Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa

Task Importance Affects Event-Based Prospective Memory Performance in Adults with HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders and HIV-Infected Young Adults with Problematic Substance Use

  • Steven Paul Woods (a1) (a2), Katie L. Doyle (a3), Erin E. Morgan (a1), Sylvie Naar-King (a4), Angulique Y. Outlaw (a4), Sharon L. Nichols (a5) and Shayne Loft (a2)...

Two experiments were conducted to examine the effects of task importance on event-based prospective memory (PM) in separate samples of adults with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) and HIV-infected young adults with substance use disorders (SUD). All participants completed three conditions of an ongoing lexical decision task: (1) without PM task requirements; (2) with PM task requirements that emphasized the importance of the ongoing task; and (3) with PM task requirements that emphasized the importance of the PM task. In both experiments, all HIV+ groups showed the expected increase in response costs to the ongoing task when the PM task’s importance was emphasized. In Experiment 1, individuals with HAND showed significantly lower PM accuracy as compared to HIV+ subjects without HAND when the importance of the ongoing task was emphasized, but improved significantly and no longer differed from HIV+ subjects without HAND when the PM task was emphasized. A similar pattern of findings emerged in Experiment 2, whereby HIV+ young adults with SUD (especially cannabis) showed significant improvements in PM accuracy when the PM task was emphasized. Findings suggest that both HAND and SUD may increase the amount of cognitive attentional resources that need to be allocated to support PM performance in persons living with HIV infection. (JINS, 2014, 21, 1–11)

Corresponding author
Correspondence and reprint requests to: Steven Paul Woods, Department of Psychiatry (8231), University of California-San Diego, 220 Dickinson Street, Suite B, San Diego, CA, 92103. E-mail:
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

M. Altgassen , J. Zöllig , U. Kopp , R. Mackinlay , & M. Kliegel (2007). Patients with Parkinson’s disease can successfully remember to execute delayed intentions. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 13, 888892.

A. Antinori , G. Arendt , J.T. Becker , B.J. Brew , D.A. Byrd , M. Cherner , … V.E. Wojna (2007). Updated research nosology for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Neurology, 69, 17891799.

J. Bartholomew , S. Holroyd , & T.M. Heffernan (2010). Does cannabis use affect prospective memory in young adults? Journal of Psychopharmacology, 24, 241246. doi:10.1177/0269881109106909

J.L. Brown , R.A. Littlewood , & P.A. Vanable (2013). Social-cognitive correlates of antiretroviral therapy adherence among HIV-infected individuals receiving infectious disease care in a medium-sized northeastern US city. AIDS Care, 25, 11491158. doi:10.1080/09540121.2012.752566

C.L. Carey , S.P. Woods , J.D. Rippeth , R.K. Heaton , I. Grant , & The HNRC Group. (2006). Prospective memory in HIV-1 infection. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 28, 536548.

G. Chana , I.P. Everall , L. Crews , D. Langford , A. Adame , I. Grant , … The HNRC Group. (2006). Cognitive deficits and degeneration of interneurons in HIV+ methamphetamine users. Neurology, 67, 14861489.

S.A. Cristiani , N.D. Pukay-Martin , & R.A. Bornstein (2004). Marijuana use and cognitive function in HIV-infected people. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 16, 330335.

C. Cuttler , R.J. McLaughlin , & P. Graf (2012). Mechanisms underlying the link between cannabis use and prospective memory. PLoS One, 7, e36820. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0036820

K.L. Doyle , S. Loft , E.E. Morgan , E. Weber , C. Cushman , E. Johnston , … The HNRP Group. (2013). Prospective memory in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND): The neuropsychological dynamics of time monitoring. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 35, 359372. doi:10.1080/13803395.2013.776010

G.O. Einstein , M.A. McDaniel , R. Thomas , S. Mayfield , H. Shank , N. Morrisette , & J. Breneiser (2005). Multiple processes in prospective memory retrieval: Factors determining monitoring versus spontaneous retrieval. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 134, 327342.

R.J. Ellis , P. Calero , & M.D. Stockin (2009). HIV infection and the central nervous system: A primer. Neuropsychology Review, 19, 144151. doi:10.1007/s11065-009-9094-1

S. Farber , J. Tate , C. Frank , D. Ardito , M. Kozal , A.C. Justice , & S.R. Braithwaite (2013). A study of financial incentives to reduce plasma HIV RNA among patients in care. AIDS and Behavior, 17, 22932300. doi:10.1007/s10461-013-0416-1

J.E. Fisk , & C. Montgomery (2008). Real-world memory and executive processes in cannabis users and non-users. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 22, 727736. doi:10.1177/0269881107084000

S. Freud (1914). Psychopathology of everyday life. (A.A. Brill, Trans.). New York, NY: The Macmillan Company. (Original work published in 1901).

R. Gonzalaz , R.M. Schuster , J. Vassileva , & E.M. Martin (2011). Impact of HIV and a history of marijuana dependence on procedural learning among individuals with a history of substance dependence. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 33, 735752. doi:10.1080/13803395.2011.553584

S. Gupta , S.P. Woods , E. Weber , M.S. Dawson , I. Grant , & The HNRC Group. (2010). Is prospective memory a dissociable cognitive function in HIV infection? Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 32, 898908. doi:10.1080/13803391003596470

R.K. Heaton , D.B. Clifford , D.R. Franklin , S.P. Woods , C. Ake , F. Vaida , … CHARTER Group. (2010). HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders persist in the era of potent antiretroviral therapy: CHARTER study. Neurology, 75, 20872096. doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e318200d727

A. Hering , L.H. Phillips , & M. Kliegel (2014). Importance effects on age differences in performance in event-based prospective memory. Gerontology, 60, 7378. doi:10.1159/000355057

C.H. Hinkin , S.A. Castellon , R.S. Durvasula , D.J. Hardy , M.N. Lam , K.I. Mason , … M. Stefaniak (2002). Medication adherence among HIV+ adults: Effects of cognitive dysfunction and regimen complexity. Neurology, 59, 19441950.

J.E. Iudicello , E. Weber , I. Grant , M. Weinborn , S.P. Woods , & The HNRC Group. (2011). Misremembering future intentions in methamphetamine dependent individuals. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 25, 269286.

M. Kliegel , M. Martin , M.A. McDaniel , & G.O. Einstein (2001). Varying the importance of a prospective memory task: Differential effects across time- and event-based prospective memory. Memory, 9, 111.

M. Kliegel , M. Martin , M.A. McDaniel , & G.O. Einstein (2004). Importance effects on performance in event-based prospective memory tasks. Memory, 12, 553561.

L. Kvavilashvili (1987). Remembering intention as a distinct form of memory. British Journal of Psychology, 78, 507518.

S. Loft , R. Kearney , & R. Remington (2008). Is task interference in event-based prospective memory dependent on cue presentation? Memory & Cognition, 36, 139148.

S. Loft , & R.W. Remington (2013). Wait a second: Brief delays in responding reduce focality effects in event-based prospective memory. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 66, 14321447. doi:10.1080/17470218.2012.750677

S. Loft , & G. Yeo (2007). An investigation into the resource requirements of event-based prospective memory. Memory & Cognition, 35, 263274.

E.M. Martin , H. Nixon , D.L. Pitrak , W. Weddington , N.A. Rains , G. Nunnally , … A. Bechara (2007). Characteristics of prospective memory deficits in HIV-seropositive substance-dependent individuals: Preliminary observations. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 29, 496504.

S.R. McCauley , M.A. McDaniel , C. Pedroza , S.B. Chapman , & H.S. Levin (2009). Incentive effects on event-based prospective memory performance in children and adolescents with traumatic brain injury. Neuropsychology, 23, 201209. doi:10.1037/a0014192

S.R. McCauley , E.A. Wilde , E.D. Bigler , Z. Chu , R. Yallampalli , M.B. Oni , … H.S. Levin (2011). Diffusion tensor imaging of incentive effects in prospective memory after pediatric traumatic brain injury. Journal of Neurotrauma, 28, 503516. doi:10.1089/neu.2010.1555

V.J. Meyer , L.H. Rubin , E. Martin , K.M. Weber , M.H. Cohen , E.T. Golub , … P.M. Maki (2013). HIV and recent illicit drug use interact to affect verbal memory in women. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 63, 6776. doi:10.1097/QAI.0b013e318289565c

C. Montgomery , A.L. Seddon , J.E. Fisk , P.N. Murphy , & A. Jansari (2012). Cannabis-related deficits in real-world memory. Human Psychopharmacology, 27, 217225. doi:10.1002/hup.1273

E.E. Morgan , E. Weber , A.S. Rooney , I. Grant , S.P. Woods , & The HNRP Group. (2012). Longer ongoing task delay intervals exacerbate prospective memory deficits in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 34, 416427. doi:10.1080/13803395.2012.654764

E.E. Morgan , S.P. Woods , L. Delano-Wood , M.W. Bondi , I. Grant , & The HNRP Group. (2011). Intraindividual variability in HIV infection: Evidence for greater neurocognitive dispersion in older HIV seropositive adults. Neuropsychology, 25, 645654. doi:10.1037/a0023792

D.A. Murphy , C.M. Wilson , S.J. Durako , L.R. Muenz , M. Belzer , & The Adolescent Medicine HIV/AIDS Research Network. (2001). Antiretroviral medication adherence among the REACH HIV-infected adolescent cohort in the USA. AIDS Care, 13, 2740.

D. Operario , C. Kuo , S.G. Sosa-Rubí , & O. Gálarraga (2013). Conditional economic incentives for reducing HIV risk behaviors: Integration of psychology and behavioral economics. Health Psychology, 32, 932940. doi:10.1037/a0032760

A. Pettifour , C. MacPhail , N. Nguyen , & M. Rosenberg (2012). Can money prevent the spread of HIV? A review of cash payments for HIV prevention. AIDS and Behavior, 16, 17291738.

K. Rastle , J. Harrington , & M. Coltheart (2002). 358,534 nonwords: The ARC Nonword Database. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 55, 13391362.

M.J. Rotheram-Borus , D.A. Murphy , M. Kennedy , A. Stanton , & M. Kuklinski (2001). Health and risk behaviors over time among youth living with HIV. Journal of Adolescence, 24, 791802.

J.C. Scott , S.P. Woods , G.E. Matt , R.A. Meyer , R.K. Heaton , J.H. Atkinson , & I. Grant (2007). Neurocognitive effects of methamphetamine: A critical review and meta-analysis. Neuropsychology Review, 17, 275297.

R.E. Smith , & R.R. Hunt (2014). Prospective memory in young and older adults: The effects of task importance and ongoing task load. Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, 21, 411431.

N.D. Volkow , J.S. Fowler , G.J. Wang , & R.Z. Goldstein (2002). Role of dopamine, the frontal cortex and memory circuits in drug addiction: Insight from imaging studies. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 78, 610624.

M. Weinborn , J. Moyle , R.S. Bucks , W. Stritzke , A. Leighton , & S.P. Woods (2013). Time-based prospective memory predicts engagement in risk behaviors among substance users: Results from clinical and nonclinical samples. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 19, 284294. doi:10.1017/S1355617712001361

M. Weinborn , S.P. Woods , S. O’Toole , E.J. Kellogg , & J. Moyle (2011). Prospective memory in substance abusers at treatment entry: Associations with education, neuropsychological functioning, and everyday memory lapses. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 26, 746755.

WHO ASSIST Working Group. (2002). The Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST): Development, reliability and feasibility. Addiction, 97, 11831194.

S.P. Woods , M.S. Dawson , E. Weber , S. Gibson , I. Grant , J.H. Atkinson , & The HNRC Group. (2009). Timing is everything: Antiretroviral nonadherence is associated with impairment in time-based prospective memory. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 15, 4252. doi:10.1017/S1355617708090012

S.P. Woods , M.S. Dawson , E. Weber , I. Grant , & The HNRC Group. (2010). The semantic relatedness of cue-intention pairings influences event-based prospective memory failures in older adults with HIV infection. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 32, 398407. doi:10.1080/13803390903130737

S.P. Woods , J.E. Iudicello , L.M. Moran , C.L. Carey , M.S. Dawson , I. Grant , & The HNRC Group. (2008). HIV-associated prospective memory impairment increases risk of dependence in everyday functioning. Neuropsychology, 22, 110117. doi:10.1037/0894-4105.22.1.110

S.P. Woods , E.E. Morgan , J. Marquie-Beck , C.L. Carey , I. Grant , S.L. Letendre , & The HNRC Group. (2006). Markers of macrophage activation and axonal injury are associated with prospective memory in HIV-1 disease. Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology, 19, 217221.

J.B. Zogg , S.P. Woods , E. Weber , K. Doyle , I. Grant , & The HNRP Group. (2011). Are time- and event-based prospective memory comparably affected in HIV infection? Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 26, 250259. doi:10.1093/arclin/acr020

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society
  • ISSN: 1355-6177
  • EISSN: 1469-7661
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-the-international-neuropsychological-society
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 5
Total number of PDF views: 46 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 148 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 25th May 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.