Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 65
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Arnould, Annabelle Rochat, Lucien Dromer, Emilie Azouvi, Philippe and Van der Linden, Martial 2016. Does multitasking mediate the relationships between episodic memory, attention, executive functions and apathetic manifestations in traumatic brain injury?. Journal of Neuropsychology,

    Gooijers, Jolien Beets, Iseult A. M. Albouy, Genevieve Beeckmans, Kurt Michiels, Karla Sunaert, Stefan and Swinnen, Stephan P. 2016. Movement preparation and execution: differential functional activation patterns after traumatic brain injury. Brain, p. aww177.

    Iraji, Armin Chen, Hanbo Wiseman, Natalie Welch, Robert D. O’Neil, Brian J. Haacke, E. Mark Liu, Tianming and Kou, Zhifeng 2016. Compensation through Functional Hyperconnectivity: A Longitudinal Connectome Assessment of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. Neural Plasticity, Vol. 2016, p. 1.

    Talavage, Thomas M. Nauman, Eric A. and Leverenz, Larry J. 2016. The Role of Medical Imaging in the Recharacterization of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Using Youth Sports as a Laboratory. Frontiers in Neurology, Vol. 6,

    Cristofori, Irene and Levin, Harvey S. 2015. Traumatic Brain Injury, Part II.

    Dobryakova, Ekaterina Boukrina, Olga and Wylie, Glenn R. 2015. Investigation of Information Flow During a Novel Working Memory Task in Individuals with Traumatic Brain Injury. Brain Connectivity, Vol. 5, Issue. 7, p. 433.

    Dymowski, Alicia Rhian Owens, Jacqueline Anne Ponsford, Jennie Louise and Willmott, Catherine 2015. Speed of processing and strategic control of attention after traumatic brain injury. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, Vol. 37, Issue. 10, p. 1024.

    Gillis, M. Meredith and Hampstead, Benjamin M. 2015. A two-part preliminary investigation of encoding-related activation changes after moderate to severe traumatic brain injury: hyperactivation, repetition suppression, and the role of the prefrontal cortex. Brain Imaging and Behavior, Vol. 9, Issue. 4, p. 801.

    Mansour, Alfred and Lajiness-O’Neill, Renee 2015. Call for an Integrative and Multi-Disciplinary Approach to Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). Psychology, Vol. 06, Issue. 04, p. 323.

    Strazzer, Sandra Rocca, Maria A. Molteni, Erika De Meo, Ermelinda Recla, Monica Valsasina, Paola Arrigoni, Filippo Galbiati, Susanna Bardoni, Alessandra and Filippi, Massimo 2015. Altered Recruitment of the Attention Network Is Associated with Disability and Cognitive Impairment in Pediatric Patients with Acquired Brain Injury. Neural Plasticity, Vol. 2015, p. 1.

    Bigler, Erin D. 2014. Effort, symptom validity testing, performance validity testing and traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury, Vol. 28, Issue. 13-14, p. 1623.

    Krause, Miriam O. Kennedy, Mary R. T. and Nelson, Peggy B. 2014. Masking release, processing speed and listening effort in adults with traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury, Vol. 28, Issue. 11, p. 1473.

    Rodriguez Merzagora, Anna C. Izzetoglu, Meltem Onaral, Banu and Schultheis, Maria T. 2014. Verbal working memory impairments following traumatic brain injury: an fNIRS investigation. Brain Imaging and Behavior, Vol. 8, Issue. 3, p. 446.

    Heffernan, Meghan E. Huang, Wei Sicard, Kenneth M. Bratane, Bernt T. Sikoglu, Elif M. Zhang, Nanyin Fisher, Marc and King, Jean A. 2013. Multi-Modal Approach for Investigating Brain and Behavior Changes in an Animal Model of Traumatic Brain Injury. Journal of Neurotrauma, Vol. 30, Issue. 11, p. 1007.

    Caeyenberghs, K. Leemans, A. Heitger, M. H. Leunissen, I. Dhollander, T. Sunaert, S. Dupont, P. and Swinnen, S. P. 2012. Graph analysis of functional brain networks for cognitive control of action in traumatic brain injury. Brain, Vol. 135, Issue. 4, p. 1293.

    Colorado, René A. Shukla, Karan Zhou, Yuxiang Wolinsky, Jerry S. and Narayana, Ponnada A. 2012. Multi-task functional MRI in multiple sclerosis patients without clinical disability. NeuroImage, Vol. 59, Issue. 1, p. 573.

    Granacher, Robert P. 2012. Neuroimaging in Forensic Psychiatry.

    Hunter, Jill V. Wilde, Elisabeth A. Tong, Karen A. and Holshouser, Barbara A. 2012. Emerging Imaging Tools for Use with Traumatic Brain Injury Research. Journal of Neurotrauma, Vol. 29, Issue. 4, p. 654.

    Medaglia, John D. Chiou, Kathy S. Slocomb, Julia Fitzpatrick, Neal M. Wardecker, Britney M. Ramanathan, Deepa Vesek, Jeffrey Good, David C. and Hillary, Frank G. 2012. The Less BOLD, the Wiser: Support for the latent resource hypothesis after traumatic brain injury. Human Brain Mapping, Vol. 33, Issue. 4, p. 979.

    Pinto, Pedro S. Poretti, Andrea Meoded, Avner Tekes, Aylin and Huisman, Thierry A.G.M. 2012. The Unique Features of Traumatic Brain Injury in Children. Review of the Characteristics of the Pediatric Skull and Brain, Mechanisms of Trauma, Patterns of Injury, Complications and Their Imaging Findings-Part 1. Journal of Neuroimaging, Vol. 22, Issue. 2, p. e1.

  • Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, Volume 10, Issue 5
  • September 2004, pp. 724-741

Parametric manipulation of working memory load in traumatic brain injury: Behavioral and neural correlates

  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 September 2004

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is often associated with enduring impairments in high-level cognitive functioning, including working memory (WM). We examined WM function in predominantly chronic patients with mild, moderate and severe TBI and healthy comparison subjects behaviorally and, in a small subset of moderate-to-severe TBI patients, with event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), using a visual n-back task that parametrically varied WM load. TBI patients showed severity-dependent and load-related WM deficits in performance accuracy, but not reaction time. Performance of mild TBI patients did not differ from controls; patients with moderate and severe TBI were impaired, relative to controls and mild TBI patients, but only at higher WM-load levels. fMRI results show that TBI patients exhibit altered patterns of activation in a number of WM-related brain regions, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and Broca's area. Examination of the pattern of behavioral responding and the temporal course of activations suggests that WM deficits in moderate-to-severe TBI are due to associative or strategic aspects of WM, and not impairments in active maintenance of stimulus representations. Overall, results demonstrate that individuals with moderate-to-severe TBI exhibit WM deficits that are associated with dysfunction within a distributed network of brain regions that support verbally mediated WM. (JINS, 2004, 10, 724–741.)

Corresponding author
Reprint requests to: William M. Perlstein, Ph.D., Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, HSC Box 100165, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610. E-mail:
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society
  • ISSN: 1355-6177
  • EISSN: 1469-7661
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-the-international-neuropsychological-society
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *