Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 21
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Hobbs, Jonathan G. Young, Jacob S. and Bailes, Julian E. 2016. Sports-related concussions: diagnosis, complications, and current management strategies. Neurosurgical Focus, Vol. 40, Issue. 4, p. E5.

    Ozolins, Bede Aimers, Nicole Parrington, Lucy and Pearce, Alan J. 2016. Movement disorders and motor impairments following repeated head trauma: A systematic review of the literature 1990–2015. Brain Injury, Vol. 30, Issue. 8, p. 937.

    Smart, Blair J. Haring, R. Sterling Asemota, Anthony O. Scott, John W. Canner, Joseph K. Nejim, Besma J. George, Benjamin P. Alsulaim, Hatim Kirsch, Thomas D. and Schneider, Eric B. 2016. Tackling causes and costs of ED presentation for American football injuries: a population-level study. The American Journal of Emergency Medicine, Vol. 34, Issue. 7, p. 1198.

    Bailes, Julian E. Turner, Ryan C. Lucke-Wold, Brandon P. Patel, Vimal and Lee, John M. 2015. Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy. Neurosurgery, Vol. 62, p. 15.

    Buckley, Thomas A. Vallabhajosula, Srikant Oldham, Jessie R. Munkasy, Barry A. Evans, Kelsey M. Krazeise, David A. Ketcham, Caroline J. and Hall, Eric E. 2015. Evidence of a conservative gait strategy in athletes with a history of concussions. Journal of Sport and Health Science,

    Daneshvar, Daniel H. Goldstein, Lee E. Kiernan, Patrick T. Stein, Thor D. and McKee, Ann C. 2015. Post-traumatic neurodegeneration and chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience, Vol. 66, p. 81.

    Dorrien, Jordan Langdon, Jody L. Graham, Vicky Oldham, Jessie R. Dobson, John and Buckley, Thomas 2015. No Relationship Between Concussion History and Functional Movement Screen Performance. Athletic Training & Sports Health Care, Vol. 7, Issue. 5, p. 197.

    Erlanger, David M. 2015. Exposure to sub-concussive head injury in boxing and other sports. Brain Injury, Vol. 29, Issue. 2, p. 171.

    Guskiewicz, Kevin M. and Broglio, Steven P. 2015. Traumatic Brain Injury, Part I.

    Iverson, Grant L. Gardner, Andrew J. McCrory, Paul Zafonte, Ross and Castellani, Rudy J. 2015. A critical review of chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, Vol. 56, p. 276.

    Mckee, Ann C. and Daneshvar, Daniel H. 2015. Traumatic Brain Injury, Part I.

    Ng, Adeline S.L. Rademakers, Rosa and Miller, Bruce L. 2015. Frontotemporal dementia: a bridge between dementia and neuromuscular disease. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 1338, Issue. 1, p. 71.

    Pearce, Neil Gallo, Valentina and McElvenny, Damien 2015. Head trauma in sport and neurodegenerative disease: an issue whose time has come?. Neurobiology of Aging, Vol. 36, Issue. 3, p. 1383.

    Peters, Douglas G. Connor, James R. and Meadowcroft, Mark D. 2015. The relationship between iron dyshomeostasis and amyloidogenesis in Alzheimer's disease: Two sides of the same coin. Neurobiology of Disease, Vol. 81, p. 49.

    Solomon, G. S. Lovell, M. R. Casson, I. R. and Viano, D. C. 2015. Normative Neurocognitive Data for National Football League Players: An Initial Compendium. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, Vol. 30, Issue. 2, p. 161.

    Angoa-Pérez, Mariana Kane, Michael J. Briggs, Denise I. Herrera-Mundo, Nieves Viano, David C. and Kuhn, Donald M. 2014. Animal models of sports-related head injury: bridging the gap between pre-clinical research and clinical reality. Journal of Neurochemistry, Vol. 129, Issue. 6, p. 916.

    Guskiewicz, Kevin Teel, Elizabeth and McCrea, Michael 2014. Concussion. Neurosurgery, Vol. 75, p. S113.

    Mannix, Rebekah Berglass, Jacqueline Berkner, Justin Moleus, Philippe Qiu, Jianhua Andrews, Nick Gunner, Georgia Berglass, Laura Jantzie, Lauren L. Robinson, Shenandoah and Meehan, William P. 2014. Chronic gliosis and behavioral deficits in mice following repetitive mild traumatic brain injury. Journal of Neurosurgery, Vol. 121, Issue. 6, p. 1342.

    McKee, Ann C. Daneshvar, Daniel H. Alvarez, Victor E. and Stein, Thor D. 2014. The neuropathology of sport. Acta Neuropathologica, Vol. 127, Issue. 1, p. 29.

    Vincent, Andrea S. Roebuck-Spencer, Tresa M. and Cernich, Alison 2014. Cognitive changes and dementia risk after traumatic brain injury: Implications for aging military personnel. Alzheimer's & Dementia, Vol. 10, Issue. 3, p. S174.

  • Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, Volume 19, Issue 8
  • September 2013, pp. 873-880

Prevalence and Characterization of Mild Cognitive Impairment in Retired National Football League Players

  • Christopher Randolph (a1), Stella Karantzoulis (a2) and Kevin Guskiewicz (a3) (a4) (a5)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 August 2013

It has been hypothesized that exposure to repetitive head trauma from contact sports over a long-playing career may eventuate in an increased risk of late-life cognitive impairment. There are currently two competing hypotheses about the possible mechanism underlying such impairment. One is the presence of a unique neurodegenerative disorder known as “chronic traumatic encephalopathy” (CTE). The other is diminished cerebral reserve leading to the earlier clinical expression of age-related neurodegenerative diseases such as mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). The present study examined informant AD8 inventory data in a sample of 513 retired National Football League (NFL) players. These data were indicative of possible cognitive impairment in 35.1% of this relatively young sample. A comparison of neurocognitive profiles in a subsample of this group to a clinical sample of patients with a diagnosis of MCI due to AD revealed a highly similar profile of impairments. Overall, the data suggest that there may be an increased prevalence of late-life cognitive impairment in retired NFL players, which may reflect diminished cerebral reserve. The findings are considered preliminary, but emphasize the need for larger, controlled studies on this issue. (JINS, 2013, 19, 1–8)

Corresponding author
Correspondence and reprint requests to: Christopher Randolph, 1 East Erie, Suite 353, Chicago, IL 60611. E-mail:
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

M.S. Albert , S.T. DeKosky , D. Dickson , B. Dubois , H.H. Feldman , N.C. Fox , C.H. Phelps (2011). The diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease: Recommendations from the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association workgroups on diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimers and Dementia, 7, 270279.

S.L. Baron , M.J. Hein , E. Lehman , C.M. Gersic (2012). Body mass index, playing position, race, and the cardiovascular mortality of retired professional football players. American Journal of Cardiology, 109, 889896.

W.W. Beatty , K.A. Ryder , S.T. Gontkovsky , J.G. Scott , K.L. McSwan , K.J. Bharucha (2003). Analyzing the subcortical dementia syndrome of Parkinson's disease using the RBANS. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 18, 509520.

D.A. Bennett , J.A. Schneider , Z. Arvanitakis , J.F. Kelly , N.T. Aggarwal , R.C. Shah , R.S. Wilson (2006). Neuropathology of older persons without cognitive impairment from two community-based studies. Neurology, 66, 18371844.

S.P. Broglio , J.T. Eckner , D. Martini , J.J. Sosnoff , J.S. Kutcher , C. Randolph (2011). Cumulative head impact burden in high school football. Journal of Neurotrauma, 28, 20692078.

J.S. Delaney , V.J. Lacroix , S. Leclerc , K.M. Johnston (2000). Concussions during the 1997 Canadian Football League season. Clinical Journal of Sports Medicine, 10, 914.

A.J. Donnell , N. Pliskin , J. Holdnack , B. Axelrod , C. Randolph (2007). Rapidly-administered short forms of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-3rd edition. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 22, 917924.

S.M. Duma , S.J. Manoogian , W.R. Bussone , P.G. Brolinson , M.W. Goforth , J.J. Donnenwerth , R.M. Greenwald , J.J. Chu , J.J. Crisco (2005). Analysis of real-time head accelerations in collegiate football players. Clinical Journal of Sports Medicine, 15, 38.

J.E. Galvin , C.M. Roe , K.K. Powlishta , M.A. Coats , S.J. Muich , E. Grant , J.P. Miller , M. Storandt , J.C. Morris (2005). The AD8: A brief informant interview to detect dementia. Neurology, 65, 559564.

K.M. Guskiewicz , M. McCrea , S.W. Marshall , R.C. Cantu , C. Randolph , W.B. Barr , J.A. Onante , J.P. Kelly (2003). Cumulative effects associated with recurrent concussion in collegiate football players: The NCAA concussion study. Journal of the American Medical Association, 290, 25492555.

J. Hart Jr, M.A. Kraut , K.B. Womack , J. Strain , N. Didehbani , E. Bartz , H. Conover , S. Mansinghani , H. Lu , C.M. Cullum (2013). Neuroimaging of cognitive dysfunction and depression in aging retired National Football League players: A cross-sectional study. JAMA Neurology, 70, 326335.

E.J. Lehman , M.J. Hein , S.L. Baron , C.M. Gersic (2012). Neurodegenerative causes of death among retired National Football League players. Neurology, 79, 19701974.

P. McCrory , W.H. Meeuwisse , M. Aubry , B. Cantu , J. Dvorak , R.J. Echemendia , M. Turner (2013). Consensus statement on concussion in sport: the 4th International Conference on Concussion in Sport held in Zurich, November 2012. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 47, 250258.

A.C. McKee , R.C. Cantu , C.J. Nowinski , E.T. Hedley-Whyte , B.E. Gavett , A.E. Budson , R.A. Stern (2009). Chronic traumatic encephalopathy in athletes: Progressive tauopathy after repetitive head injury. Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology, 68, 709735.

A.C. McKee , T.D. Stein , C.J. Nowinski , R.A. Stern , D.H. Daneshvar , V.E. Alvarez , R.C. Cantu (2013). The spectrum of disease in chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Brain, 136(Pt 1), 4364.

J.P. Mihalik , D.R. Bell , S.W. Marshall , K.M. Guskiewicz (2007). Measurement of head impacts in collegiate football players: an investigation of positional and event-type differences. Neurosurgery, 61, 12291235; discussion 1235.

B.I. Omalu , S.T. DeKosky , R.L. Minster , M.I. Kamboh , R.L. Hamilton , C.H. Wecht (2005). Chronic traumatic encephalopathy in a National Football League player. Neurosurgery, 57, 128134; discussion 128–134.

C. Randolph , M. Gold , B. Morimoto (2012). The Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) in progressive supranuclear palsy: Baseline data from the Allon Therapeutics AL-108-231 multinational clinical trial. Alzheimer's & Dementia: The Journal of the Alzheimer's Association, 8, 172.

C. Randolph , M.C. Tierney , E. Mohr , T.N. Chase (1998). The Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS): Preliminary clinical validity. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 20, 310319.

G.W. Roberts , D. Allsop , C. Bruton (1990). The occult aftermath of boxing. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 53, 373378.

R.O. Roberts , Y.E. Geda , D.S. Knopman , R.H. Cha , V.S. Pankratz , B.F. Boeve , R.C. Petersen (2012). The incidence of MCI differs by subtype and is higher in men: the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging. Neurology, 78, 342351.

B. Schnebel , J.T. Gwin , S. Anderson , R. Gatlin (2007). In vivo study of head impacts in football: a comparison of National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I versus high school impacts. Neurosurgery, 60, 490495; discussion 495–496.

S. Tervo , M. Kivipelto , T. Hanninen , M. Vanhanen , M. Hallikainen , A. Mannermaa , H. Soininen (2004). Incidence and risk factors for mild cognitive impairment: a population-based three-year follow-up study of cognitively healthy elderly subjects. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 17, 196203.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society
  • ISSN: 1355-6177
  • EISSN: 1469-7661
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-the-international-neuropsychological-society
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *