Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Specific Measures of Executive Function Predict Cognitive Decline in Older Adults

  • Lindsay R. Clark (a1), Dawn M. Schiehser (a2) (a3), Gali H. Weissberger (a1), David P. Salmon (a4), Dean C. Delis (a2) (a3) and Mark W. Bondi (a2) (a3)...
Abstract
Abstract

Decline in executive function has been noted in the prodromal stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and may presage more global cognitive declines. In this prospective longitudinal study, five measures of executive function were used to predict subsequent global cognitive decline in initially nondemented older adults. Of 71 participants, 15 demonstrated significant decline over a 1-year period on the Dementia Rating Scale (Mattis, 1988) and the remaining participants remained stable. In the year before decline, the decline group performed significantly worse than the no-decline group on two measures of executive function: the Color-Word Interference Test (CWIT; inhibition/switching condition) and Verbal Fluency (VF; switching condition). In contrast, decliners and non-decliners performed similarly on measures of spatial fluency (Design Fluency switching condition), spatial planning (Tower Test), and number-letter switching (Trail Making Test switching condition). Furthermore, the CWIT inhibition-switching measure significantly improved the prediction of decline and no-decline group classification beyond that of learning and memory measures. These findings suggest that some executive function measures requiring inhibition and switching provide predictive utility of subsequent global cognitive decline independent of episodic memory and may further facilitate early detection of dementia. (JINS, 2012, 18, 118–127)

Copyright
Corresponding author
Correspondence and reprint requests to: Mark W. Bondi, ABPP/CN, VA San Diego Healthcare System (116B), 3350 La Jolla Village Drive, San Diego, CA 92161. E-mail: mbondi@ucsd.edu
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

M.S. Albert , M.B. Moss , R. Tanzi , K. Jones (2001). Preclinical prediction of AD using neuropsychological tests. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 7(5), 631639.

L. Backman , S. Jones , A.K. Berger , E.J. Laukka , B.J. Small (2005). Cognitive impairment in preclinical Alzheimer's disease: A meta-analysis. Neuropsychology, 19(4), 520531.

H. Bickel , E. Mosch , E. Seigerschmidt , M. Siemen , H. Forstl (2006). Prevalence and persistence of mild cognitive impairment among elderly patients in general hospitals. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 21(4), 242250.

P.S. Bisiacchi , E. Borella , S. Bergamaschi , B. Carretti , S. Mondini (2008). Interplay between memory and executive functions in normal and pathological aging. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 30(6), 723733.

M.W. Bondi , W.S. Houston , L.T. Eyler , G.G. Brown (2005). fMRI evidence of compensatory mechanisms in older adults at genetic risk for Alzheimer's disease. Neurology, 64, 501508.

M.W. Bondi , A.J. Jak , L. Delano-Wood , M.W. Jacobson , D.C. Delis , D.P. Salmon (2008). Neuropsychological contributions to the early identification of Alzheimer's disease. Neuropsychology Review, 18, 7390.

M.W. Bondi , D.P. Salmon , D. Galasko , R.G. Thomas , L.J. Thal (1999). Neuropsychological function and Apolipoprotein E genotype in the preclinical detection of Alzheimer's disease. Psychology and Aging, 14, 295303.

S.Y. Bookheimer , M.H. Strojwas , M.S. Cohen , A.M. Saunders , M.A. Pericak-Vance , J.C. Mazziotta , G.W. Small (2000). Patterns of brain activation in people at risk for Alzheimer's disease. New England Journal of Medicine, 343, 450456.

J. Brandt , E. Aretouli , E. Neijstrom , J. Samek , K. Manning , M.S. Albert , K. Bandeen-Roche (2009). Selectivity of executive function deficits in mild cognitive impairment. Neuropsychology, 23(5), 607618.

Y.L. Chang , M.W. Bondi , C. Fennema-Notestine , L.K. McEvoy , D.J. Hagler , M.W. Jacobson , A.M. Dale (2010). Brain substrates of learning and retention in mild cognitive impairment diagnosis and progression to Alzheimer's disease. Neuropsychologia, 48, 12371247.

Y.L. Chang , M.W. Jacobson , C. Fennema-Notestine , D.J. Hagler , R.G. Jennings , A.M. Dale , L.K. McEvoy (2010). Level of executive function influences verbal memory in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and predicts prefrontal and posterior cingulate thickness. Cerebral Cortex, 20(6), 13051313.

R.M. Chapman , M. Mapstone , A.P. Porsteinsson , M.N. Gardner , J.W. McCrary , E. DeGrush , M.D. Guillily (2010). Diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease using neuropsychological testing improved by multivariate analyses. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 32(8), 793808.

P.J. Chen , G. Ratcliff , S.H. Belle , J.A. Cauley , S.T. DeKosky , M. Ganguli (2001). Patterns of cognitive decline in presymptomatic Alzheimer disease: A prospective community study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 58(9), 853858.

E.M. Fine , D.C. Delis , S.R. Wetter , M.W. Jacobson , A.J. Jak , C.R. McDonald , M.W. Bondi (2008). Cognitive discrepancies versus APOE genotype as predictors of cognitive decline in normal-functioning elderly individuals: A longitudinal study. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 16(5), 366374.

M. Ganguli , H.H. Dodge , C.Y. Shen , S.T. DeKosky (2004). Mild cognitive impairment, amnestic type: An epidemiologic study. Neurology, 63(1), 115121.

K.A. Hutchison , D.A. Balota , J.M. Ducheck (2010). The utility of Stroop task switching as a marker for early stage Alzheimer's disease. Psychology and Aging, 25(3), 545559.

A.J. Jak , M.W. Bondi , L. Delano-Wood , C. Wierenga , J. Corey-Bloom , D.P. Salmon , D.C. Delis (2009). Quantification of five neuropsychological approaches to defining mild cognitive impairment. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 17(5), 368375.

G. Lafleche , M.S. Albert (1995). Executive function deficits in mild Alzheimer's disease. Neuropsychology, 9(3), 313320.

R.H. Logie , G. Cocchini , S. Della Sala , A.D. Baddeley (2004). Is there a specific executive capacity for dual task coordination? Evidence from Alzheimer's disease. Neuropsychology, 18(3), 504513.

J. Mitchell , R. Arnold , K. Dawson , P.J. Nestor , J.R. Hodges (2009). Outcome in subgroups of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is highly predictable using a simple algorithm. Journal of Neurology, 256(9), 15001509.

A.U. Monsch , M.W. Bondi , D.P. Salmon , N. Butters , L.J. Thal , L.A. Hansen , M.R. Klauber (1995). Clinical validity of the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale in detecting dementia of the Alzheimer type: A double cross-validation and application to a community-dwelling sample. Archives of Neurology, 52, 899904.

R.C. Petersen , R. Doody , A. Kurz , R.C. Mohs , J.C. Morris , P.V. Rabins , B. Winblad (2001). Current concepts in mild cognitive impairment. Archives of Neurology, 58(12), 19851992.

R.C. Petersen , R.O. Roberts , D.S. Knopman , B.F. Boeve , Y.E. Geda , R.J. Ivnik , C.R. Jack (2009). Mild cognitive impairment: Ten years later. Archives of Neurology, 66, 14471455.

N. Raoux , H. Amieva , M. Le Goff , S. Auriacombe , L. Letenneur , J.-F. Dartigues (2008). Clustering and switching processes in semantic verbal fluency in the course of Alzheimer's disease subjects: Results from the PAQUID longitudinal study. Cortex, 44, 11881196.

D.P. Salmon , M.W. Bondi (2009). Neuropsychological assessment of dementia. Annual Review of Psychology, 60, 257282.

D.P. Salmon , R.G. Thomas , M.M. Pay , A. Booth , C.R. Hofstetter , L.J. Thal , R. Katzman (2002). Alzheimer's disease can be accurately diagnosed in very mildly impaired individuals. Neurology, 59(7), 10221028.

M. Sinai , N.A. Phillips , H. Chertkow , N.J. Kabani (2010). Task switching performance reveals heterogeneity amongst patients with mild cognitive impairment. Neuropsychology, 24(6), 757774.

M.H. Tabert , J.J. Manly , X.H. Liu , G.H. Pelton , S. Rosenblum , M. Jacobs , D.P. Devanand (2006). Neuropsychological prediction of conversion to Alzheimer disease in patients with mild cognitive impairment. Archives of General Psychiatry, 63(8), 916924.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society
  • ISSN: 1355-6177
  • EISSN: 1469-7661
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-the-international-neuropsychological-society
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 4
Total number of PDF views: 63 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 207 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 26th May 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.