-Allen, K., Beaumont, J.L., & Weintraub, S. (2013). NIH Toolbox Cognitive Function Battery (CFB): Measuring executive function and attention. In P.D. Zelazo & P.J. Bauer (Eds.), National Institutes of Health Toolbox—Cognitive Function Battery (NIH Toolbox CFB): Validation for children between 3 and 15 years Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 78(4), 16–33.
Zelazo, P.D., & Bauer, P.J. (Eds.) (2013). National Institutes of Health Toolbox—Cognitive Function Battery (NIH Toolbox CFB): Validation for children between 3 and 15 years. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 78(4).
Zelazo, P.D., Craik, F.I.M., & Booth, L. (2004). Executive function across the life span. Acta Psychologica, 115, 167184.
Zelazo, P.D., & Lee, W.S.C. (2010). Brain development: An overview. In W. F. Overton (Ed.), Cognition, biology, and methods across the lifespan. Volume 1 of the handbook of life-span development (pp. 89–114). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Zelazo, P.D., Müller, U., Frye, D., & Marcovitch, S. (2003). The development of executive function in early childhood. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 68(3).
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society
  • ISSN: 1355-6177
  • EISSN: 1469-7661
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-the-international-neuropsychological-society
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed