Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 795
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Amato, M.P. and Goretti, B. 2016. Translational Neuroimmunology in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Anaya, C. Torrent, C. Caballero, F. F. Vieta, E. Bonnin, C. del Mar and Ayuso-Mateos, J. L. 2016. Cognitive reserve in bipolar disorder: relation to cognition, psychosocial functioning and quality of life. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, Vol. 133, Issue. 5, p. 386.

    Angel, Lucie Bastin, Christine Genon, Sarah Salmon, Eric Fay, Séverine Balteau, Evelyne Maquet, Pierre Luxen, André Isingrini, Michel and Collette, Fabienne 2016. Neural correlates of successful memory retrieval in aging: Do executive functioning and task difficulty matter?. Brain Research, Vol. 1631, p. 53.

    Bak, Thomas H. 2016. The impact of bilingualism on cognitive ageing and dementia: Finding a path through a forest of confounding variables. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, Vol. 6, Issue. 1-2, p. 205.

    Bak, Thomas H. 2016. Cooking pasta in La Paz. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism,

    Baker, Laurie M. Laidlaw, David H. Cabeen, Ryan Akbudak, Erbil Conturo, Thomas E. Correia, Stephen Tate, David F. Heaps-Woodruff, Jodi M. Brier, Matthew R. Bolzenius, Jacob Salminen, Lauren E. Lane, Elizabeth M. McMichael, Amanda R. and Paul, Robert H. 2016. Cognitive reserve moderates the relationship between neuropsychological performance and white matter fiber bundle length in healthy older adults. Brain Imaging and Behavior,

    Balconi, Michela Pala, Francesca and Crivelli, Davide 2016. Effetto della neuromodulazione corticale (tdcs) nell'healthy ageing. Correlati eeg e comportamentali. RICERCHE DI PSICOLOGIA, Issue. 1, p. 45.

    Bartolotti, Nancy and Lazarov, Orly 2016. Genes, Environment and Alzheimer's Disease.

    Bernier, R. A. and Hillary, F. G. 2016. Trends in alcohol use during moderate and severe traumatic brain injury: 18 years of neurotrauma in Pennsylvania. Brain Injury, Vol. 30, Issue. 4, p. 414.

    Bialystok, Ellen 2016. Aging and bilingualism: Why does it matter?. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, Vol. 6, Issue. 1-2, p. 1.

    Bialystok, Ellen Abutalebi, Jubin Bak, Thomas H. Burke, Deborah M. and Kroll, Judith F. 2016. Aging in two languages: Implications for public health. Ageing Research Reviews, Vol. 27, p. 56.

    Blini, Elvio Romeo, Zaira Spironelli, Chiara Pitteri, Marco Meneghello, Francesca Bonato, Mario and Zorzi, Marco 2016. Multi-tasking uncovers right spatial neglect and extinction in chronic left-hemisphere stroke patients. Neuropsychologia,

    Bora, Emre Hıdıroğlu, Ceren Özerdem, Ayşegül Kaçar, Ömer Faruk Sarısoy, Gökhan Civil Arslan, Filiz Aydemir, Ömer Cubukcuoglu Tas, Zeynep Vahip, Simavi Atalay, Adnan Atasoy, Nuray Ateşci, Figen and Tümkaya, Selim 2016. Executive dysfunction and cognitive subgroups in a large sample of euthymic patients with bipolar disorder. European Neuropsychopharmacology,

    Borghi, Martina Carletto, Sara Ostacoli, Luca Scavelli, Francesco Pia, Lorenzo Pagani, Marco Bertolotto, Antonio Malucchi, Simona Signori, Alessio and Cavallo, Marco 2016. Decline of Neuropsychological Abilities in a Large Sample of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: A Two-Year Longitudinal Study. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, Vol. 10,

    Brennan, Elle Francazio, Sarah Gunstad, John and Flessner, Christopher 2016. Inhibitory Control in Pediatric Trichotillomania (Hair Pulling Disorder): The Importance of Controlling for Age and Symptoms of Inattention and Hyperactivity. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, Vol. 47, Issue. 2, p. 173.

    Buschler, Arne and Manahan-Vaughan, Denise 2016. Metabotropic glutamate receptor, mGlu5, mediates enhancements of hippocampal long-term potentiation after environmental enrichment in young and old mice. Neuropharmacology,

    Cadar, Dorina Stephan, Blossom C. M. Jagger, Carol Johansson, Boo Hofer, Scott M. Piccinin, Andrea M. and Muniz-Terrera, Graciela 2016. The role of cognitive reserve on terminal decline: a cross-cohort analysis from two European studies: OCTO-Twin, Sweden, and Newcastle 85+, UK. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, Vol. 31, Issue. 6, p. 601.

    Caffò, Alessandro O. Lopez, Antonella Spano, Giuseppina Saracino, Giuseppe Stasolla, Fabrizio Ciriello, Giuseppe Grattagliano, Ignazio Lancioni, Giulio E. and Bosco, Andrea 2016. The role of pre-morbid intelligence and cognitive reserve in predicting cognitive efficiency in a sample of Italian elderly. Aging Clinical and Experimental Research,

    Cammisuli, D.M. Danti, S. Bosinelli, F. and Cipriani, G. 2016. Non-pharmacological interventions for people with Alzheimer's Disease: A critical review of the scientific literature from the last ten years. European Geriatric Medicine, Vol. 7, Issue. 1, p. 57.

    Cappon, Davide Jahanshahi, Marjan and Bisiacchi, Patrizia 2016. Value and Efficacy of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in the Cognitive Rehabilitation: A Critical Review Since 2000. Frontiers in Neuroscience, Vol. 10,

  • Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, Volume 8, Issue 3
  • March 2002, pp. 448-460

What is cognitive reserve? Theory and research application of the reserve concept

  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 May 2002

The idea of reserve against brain damage stems from the repeated observation that there does not appear to be a direct relationship between the degree of brain pathology or brain damage and the clinical manifestation of that damage. This paper attempts to develop a coherent theoretical account of reserve. One convenient subdivision of reserve models revolves around whether they envision reserve as a passive process, such as in brain reserve or threshold, or see the brain as actively attempting to cope with or compensate for pathology, as in cognitive reserve. Cognitive reserve may be based on more efficient utilization of brain networks or of enhanced ability to recruit alternate brain networks as needed. A distinction is suggested between reserve, the ability to optimize or maximize normal performance, and compensation, an attempt to maximize performance in the face of brain damage by using brain structures or networks not engaged when the brain is not damaged. Epidemiologic and imaging data that help to develop and support the concept of reserve are presented. (JINS, 2002, 8, 448–460.)

Corresponding author
Reprint requests to: Yaakov Stern, Sergievsky Center, 630 W. 168th Street, New York, NY 10032. E-mail:
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society
  • ISSN: 1355-6177
  • EISSN: 1469-7661
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-the-international-neuropsychological-society
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *